Lucknow

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Lucknow
लखनऊ
لکھنؤ
Metropolis
From top to bottom, left to right: Bara Imambara, Chota Imambara main gate, Chota Imambara, Rumi Darwaza, Interior Mosque of Husainabad, Kashiram Smarak, Tomb of Raja Saadat Ali, La Martiniere College and Ambedkar Park.
From top to bottom, left to right: Bara Imambara, Chota Imambara main gate, Chota Imambara, Rumi Darwaza, Interior Mosque of Husainabad, Kashiram Smarak, Tomb of Raja Saadat Ali, La Martiniere College and Ambedkar Park.
Nickname(s): The City of Nawabs, The Golden City of India, Constantinople of East, Shiraz-i-Hind
Lucknow is located in Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow
Lucknow
Location of Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh
Coordinates: 26°50′49″N 80°56′49″E / 26.847°N 80.947°E / 26.847; 80.947Coordinates: 26°50′49″N 80°56′49″E / 26.847°N 80.947°E / 26.847; 80.947
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictLucknow
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyLucknow Municipal Corporation
 • MayorDinesh Sharma (BJP)
 • Municipal CommissionerR.K. Singh
 • MPHon. Home Minister of India Mr.Rajnath Singh (BJP)
Area[1]
 • District2,528 km2 (976 sq mi)
Elevation128 m (420 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Rank11th[4]
 • Urban2,815,601[2]
 • Metro2,901,474[3]
DemonymLucknowite
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN2260xx / 2270xx
Telephone code+91-522
Vehicle registrationUP 32
GDPIncrease $22 billion[5]
Sex ratio915 /
Websitelucknow.nic.in
 
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For other uses, see Lucknow (disambiguation).
Lucknow
लखनऊ
لکھنؤ
Metropolis
From top to bottom, left to right: Bara Imambara, Chota Imambara main gate, Chota Imambara, Rumi Darwaza, Interior Mosque of Husainabad, Kashiram Smarak, Tomb of Raja Saadat Ali, La Martiniere College and Ambedkar Park.
From top to bottom, left to right: Bara Imambara, Chota Imambara main gate, Chota Imambara, Rumi Darwaza, Interior Mosque of Husainabad, Kashiram Smarak, Tomb of Raja Saadat Ali, La Martiniere College and Ambedkar Park.
Nickname(s): The City of Nawabs, The Golden City of India, Constantinople of East, Shiraz-i-Hind
Lucknow is located in Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow
Lucknow
Location of Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh
Coordinates: 26°50′49″N 80°56′49″E / 26.847°N 80.947°E / 26.847; 80.947Coordinates: 26°50′49″N 80°56′49″E / 26.847°N 80.947°E / 26.847; 80.947
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictLucknow
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyLucknow Municipal Corporation
 • MayorDinesh Sharma (BJP)
 • Municipal CommissionerR.K. Singh
 • MPHon. Home Minister of India Mr.Rajnath Singh (BJP)
Area[1]
 • District2,528 km2 (976 sq mi)
Elevation128 m (420 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Rank11th[4]
 • Urban2,815,601[2]
 • Metro2,901,474[3]
DemonymLucknowite
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN2260xx / 2270xx
Telephone code+91-522
Vehicle registrationUP 32
GDPIncrease $22 billion[5]
Sex ratio915 /
Websitelucknow.nic.in

Lucknow /ˈlʌkn/ (Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ‎, Lakhna'ū) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.[6] A major metropolitan city of India, Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Distict and Division.[7] It is the eleventh most populous city of India and the most populous in Uttar Pradesh, making the latter the most populous state in India. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub and seat of Nawab power in the 18th and 19th centuries.[8] It continues to be an important centre of government, education, commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, music and poetry.[9]

The city stands at an elevation of approximately 123 metres (404 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres (976 sq mi).[10][11] Bounded on the east by the Barabanki District, on the west by Unnao District, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur and Hardoi, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. Hindi is the main language of the city and Urdu is also widely spoken. It is accessible from every part of India by air, rail and road.

Historically the capital of Awadh and controlled by the Delhi Sultanate under Mughal rule, it was later transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. After Lord Clive's defeat of the Bengal, Awadh and Mughal Nawabs it fell under the rule of the East India Company with control transferred to the British Raj in 1857.[12] Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947

Origin of name[edit]

In ancient times, the city was established by Lakshmana, the younger brother of Rama worshipped by Hindus as the avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. Rama was the king of Ayodhya, capital of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala, which more recently became Awadh. As a result Lakshmana founded a city nearby and named it Lakshmanpuri. Over the years the city's name changed several times: from Lakshmanpuri to Lakhanpur then to Lakhnau, after which it was anglicised to Lucknow.[13][14]

The subah of Awadh, known as the granary of India, was strategically important for control of the fertile plain between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers, known as the Doab. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans.[15][16]

History[edit]

Further information: Awadh and Oudh State
Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah (1775–1797)[17]
Nawab Saadat Khan II (b. bf. 1752 – d. c. 11 July 1814)
Lucknow towards Cawnpore c1860

From 1350 CE onwards, Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company (EIC) and the British Raj. Lucknow was one of the major centres of the Indian rebellion of 1857 and participated actively in India's independence movement, emerging as a strategically important North Indian city. Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan, also called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad,[18] near Lucknow.

For about eighty-four years (from 1394 to 1478), Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. During Emperor Jehangir's rule, he granted an estate in Awadh to nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who had won his favour. Sheikh Abdul Rahim later built Machchi Bhawan on this estate, which later became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region[19].

The Nawabs of Lucknow were in fact the Nawabs of Awadh, acquiring the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital. The city was North India's cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion, music and dance flourished, and construction of numerous monuments took place.[20] Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the region's syncretic Hindu–Muslim culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.

Gates of the Palace at Lucknow by W. Daniell, 1801

Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established when the Mughal empire disintegrated. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim. He was roundly defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the EIC, which forced him to pay heavy penalties and surrender parts of his territory[21]. Awadh's capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth nawab, shifted his court to the city from Faizabad in 1775[22]. The British appointed a resident in 1773 and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were, however, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan take the the throne[23]. He became a puppet king, and in a treaty of 1801, yielded half of Awadh to the EIC while also agreeing to disband his own troops in favor of a hugely expensive, British-controlled army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal of the EIC, although it continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819. The treaty of 1801 proved a beneficial arrangement for the EIC as they gained access to Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful returns while the territory acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and demanded direct control over Awadh.

The ruins of Residency at Lucknow shows the gunfire it took during the rebellion

In 1856 the EIC first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state under the Doctrine of Lapse. Awadh was placed under a chief commissioner – Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned then exiled by the EIC to Calcutta[24]. In the subsequent Indian Rebellion of 1857, his 14-year-old son Birjis Qadra, whose mother was Begum Hazrat Mahal, was crowned ruler but later killed by Sir Henry Lawrence. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders sought asylum in Nepal.

During the Rebellion (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the majority of the EIC's troops were recruited from both the people and nobility of Awadh. The rebels took control of the state, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region. During that period, the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces during the Siege of Lucknow. The siege was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency and the Shaheed Smarak offer an insight into Lucknow's role in the events of 1857.

With the rebellion over, Oudh returned to British goverance under a chief commissioner. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined; then in 1902, the title of chief commissioner was dropped with the formation of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, although Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.

The Khilafat Movement had an active base of support in Lucknow, creating united opposition to British rule. In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged into the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[25] In 1920 the provincial seat of government moved from Allahabad to Lucknow. Upon Indian independence in 1947, the United Provinces were reorganised into the state of Uttar Pradesh, and Lucknow remained its capital[26].

Geography and climate[edit]

Map of Lucknow city
Gomti River at Lucknow, major water source of the city

The Gomti River, Lucknow's chief geographical feature, meanders through the city and divides it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Situated in the middle of the Gangetic plain, the city is surrounded by rural towns and villages: the orchard town of Malihabad, Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, and Itaunja. To the east lies Barabanki District, to the west Unnao District, to the south Raebareli District, while to the north lie the Sitapur and Hardoi Districts. Lucknow city is located in a seismic zone III.[27]

Lucknow has a warm humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from July to mid-September, when the city gets an average rainfall of 896.2 millimetres (35.28 in) from the south-west monsoon winds, and occasionally frontal rainfall will occur in January. In winter the maximum temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the minimum is in the 3 °C (37 °F) to 7 °C (45 °F) range.[28] Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers are extremely hot with temperatures rising into the 40 °C (104 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F) range, the average highs being in the high of 30s (degree Celsius). On 9 January 2013, Lucknow recorded a temperature of −0.7 °C (31 °F), its lowest in 49 years.[29]

Climate data for Lucknow (Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)22.5
(72.5)
25.8
(78.4)
32.0
(89.6)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104)
38.4
(101.1)
33.9
(93)
33.2
(91.8)
33.1
(91.6)
32.8
(91)
29.2
(84.6)
24.6
(76.3)
32.0
(89.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)14.7
(58.5)
17.6
(63.7)
23.2
(73.8)
29.3
(84.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
29.8
(85.6)
29.0
(84.2)
28.6
(83.5)
25.7
(78.3)
20.3
(68.5)
15.7
(60.3)
24.9
(76.8)
Average low °C (°F)7.5
(45.5)
9.8
(49.6)
14.5
(58.1)
20.5
(68.9)
24.6
(76.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.1
(75.4)
19.1
(66.4)
12.8
(55)
8.4
(47.1)
18.3
(64.9)
Rainfall mm (inches)20.2
(0.795)
16.0
(0.63)
10.0
(0.394)
5.0
(0.197)
18.4
(0.724)
122.9
(4.839)
269.9
(10.626)
255.3
(10.051)
211.5
(8.327)
40.9
(1.61)
7.4
(0.291)
12.6
(0.496)
990.1
(38.98)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.51.51.00.61.65.412.011.68.61.70.50.846.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours203.4217.5248.7271.0283.5198.0167.4166.7219.0269.7246.0217.02,707.9
Source: Meterological Department of India[30]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Lucknow is famous for its Dusshehri mangoes which are exported to many countries
Baby Elephant at Lucknow zoo

Lucknow has a total of only 4.66 percent of forest, which is much less than the state average of around 7 percent.[31] Shisham, Dhak, Mahua, Babul, Neem, Peepal, Ashok, Khajur, Mango and Gular trees are grown here.[32]

Different varieties of mangoes, especially Dasheri, are grown in the Malihabad block of the district for export.[33] The main crops are wheat, paddy, sugarcane, mustard, potatoes, and vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, and brinjals are grown here. Similarly, sunflowers, roses, and marigolds are cultivated over a fairly extesive area. Many medicinal and herbal plants are also grown here while common Indian Monkeys are found in patches in and around city forests such as Musa Bagh.

The Lucknow Zoo, one of the oldest in the country, was established in 1921. It houses a rich collection of animals from Asia and other continents. The city also has a Botanical Garden, which is a zone of wide botanical diversity.

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Lucknow
Tata Consultancy Services Campus at TCS Awadh Park in Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar

The major industries in the Lucknow Urban Agglomeration include aeronautics, machine tools, distillery chemicals, furniture and Chikan embroidery.

Lucknow is also a major centre for research and development as home to the prominent R&D centres of the National Milk Grid of the National Dairy Development Board, the Central Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants, the National Handloom Development Corporation and U.P. Export Corporation.[34]

Ranked sixth in a list of the ten fastest growing job-creating cities in India according to a study conducted by Assocham Placement Pattern,[35] Lucknow's economy was formerly based on the tertiary sector and the majority of the workforce were employed as government servants. Large-scale industrial establishments are few compared to other north Indian state capitals like New Delhi. Currently the economy is growing with contributions from the fields of IT, Manufacturing and Processing and Medical/Bio-Technology. Business-promoting institutions such as the CII and EDII have set up their service centers in the city.

Lucknow is a growing IT hub with various software and IT companies resident in the city. Tata Consultancy Services is one of the major companies with its campus in Gomti Nagar, which also is the second largest such establishment in Uttar Pradesh.[36] There are many local open source technology companies such as Medma Infomatix.[37] The city is also home to a number of important national and state level headquarters for companies including Sony Corporation and Reliance Retail. A sprawling 100 acres (40 ha) IT city is planned by the state government at the Chak Ganjaria farms site on the road to Sultanpur and they have already approved SEZ status to the project, which is expected to create thousands of job opportunities in the state.[38][39][40]

The city has enormous potential in the handicrafts sector and accounts for 60% of total exports from the state.[41] Major export items are marble products, handicrafts, art pieces, gems, jewellery, textiles, electronics, software products, computers, hardware products, apparel, brass products, silk, leather goods, glass items and chemicals. Lucknow has promoted public‐private partnerships in a major way in sectors such as electricity supply, roads, expressways, and educational ventures.[42]

To promote the textile industry in the city, the Indian Government has allocated Rs.200 crore ($2000 million) rupees to set up a textile business cluster in the city.[43]

Government and politics[edit]

As the seat of the government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow is the site of the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha, the Allahabad High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.[44]

Since 1 May 1963, Lucknow has been the headquarters of the Central Command of the Indian Army, before which it was the headquarters of Eastern Command.[45]

The city spans an area stretching from the Mohanlalganj (Lok Sabha constituency) in the south to Bakshi Ka Talab in the north and Kakori in the east. Lucknow Urban Agglomeration (LUA) includes Lucknow Municipal Corporation[46] and Lucknow Cantonment with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow, who is an administrative officer. The corporation comprises elected members (corporators elected from the wards directly by the people) with the city mayor as its head. An assistant municipal commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). As of 2008, there were 110 wards in the city. Morphologically, three clear demarcations exist; the Central business district, which is a fully built up area, comprises Hazratganj, Aminabad and Chowk A middle zone surrounds the inner zone with cement houses while the outer zone consists of slums.[47] Lucknow has two Lok Sabha Constituencies Lucknow and Mohanlalganj and nine Vidhan Sabha constituencies. The current chief minister of the state for the 2012 Vidhan Sabha is Shri Akhilesh Yadav.

Lucknow falls under the jurisdiction of a District Magistrate, who is an IAS officer. Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.

The police are headed by a deputy inspector general, who is an IPS officer, and come under the authority of the state Home Ministry. Each of the several police zones and traffic police zones is headed by a deputy inspector general of police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police while the Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by a Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers. Former Prime Minister A. B. Vajpayee was a member of Parliament for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency until 2009, when he was replaced by Lalji Tandon. Rajnath Singh replaced Tandon in the Lok Sabha elections of 2014.

The Commission of Railway Safety of India, under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, has its head office in the Northeast Railway Compound in Lucknow.[48]

Transport[edit]

Roads[edit]

View of National Highway 24

Four Indian National Highways originate at Lucknow's Hazratganj intersection: NH-24 to Delhi, NH-24B to Allahabad, NH-25 to Shivpuri via Jhansi, NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Barauni. Multiple modes of public transport are available such as taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and compressed natural gas (CNG) low floor buses with and without air conditioning. CNG was introduced as an auto fuel to keep air pollution under control. Radio Taxis are operated by two companies: Flashcab and MyCab. They can be arranged by phone or at taxi stands.

City buses[edit]

An AC Tata Marcopolo bus

Lucknow city's bus service is operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC), a public sector passenger road transport corporation headquartered in MG road. It has 300 CNG buses operating in the city out of an overall fleet of 9500. At present,[when?] there are around 35 routes in the city. Terminals for city buses are located in Gudamba, Virajkhand, Alambagh, Scooter India, Engineering college, Babu Banarasi Das University, Pasi qila, Charbagh, Andhe Ki Chowki and the Budheshwar Intersection. There are four bus depots in Gomti Nagar, Charbagh, Amausi, and Dubagga.

Inter-state buses[edit]

The major Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Inter-state Bus Terminal (ISBT) in Alambagh provides the main inter and intra-state bus lines in Lucknow. Located on National Highway 25, it provides adequate services to ongoing and incoming customers. There is a smaller bus station at Qaiserbagh. The bus terminal formally operated at Charbagh, in front of the main railway station, has now been re-established as a city bus depot. This decision was taken by the state government and UPSRTC to decongest traffic in the railway station area. Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service is a key service for daily commuters who travel back and forth to the city for business and educational purposes. Air conditioned "Royal Cruiser" buses manufactured by Volvo are operated by UPSRTC for inter state bus services. Main cities served by the UPSRTC intrastate bus service are Allahabad, Varanasi, Jaipur, Agra, Delhi, Gorakhpur. The cities outside Uttar Pradesh that are covered by inter-state bus services are Jaipur, New Delhi, Gwalior, Bharatpur, Singrauli, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Dausa, Ajmer, Dehradun and Haridwar.

Railways[edit]

Charbagh Railway Station in Lucknow is zonal headquarter to Northern Railway

Lucknow is served by several railway stations in different parts of the city. The main long-distance railway station is Lucknow Railway Station located at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923 and acts as the divisional headquarters of the Northern Railway division. Its neighbouring and second major long-distance railway station is Lucknow Junction railway station operated by the North Eastern Railway. The city is an important junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Jammu, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur and Siwan. The city has a total of fourteen railway stations[49] with meter gauge services originating at Aishbagh and connecting to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except for Mohibullapur, all stations are connected to broad gauge and metre gauge railways. All stations lie within the city limits and are well interconnected by bus services and other public road transport. Suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab and Kakori. The Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway was started in 1867 to cater for the needs of commuters travelling between Lucknow and Kanpur. Trains running on this service also stop at numerous stations at different localions in the city and act as a suburban rail network.

Air transport[edit]

Terminal-2 of CCS International Airport, Lucknow.

Direct air connections are available in Lucknow to New Delhi, Patna, Calcutta, Mumbai, Varanasi, Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, and other major cities via CCS International airport. The airport is suitable for all-weather operations and provides parking facilities up to 50 aircraft. At present, Air India, Air India Express, Jetlite, Jet Air, GoAir, IndiGo, Saudi Airlines, Flydubai, Oman Air and SpiceJet operate domestic and international flights to and from Lucknow. Covering 1,187 acres (480 ha) with Terminal-1 for international flights and Terminal-2 for domestic flights, the airport can handle Boeing 767 to Boeing 400 aircraft allowing significant passenger and cargo traffic.[50][51] International destinations include Dubai, Muscat, Sharjah, Dammam, Jeddah.

Metro[edit]

Construction plans for a mass rapid transit system, the Lucknow Metro and Monorail Service have been finalised[when?] by Delhi Metro Rail (DMRC).[52] Collection of soil samples for metro construction began on 5 August 2009 and was completed in September the same year. The report concluded that the soil condition was feasible for metro rail. The decision to go ahead with the project was taken in the Uttar Pradesh state budget debate for 2013–14. In February, Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav gave approval to set up a metro rail system for the state capital. It is divided into two corridors with the north-south corridor connecting Munshipulia to CCS International Airport and the East-West corridor connecting Charbagh Railway Station to Vasant Kunj. This will be the most expensive public transport system in the state, but will provide a rapid means of mass transport to decongest traffic on city roads. Construction of the first phase will be completed by 2016–17.[53]

Demographics[edit]

Old Lucknow, one of the most densely populated areas in Lucknow city
Population growth 
CensusPop.
19811,007,604
19911,669,20465.7%
20012,245,50934.5%
20112,815,60125.4%
Religions in Lucknow[54]
ReligionPercent
Hindus
  
78.2%
Muslims
  
20.52%
Christians
  
0.34%
Others†
  
2.16%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

The population of Lucknow Urban Agglomeration (LUA) rose above one million in 1981 while the 2001 census estimated it had risen to 2.24 million. This included about 60,000 people in the Lucknow Cantonment and the 21.8 million in Lucknow city and represented an increase of 34.53 percent over the 1991 figure.[55]

As reported by the Census of India 2011 Lucknow city had a population of 2,815,601 of which 1,470,133 were men and 1,345,468 women [2] This was an increase of 25.36 percent compared to the 2001 figures.

Between 1991 and 2001 the district population registered growth of 32.03 percent, significantly lower than the 37.14 percent which was registered between 1981 and 1991.[56] The initial provisional data for the district suggests a population density of 1,815 per km2 in 2011 compared to 1,443 in 2001.[56] Although the total area covered by the Lucknow district is only about 2,528 square kilometres (976 sq mi), the population density was much above that of the 690 persons per  km2 recorded at state level. The Scheduled Caste population of the state represented 21.3 percent of the total population, a figure higher that the state average of 21.15 percent.[57][58]

Over 36.37 percent of the total population reside in rural areas leaving barely around 63.3 percent composed of urbanites.[59] These were, however, high figures when compared to the state as whole, where urban population only constituted around 21% of the total population.[60] The sex ratio in Lucknow city stood at 915 females per 1000 males in 2011 compared to 2001 census figure of 888. The average national sex ratio in India is 940 according to the Census 2011 Directorate.[2]

The city also boasts a total literacy level of 84.72% compared to 56.3% for Uttar Pradesh as a whole.[2] Average literacy rate for the Lucknow district in 2011 was 77.29% compared to 68.71% in 2001 with male and female rates at 87.81% and 81.36% respectively. For the district as a whole, the rate was 82.56% for males and 71.54% for females. The same figures stood at 75.98% and 60.47% in 2001. In Lucknow city the total literate population totalled 2,147,564 people of which 1,161,250 were male and 986,314 female..[2] There has been a marked improvement in the literacy rate in the district as compared to 1991.[61] Despite the fact that the overall work participation rate in the district (32.24%) is higher than the state average (23.7%), the rate among females in Lucknow is very low at only 5.6 percent and shows a decline from the 1991 figure of 5.9 percent.[62][63]

Architecture[edit]

Cityscape[edit]

Lucknow skyline at night as seen from Ambedkar Memorial park in Gomti Nagar
Bada Imambara
Jama Masjid near Hussainabad, Lucknow

Lucknow's buildings show different styles of architecture with the majority built during British or Mughal rule. More than half of these buildings lie in the old part of the city. The Uttar Pradesh Tourism Department organizes a "Heritage Walk" for tourists covering the popular monuments.[64] Among the extant architecture there are religious buildings such as Imambaras, mosques and other Islamic shrines as well as secular structures such as enclosed gardens, baradaris, and palace complexes.

Bara Imambara in Hussainabad is a colossal edifice built in 1784 by the then Nawab of Lucknow, Asaf-ud-Daula. It was originally built to provide assistance to people affected by the deadly famine, which struck the whole of Uttar Pradesh in the same year.[65] It is the largest hall in Asia without any external support from wood, iron or stone beams.[66] The monument required approximately 22,000 labourers duing construction.

The 60 feet (18 m) tall Rumi Darwaza, built by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula (r. 1775-1797) in 1784, served as the entrance to the city of Lucknow. It is also known as the Turkish Gateway, as it was erroneously thought to be identical to the gateway at Constantinople. The edifice provides the west entrance to the Great Imambara and is embellished with lavish decorations.[67]

Styles of architectures from various cultures can be seen in the historical places of Lucknow. The University of Lucknow shows a huge inspiration from the European style while Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture is prominently present in the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha building and Charbagh Railway station. Dilkusha Kothi is the remains of a palace constructed by the British resident Major Gore Ouseley around 1800 and showcases an example of English Baroque architecture. It served as a hunting lodge for the nawabs of Oudh and as a summer resort.

The Chattar Manzil, which served as the palace for the rulers of Awadh and their wives is topped by an umbrella-like dome and so named on account of Chattar being the Hindi word for "umbrella".

Lal Baradari

Opposite Chattar Manzil stands the 'Lal Baradari' built by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan I between 1789 and 1814. It functioned as a throne room at coronations for the royal courts. The building is now used as a museum and contains delicately executed portraits of men who played major roles in the administration of the kingdom of Oudh.[68]

Another example of mixed architectural styles is La Martiniere College, which shows a fusion of Indian and European ideas. It was built by Major-General Claude Martin who was born in Lyon and died in Lucknow on 13 September 1800. Originally named "Constantia", the ceilings of the building are domed with no wooden beams used for construction.[69] Glimpses of Gothic architecture can also be seen in the college building.

Lucknow's Asafi Imambara exhibits vaulted halls as its architectural speciality.

Sculpture of a lion in the La Martiniere College building.

The Bara Imambara, Chhota Imambara and Rumi Darwaza stand in testament to the city's Nawabi mixture of Mughlai and Turkish style of architecture while La Martiniere college bears witness to the Indo-European style. Even the new buildings are fashioned using characteristic domes and pillars, and at night these illuminated monuments become the city's main attractions.

Around Hazratganj, the city's main market, there is a fusion of old and modern architecture. It has a multi-level parking lot in place of an old and dilapidated police station making way for extending the corridors into well-aligned pebbled pathways, adorned with piazzas, green areas and wrought-iron Tall, beautifully crafted cast-iron lamp-posts, reminiscent of the Victorian era, flank both sides of the street.[70]

Culture[edit]

The residents of Lucknow call themselves Lucknowites or Lakhnavi.[71][72] Like other metropolitan cities in India, Lucknow too is a multicultural city hosting people with different dialects and languages. However, English and Hindi are the most widely spoken languages across the city. Awadhi, a dialect of the Hindi dialect continuum, has been an important part of Lucknow and is still alive in the rural areas and urban population on the streets.

The city's primary official language is Hindi, but the most commonly spoken language is colloquial Hindustani. Indian English is also well understood and is widely used for business and administrative purposes, as a result of India's British heritage and Commonwealth tradition, as well as globalisation. The Urdu language is also a part of Lucknowi culture and heritage. Mostly it is used by the more wealthy families and the remaining members of the royal family and also in Urdu poetry and on public signs.

Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication.

Language and poetry[edit]

Lucknow has been one of the great centres for Muslim culture.[73][74] Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Muslim elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.

Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this city. In recent time the government is taking many path breaking steps to promote Urdu language.[75] The great revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Gorakhpur jail, was largely influenced by the culture of Lucknow and remembered its name in his poetry.[76] The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Fatehpur, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and littérateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi.

Cuisine[edit]

Kebabs are an important part of Uttar Pradesh's cuisine. Lucknow is known for its galawat ke kawab

The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine, the most famous cuisine of Awadhi Region consist of various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads. Kebabs are also of different types – Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.[77] Tunde ke kabab, a restaurant functional since more than 100 years, is the most popular source for Kebabs. While being the favorite destination for local public in the city, it also attracts people not only from other cities but also from other countries.[78]

Festivals[edit]

Common Indian Festivals like Holi, Diwali, Durga Puja, Vijayadashami are celebrated with great pomp and show in the city. Some of the other festivals or processions are as follows:

Muharram procession Lucknow India (Jan 2007)

Lucknow Mahotsava is organised every year to showcase Uttar Pradesh Art and Culture and to promote Tourism. The year 1975–76 was observed and organised as South Asian as The Tourism Year. On this occasion, in the motive to promote Lucknow's Art, Culture and Tourism for national and international tourists, the decision to organise the Lucknow Festival was taken. Since then, with exception to a few years, Lucknow Mahotsava has been organised every year.

Main article: Azadari in Lucknow

Lucknow is known as a seat of Shia'ism and the epitome of Shia culture in India. All the communities including Hindus, observe the Moharram on the 10th of Moharram in the memory of Imam Husain (the grandson of the prophet Muhammad) who sacrificed his life to uphold the principles of humanity in face of tyranny.

The processions of Muharram in Lucknow have a special significance. They were started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs.

The processions like Shahi Zarih, Jaloos-e-Mehndi, Alam-e-Ashura and that of Chup Tazia have special significance for Shia community, which are taken out with great religious zeal and fervour. These processions which started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs continued till the year 1977 when government of Uttar Pradesh banned the Azadari processions in public. For next twenty years processions and gatherings were carried in private or community space like, Talkatora karbala, Imambara Asifi (Bara Imambara), Imambara Husainabad (Chhota Imambara), Dargah Hazrat Abbas, Shah Najaf, Imambara Ghufran Ma'ab etc. Ban was partially lifted in 1997 and Shias were successful in taking out the first Azadari procession in January 1998 (21st of Ramzan). Today the Shias have been given nine processions out of nine hundred that are registered in the festival register of the Shias.

The procession under the name of Chup Tazia have originated in city of Lucknow before spreading to other parts of South Asia. The procession dates back to nawabi era and was started by Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan Sahukat Yar Jung a descendent of Bahu Begum. It is one of the most important processions of azadari in Lucknow and is currently one of the nine allowed processions. This last mourning procession is taken out on the morning of 8th of Rabi' al-awwal, includes alam, zari and tazia, originates from Imambara Nazim Saheb in Victoria street and moves in complete silence while passes through Patanala until it terminates at Karbala Kazmain, where the colossal black tazia is buried.

Along with the Twelver Shi'a, the Ismailis, Alawites and Alevis also hold the day of Nowruz in high regard. The day upon which Nowruz falls has been recommended as a day of fasting for Twelver Shi'a Muslims by Shi'a scholars, including Abul-Qassim al-Khoei, Imam Khomeini and Ali al-Sistani. The day also assumes special significance for Shias as it was on 21 March 656 CE when the first Imam Hazrat Ali assumed the office of Caliphate.

Dance, drama and music[edit]

A dancer posing during Kathak dance sequence. The dance has its origins in Northern India, esp. Lucknow

Kathak, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj, Acchchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive.

Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times. The Bhatkande Music Institute University at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, a Theatre Training institute situated at Gomti Nagar in vikas khand-1, is deemed university and an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Culture, Government of Uttar Pradesh, set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh), and became an independent Drama school in 1977. Apart from government institutes, there are many private theatre groups like IPTA, Theatre Arts Workshop (TAW), Darpan, Manchkriti and the largest Youth theatre group, JOSH. Josh Group is basically a group for youth and kids theatre activity, workshops and training. Lucknow has given music stars like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota and Baba Sehgal to the entertainment industry. It is also the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard.

Lucknow Chikan[edit]

Front view of Chikan embroidery being done over temporary block printed pattern
Chikan embroidery from the back

Lucknow is known for the embroidery works like chikankari, zari, zardozi, kamdani, gota making (goldlace weaving), etc.

Chikankari is a famous and popular embroidery work that is known all over India. The 400-year-old art of Chikan embroidery in its present form was developed on Lucknow and it is the only place to preserve this art to this day. It is mainly practised in and around Lucknow. Chikankari is famous as 'shadow work' and is a very delicate and artistic hand embroidery done using white thread on fine white cotton cloth usually fine muslin or chiffons. Sometimes yellowish muga silk was also used in addition to the white thread. The work is done on caps, kurtas, saris, scarfs and other outfits.

The chikan industry which was almost unknown in the nawabi has not only survived but is in flourishing state, to-day and is destined to last long. About 2500 entrepreneurs are engaged in manufacturing the chikan for local, national and international market. Lucknow is the largest exporter of Chikan embroidery garments.[79]

As the ultimate proof of recognition, Geographical Indication Registry (GIR) accorded the Geographical Indication (GI) status for chikankari in December 2008, which recognised Lucknow as an exclusive hub of chikankari.[80]

Education[edit]

Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow
La Martiniere College

Lucknow hosts several educational and research organisations like IIM Lucknow, Central Drug Research Institute, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, National Botanical Research Institute, IET Lucknow, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and King George Medical College.

Lucknow comprises many educational instituitions in the city including 7 universities,1 Central University, 1 technical universities and a large number of polytechnics, engineering institutes and industrial training institutes.[81] Other research organisations in the state include Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute.[82][83]

Lucknow is home to IIM Lucknow, an autonomous public business school established by Government of India and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, one of India's National Law Schools. Some of the major schools in the state are located in Lucknow, which include:Mount Carmel College, Colvin Taluqdars' College, St. Francis' College, Lucknow, Loreto Convent Lucknow, La Martiniere Lucknow, Bal Vidya Mandir, Lucknow, Lucknow Public School and City Montessori School, the only school in the world which holds a Guinness World Record and has been awarded UNESCO Prize for Peace Education.

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University in Lucknow is a Central University of India and was established in 1996.

The prestigious National P.G. College, affiliated to Lucknow University has been ranked the second best college imparting formal education in the country by National Assessment and Accreditation Council.[84]

Media[edit]

Entertainment and films[edit]

Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India. Famous poet, dialogue writer, script writer Late Mr.K. P. Saxena was born and died in Lucknow.[85] Veteran Bollywood and Bengali film actor Pahadi Sanyal came from the renowned Sanyal family of Lucknow.[86][87] Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor's Junoon, Muzaffar Ali's Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant's Shakespeare Wallah, PAA, Seher was partly shot in Lucknow.

In the movie Gadar: Ek Prem Katha Lucknow has been used to depict Pakistan.[88] Places like Lal Pul, Taj Hotel, Roomi Darwaza (or Roman Gate) have been used in Tanu Weds Manu.[89] Recently some parts of Ladies vs Ricky Bahl, Bullet Raja,[90] Ishaqzaade[91] Ya Rab and Dabangg 2 have been shot in Lucknow or at other sites nearby. A major part of the recent Bollywood movie, Daawat-e-Ishq starring Aditya Roy Kapoor and Parineeti Chopra was shot in the city.[92] Baawre, an Indian Television drama show, airing on the popular channel Life OK has its shooting done entirely in Lucknow.[93]

Press[edit]

Lucknow has historically been a major centre of journalism. The Pioneer headquartered in Lucknow, started in 1865, is the second oldest English language newspaper in India that is operational. The The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru before World War II was published from Lucknow and edited by Manikonda Chalapathi Rau.

The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India, North India Times, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi and Urdu are published in the city. Amongst the Hindi papers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta, I Next and Swatantra Bharat. The main Urdu papers are The Inquilab, Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Avadhnama, Qaumi Khabrein, Aag" Roznama Urdu and Subahnama Urdu

The Press Trust of India and United News of India have their offices in the city and all major Indian newspapers have correspondents and stringers in Lucknow.

Radio[edit]

Logo of 93.5 Red FM

One of the earliest stations of All India Radio has been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.

FM radio transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations.[94]

Internet[edit]

The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major companies like Sify, BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Tata Communications, Aircel, Vodafone, uninor, Idea, Tikona, Hathway & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth.

Sports[edit]

Logo of Uttar Pradesh Wizards

For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city.

The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Anurag Singh, Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey, Praveen Kumar and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Jaman Lal Sharma, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon.

Lucknow also houses the prestigious Lucknow Race Course in Lucknow Cantonment. The race course is spread over 70.22 acres with the racing track 3.2 km long. This makes Lucknow race course the longest race course in India.[95]

The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium which also has a world-class swimming pool and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are Dhyan Chand Astroturf Stadium, Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta Stadium at Northern India Engineering College,[96] Babu Banarsi Das UP Badminton Academy, Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College near Integral University.

The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is a famous golf course. The international-level Cricket Stadium and Cricket Academy project in Lucknow took a step forward & is under construction on very fast pace in Gomti Nagar.[97]

City-based clubs[edit]

ClubSportLeagueStadiumFounded
Awadhe WarriorsBadmintonIndian Badminton LeagueBabu Banarasi Das U.P. Badminton Academy2013
Uttar Pradesh WizardsField hockeyHockey India LeagueDhyan Chand Astroturf Stadium2012

Parks and recreation[edit]

The city of Lucknow has various spots for recreation managed by Lucknow Development Authority. Parks and recreational spots in Lucknow[98] include Kukrail Reserve Forest and surrounding picnic spot, Begum Hazrat Mahal Park, Gautam Buddha Park, Qaisar Bagh, Rumi Park, Nimbu Park, Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel Park, Dream Valley Resort, Swarn Jayanti Smriti Vihar Park, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Park, Ambedkar Memorial and Janeshwar Mishra park.

Shopping and shopping-centres[edit]

Hazratganj is an upmarket shopping area in Lucknow city.
Janpath Market Street in the city

A major part of Lucknow is its shopping-centres and markets/bazaars. Hazratganj is a major shopping area situated in the heart of Lucknow in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.[70] In addition to bazaars, it also contains shopping complexes, restaurants, hotels, theatres and offices.
The major shopping markets are Hazratganj, Yahiyaganj, Aminabad, Kapoorthala, Janpath, Chowk, Bhootnath & Gomti Nagar.

Following is a list of various shopping malls located in various parts of the city.

NameLocationYearSize (Gross Leasable Area)Source
Walmart Best Price StoreSushant Golf City, Amar Shaheed Path600,000 sq ft (56,000 m2)[102]
Phoenix United MallNH 25, LDA Colony2010600,000 sq ft (56,000 m2)[103]
Fun RepublicGomti Nagar2007970,000 sq ft (90,000 m2)[104]
Wave MallGomti Nagar2004314,500 sq ft (29,220 m2)[105]
Riverside mallGomti Nagar2008300,000 sq ft (28,000 m2)[106]
Sahara Ganj MallHazratganj2005900,000 sq ft (84,000 m2)[107]
Gardens Galleria MallRae Bareli Road, South City2012500,000 sq ft (46,000 m2)[108]
Ratan SquareLalBagh2011200,000 sq ft (19,000 m2)[109]
Shopping SquareSushant Golf City2012[110]
Essar MallRajajipuram2011[111]
City MallGomti Nagar[112]

Lucknow is also famous for its jewellery and ornament shops.

Notable Individuals[edit]

List of historical places[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

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