Luteolin is a flavone, a type of flavonoid. Like all flavonoids, it has a yellow crystalline appearance. [1 ] Natural occurrences [edit ]
Luteolin can be found in
. It is most often found in leaves, but it is also seen in rinds, Terminalia chebula barks, clover blossom, and ragweed pollen. It has also been isolated from [1 ] Salvia tomentosa. [2 ]
Dietary sources include
celery, green pepper, parsley, thyme, dandelion, perilla, chamomile tea, carrots, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary, navel oranges, and oregano. [3 ] It can also be found in the seeds of the palm [4 ] . Aiphanes aculeata [5 ] Metabolism [edit ]
These enzymes are part of luteolin metabolism:
Glycosides [edit ] Biomedical research [edit ]
Luteolin has been studied in several preliminary
scientific investigations. Proposed activities include in vitro antioxidant activity (ie. scavenging of free radicals), promotion of carbohydrate metabolism, and immune system modulation. [ Other ] citation needed studies suggest luteolin has in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, [7 ] and that it acts as a [8 ] monoamine transporter activator, a [9 ] phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and an [10 ] interleukin 6 inhibitor. [7 ] studies show luteolin affects In vivo xylazine/ ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice. [11 ] and In vitro experiments also suggest luteolin may inhibit the development of skin cancer. in vivo [12 ] Importantly, the therapeutic value of the above findings is unclear, and will remain so until further detailed [13 ] , in vivo toxicity, and clinical studies are performed. Adverse effects [edit ]
Gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypersecretion, may occur.
[ Luteolin has also recently been found to have adverse effects in in vitro research with endometrial cancer cells. ] citation needed [14 ] References [edit ] ^ a b Mann, John (1992). Secondary Metabolism (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 279–280. ISBN 0-19-855529-6. ^ A. Ulubelen, M. Miski, P. Neuman, and T. J. Mabry (1979). "Flavonoids of Salvia tomentosa (Labiatae)". Journal of Natural Products 42 (4): 261–3. doi: 10.1021/np50003a002. ^ Kayoko Shimoi, Hisae Okada, Michiyo Furugori, Toshinao Goda, Sachiko Takase, Masayuki Suzuki, Yukihiko Hara, Hiroyo Yamamoto, Naohide Kinae (1998). "Intestinal absorption of luteolin and luteolin 7-O-[beta]-glucoside in rats and humans". FEBS Letters 438 (3): 220–4. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01304-0. PMID 9827549. ^ López-Lázaro M. (2009). " Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin". Mini Rev Med Chem. 9 (1): 31–59. doi: 10.2174/138955709787001712. PMID 19149659. ^ Lee, D; Cuendet, M; Vigo, JS; Graham, JG; Cabieses, F; Fong, HH; Pezzuto, JM; Kinghorn, AD (2001). "A novel cyclooxygenase-inhibitory stilbenolignan from the seeds of Aiphanes aculeata". Organic letters 3 (14): 2169–71. PMID 11440571. ^ A novel glycoside from Acanthus hirsutus (Acanthaceae). Capanlar S, Böke N, Yaşa I and Kirmizigül S, Nat Prod Commun., April 2010, volume 5, issue 4, pages 563-566, PubMed ^ a b Johnson; Kelley, KW; Johnson, RW (May 2008). "Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (21): 7534–9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0802865105. PMC 2396685. PMID 18490655. ^ Theoharides (2009). "Luteolin as a Therapeutic Option for Multiple Sclerosis". Journal of Neuroinflammation 6 (1): 29. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-6-29. PMC 2768692. PMID 19825165. ^ Zhao, G; Qin, GW; Wang, J; Chu, WJ; Guo, LH (2010). "Functional activation of monoamine transporters by luteolin and apigenin isolated from the fruit of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt". Neurochemistry international 56 (1): 168–76. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2009.09.015. PMID 19815045. ^ Yu MC, Chen JH, Lai CY, Han CY, Ko WC (February 2010). "Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced [3H]-rolipram from high-affinity only rolipram-binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 627 (1–3): 269–75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031. PMID 19853596. ^ Yu, MC; Chen, JH; Lai, CY; Han, CY; Ko, WC (2010). "Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced 3H-rolipram from high-affinity rolipram-binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia". European Journal of Pharmacology 627 (1–3): 269–75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031. PMID 19853596. ^ Byun, Sanguine; KW Lee, SK Jung, EJ Lee, MK Hwang,SH Lim, AM Bode, HJ Lee,Z Dong (2010). "Luteolin Inhibits Protein Kinase Cε and c-Src Activities and UVB-Induced Skin Cancer". Cancer Research 70 (6): 2415–23. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4093. PMID 20215519. ^ López-Lázaro M. (2009). " Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin". Mini Rev Med Chem 9 (1): 31–59. doi: 10.2174/138955709787001712. PMID 19149659. ^ "Common Autism Supplement Affects Endocrine System". Science Daily. July 15, 2013 . Retrieved 2 September 2013.
Isoscutellarein (5,7,8,4'-Tetrahydroxyflavone or 8-Hydroxyapigenin) Luteolin (3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone) Norartocarpetin (2',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone) Scutellarein (5,6,7,4'-Tetrahydroxyflavone)
Acacetin (Apigenin 4'-methyl ether) Artocarpetin (Norartocarpetin 7-methyl ether) Diosmetin (Luteolin 4'-methyl ether) Eupatilin (5,7-Dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) Genkwanin (Apigenin 7-methyl ether) Nepetin (Luteolin 6-methyl ether) Nobiletin (3',4',5,6,7,8-Hexamethoxyflavone) Oroxylin A (Baicalein 6-methyl ether) Pratol (7-Hydroxy-4-methoxyflavone) Sinensetin (3',4',5,6,7-Pentamethoxyflavone) Tangeritin (4',5,6,7,8-Pentamethoxyflavone) Techtochrysin (Chrysin 7-methyl ether) Tricin (Tricetin 3',5'-dimethyl ether) Wogonin (Norwogonin 8-methyl ether) Zapotin (2,6,5,6-tetramethoxyflavone) Glycosides
Apiin (Apigenin-7-O-apioglucoside) Apigetrin (Apigenin 7-O-glucoside) Isovitexin (Apigenin 6-C-glucoside) Rhoifolin (Apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside) Saponarin (Isovitexin-7-O-glucoside) Schaftoside (Apigenin 6-C-glucoside 8-C-arabinoside) Vicenin-2 (Apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) Vitexin (Apigenin-8-C-glucoside)
Hypolaetin 8-glucoside Hypolaetin 8-glucuronide
Giraldiin A (4',5,5',7-Tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-3'-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyloxyflavone) and B (5,5',7'-Trihydroxy-2',3-dimethoxy-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavone) Nepitrin (Nepetin 7-O-glucoside) Oroxindin (Wogonin 7-O-glucuronide) Scutellarin (Scutellarein 7-O-glucuronide) Acetylated Artocarpetin A (prenylated artocarpetin) Artoindonesianin P (prenylated) Sulfated glycosides Polymers Synthetic