Long jump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Athletics
Long jump
Sdiri vole.jpg
Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005.
Men's records
WorldMike Powell 8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in) (1991)
OlympicBob Beamon 8.90 m (29 ft 2¼ in) (1968)
Women's records
WorldGalina Chistyakova 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) (1988)
OlympicJackie Joyner 7.40 m (24 ft 3¼ in) (1988)
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Athletics
Long jump
Sdiri vole.jpg
Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005.
Men's records
WorldMike Powell 8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in) (1991)
OlympicBob Beamon 8.90 m (29 ft 2¼ in) (1968)
Women's records
WorldGalina Chistyakova 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) (1988)
OlympicJackie Joyner 7.40 m (24 ft 3¼ in) (1988)

The long jump (formerly commonly called the "broad jump") is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. This event has been an Olympic medal event since the first modern Olympics in 1896 (a medal event for women since 1948) and has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games.

Rules[edit]

An indicator of wind direction and a device for measuring wind speed (here +2.6 m/s) along a run-up track.

At the elite level, competitors run down a runway (usually coated with the same rubberized surface as running tracks, crumb rubber also vulcanized rubber—known generally as an all-weather track) and jump as far as they can from a wooden board 20 cm or 8 inches wide that is built flush with the runway into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared a foul and no distance is recorded. A layer of plasticine is placed immediately after the board to detect this occurrence. An official (similar to a referee) will also watch the jump and make the determination. The competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line; however, the distance measured will always be perpendicular to the foul line to the nearest break in the sand caused by any part of the body or uniform. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible. Competitors are allowed to place two marks along the side of the runway in order to assist them to jump accurately. At a lesser meet and facilities, the plasticine will likely not exist, the runway might be a different surface or jumpers may initiate their jump from a painted or taped mark on the runway. At a smaller meet, the number of attempts might also be limited to four or three.

Each competitor has a set number of attempts. That would normally be three trials, with three additional jumps being awarded to the best 8 or 9 (depending on the number of lanes on the track at that facility, so the event is equatable to track events) competitors. All legal marks will be recorded but only the longest legal jump counts towards the results. The competitor with the longest legal jump (from either the trial or final rounds) at the end of competition is declared the winner. In the event of an exact tie, then comparing the next best jumps of the tied competitors will be used to determine place. In a large, multi-day elite competition (like the Olympics or World Championships), a set number of competitors will advance to the final round, determined in advance by the meet management. A set of 3 trial round jumps will be held in order to select those finalists. It is standard practice to allow at a minimum, one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round, though 12 plus ties and automatic qualifying distances are also potential factors. (For specific rules and regulations in United States Track & Field see Rule 185[1]). For record purposes, the maximum accepted wind assistance is 2 m/s (4.5 mph).

History[edit]

Halteres used in athletic games in ancient Greece.
Standing long jump, detail of a page from the Luzerner Chronik of 1513.

The long jump is the only known jumping event of Ancient Greece's original Olympics' pentathlon events. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were initially supposed to act as a form of training for warfare. The long jump emerged probably because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines.[2] After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern day event, athletes were only allowed a short running start.[2] The athletes carried a weight in each hand, which were called halteres (between 1 and 4.5 kg). These weights were swung forward as the athlete jumped in order to increase momentum. It is commonly believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in mid-air to increase his forward momentum; however, halteres were held throughout the duration of the jump. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance. The jump itself was made from the bater ("that which is trod upon"). It was most likely a simple board placed on the stadium track which was removed after the event.[3] The jumpers would land in what was called a skamma ("dug-up" area).[3] The idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong. Sand in the jumping pit is a modern invention [4] The skamma was simply a temporary area dug up for that occasion and not something that remained over time. The long jump was considered one of the most difficult of the events held at the Games since a great deal of skill was required. Music was often played during the jump and Philostratus says that pipes at times would accompany the jump so as to provide a rhythm for the complex movements of the halteres by the athlete.[2] Philostratos is quoted as saying, "The rules regard jumping as the most difficult of the competitions, and they allow the jumper to be given advantages in rhythm by the use of the flute, and in weight by the use of the halter.".[5] Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656BC Olympics staged a jump of 7.05 metres (23 feet and 1.7 inches).[6]

There has been some argument by modern scholars over the long jump. Some have attempted to recreate it as a triple jump. The images provide the only evidence for the action so it is more well received that it was much like today's long jump. The main reason some want to call it a triple jump is the presence of a source that claims there once was a fifty five ancient foot jump done by a man named Phayllos.[7]

The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the "running broad jump" as a standardized track and field event for women.[8] However, it was not until 1928 that the women's long jump was added to the Olympic athletics programme.

Records[edit]

Jesse Owens set a long jump world record 8.13 m (26 ft 8 in) that was not broken for 25 years, until 1960 by Ralph Boston. At the 1968 Summer Olympics Bob Beamon jumped 8.90 m (29 ft 2¼ in) at an altitude of 7,349 feet (2,240 m), a jump not exceeded for 23 years, and which remains the second longest legal jump of all time. On August 30, 1991 Mike Powell of the United States set the current men's world record at the World Championships in Tokyo. It was in a well-known show down against Carl Lewis, who also beat Beamon's record that day but with an aiding wind (thus not legal for record purposes). Powell's record 8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in) has now stood for over 22 years.

Some jumps over 8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in) have been officially recorded. 8.99 m (29 ft 5¾ in) was recorded by Mike Powell himself (wind-aided +4.4) set at high altitude in Sestriere, Italy in 1992. A potential world record of 8.96 m (29 ft 4¾ in) was recorded by Iván Pedroso,[9] with a "legal" wind reading also at Sestriere, but the jump was not validated because videotape revealed someone was standing in front of the wind gauge, invalidating the reading (and costing Pedroso a Ferrari valued at $130,000—the prize for breaking the record at that meet).[10][11] Lewis himself jumped 8.91m moments before Powell's record-breaking jump with the wind exceeding the maximum allowed; this jump remains the longest ever to not win Olympic or World Championship gold medal, or any competition in general.

The current world record for women is held by Galina Chistyakova of the former Soviet Union who leapt 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) in Leningrad on June 11, 1988, a mark that has stood for over 25 years.

Technique[edit]

Emmanuelle Chazal competes in the women's heptathlon long jump final during the French Athletics Championships 2013 at Stade Charléty in Paris, 13 July 2013.

There are five main components of the long jump: the approach run, the last two strides, takeoff, action in the air, and landing. Speed in the run-up, or approach, and a high leap off the board are the fundamentals of success. Because speed is such an important factor of the approach, it is not surprising that many long jumpers also compete successfully in sprints. A classic example of this long jump / sprint doubling are performances by Carl Lewis.

The approach[edit]

The objective of the approach is to gradually accelerate to a maximum controlled speed at takeoff. The most important factor for the distance traveled by an object is its velocity at takeoff – both the speed and angle. Elite jumpers usually leave the ground at an angle of twenty degrees or less; therefore, it is more beneficial for a jumper to focus on the speed component of the jump. The greater the speed at takeoff, the longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be. The importance of a takeoff speed is a factor in the success of sprinters in this event.

The length of the approach is usually consistent distance for an athlete. Approaches can vary between 12 and 19 strides on the novice and intermediate levels, while at the elite level they are closer to between 20 and 22 strides. The exact distance and number of strides in an approach depends on the jumper's experience, sprinting technique, and conditioning level. Consistency in the approach is important as it is the competitor's objective to get as close to the front of the takeoff board as possible without crossing the line with any part of the foot.

Inconsistent approaches are a common problem in the event. As a result the approach is usually practiced by athletes about 6–8 times per jumping session (see Training below).

The last two strides[edit]

The objective of the last two strides is to prepare the body for takeoff while conserving as much speed as possible.

The penultimate (second to last) stride is longer than the last stride. The competitor begins to lower his or her center of gravity to prepare the body for the vertical impulse. The final stride is shorter because the body is beginning to raise the center of gravity in preparation for takeoff.

The last two strides are extremely important because they determine the velocity with which the competitor will enter the jump; the greater the velocity, the better the jump.

Takeoff[edit]

The objective of the takeoff is to create a vertical impulse through the athlete's center of gravity while maintaining balance and control.

This phase is one of the most technical parts of the long jump. Jumpers must be conscious to place the foot flat on the ground, because jumping off either the heels or the toes negatively affects the jump. Taking off from the board heel-first has a braking effect, which decreases velocity and strains the joints. Jumping off the toes decreases stability, putting the leg at risk of buckling or collapsing from underneath the jumper. While concentrating on foot placement, the athlete must also work to maintain proper body position, keeping the torso upright and moving the hips forward and up to achieve the maximum distance from board contact to foot release.

There are four main styles of takeoff: the kick style, double-arm style, sprint takeoff, and the power sprint or bounding takeoff.

Kick[edit]

The kick style takeoff is a style of takeoff where the athlete actively cycles the leg before a full impulse has been directed into the board then landing into the pit. This requires great strength in the hamstrings. This causes the jumper to jump to large distances.

Double-arm[edit]

The double-arm style of takeoff works by moving both arms in a vertical direction as the competitor takes off. This produces a high hip height and a large vertical impulse.

Sprint[edit]

The sprint takeoff is the style most widely instructed by coaching staff. This is a classic single-arm action that resembles a jumper in full stride. It is an efficient takeoff style for maintaining velocity through takeoff.

Power sprint or bounding[edit]

The power sprint takeoff, or bounding takeoff, is arguably one of the most effective styles.[who?] Very similar to the sprint style, the body resembles a sprinter in full stride. However, there is one major difference. The arm that pushes back on takeoff (the arm on the side of the takeoff leg) fully extends backward, rather than remaining at a bent position. This additional extension increases the impulse at takeoff.

The "correct" style of takeoff will vary from athlete to athlete.

Multi-eventer Jessica Ennis during a long jump, preparing to land

Action in the air and landing[edit]

There are three major flight techniques for the long jump: the hang, the sail, and the hitch-kick. Each technique is to combat the forward rotation experienced from take-off but is basically down to preference from the athlete. It is important to note that once the body is airborne, there is nothing that the athlete can do to change the direction they are traveling and consequently where they are going to land in the pit. However, it can be argued that certain techniques influence an athlete's landing, which can have an impact on distance measured. For example, if an athlete lands feet first but falls back because they are not correctly balanced, a lower distance will be measured.

Training[edit]

The long jump generally requires training in a variety of areas. These areas include: speed work, jumping, over distance running, weight training, plyometric training, bounding and flexibility.

Speed work[edit]

Speed work is essentially short distance speed training where the athlete would be running at top or near top speeds. The distances for this type of work would vary between indoor and outdoor season but are usually around 30-60m for indoors and up to 100m for outdoors.

Jumping[edit]

Long Jumpers tend to practice jumping 1–2 times a week. Approaches, or run-throughs, are repeated sometimes up to 6–8 times per session. Short approach jumps are common for jumpers to do, as it allows for them to work on specific technical aspects of their jumps in a controlled environment. Using equipment such as low hurdles and other obstacles are common in long jump training, as it helps the jumper maintain and hold phases of their jump. As a common rule, it is important for the jumper to engage in full approach jumps at least once a week, as it will prepare the jumper for competition.

Over-distance running[edit]

Over-distance running workouts helps the athlete jump a further distance than their set goal. For example, having a 100m runner practice by running 200m repeats on a track. This is specifically concentrated in the season when athletes are working on building endurance. Specific over-distance running workouts are performed 1–2 times a week. This is great for building sprint endurance, which is required in competitions where the athlete is sprinting down the runway 3–6 times. Typical workouts would include 5x150m. Preseason workouts may be longer, including workouts like 6x300m

Weight training[edit]

During pre-season training and early in the competition season weight training tends to play a major role in the sport. It is customary for a long jumper to weight train up to 4 times a week, focusing mainly on quick movements involving the legs and trunk. Some athletes perform Olympic lifts in training. Athletes use low repetition and emphasize speed to maximize the strength increase while minimizing adding additional weight to their frame. Important lifts for a long jumper include the back squat, front squat, power cleans and hang cleans. The emphasis on these lifts should be on speed and explosive as those are crucial in the long jump take off phase.

Plyometrics[edit]

Plyometrics, including running up and down stairs and hurdle bounding, can be incorporated into workouts, generally twice a week. This allows an athlete to work on agility and explosiveness. Other plyometric workouts that are common for long jumpers are box jumps. Boxes of various heights are set up spaced evenly apart and jumpers can proceed jumping onto them and off moving in a forward direction. They can vary the jumps from both legs to single jumps. Alternatively, they can set up the boxes in front of a high jump mat if allowed, and jump over a high jump bar onto the mat mimicking a landing phase of the jump. These plyometric workouts are typically performed at the end of a workout.

Bounding[edit]

Bounding is any sort of continuous jumping or leaping. Bounding drills usually require single leg bounding, double-leg bounding, or some variation of the two. The focus of bounding drills is usually to spend as little time on the ground as possible and working on technical accuracy, fluidity, and jumping endurance and strength. Technically, bounding is part of plyometrics, as a form of a running exercise such as high knees and butt kicks.

Flexibility[edit]

Flexibility is an often forgotten[citation needed] tool for long jumpers. Effective flexibility prevents injury, which can be important for high impact events such as the long jump. It also helps the athlete sprint down the runway. Hip and groin injuries are common for long jumpers who may neglect proper warm up and stretching. Hurdle mobility drills are a common way that jumpers use to improve flexibility. Common hurdle drills include setting up about 5-7 hurdles are appropriate heights and having athletes walk over them in a continuous fashion. Other variations of hurdle mobility drills are used as well including hurdle skips. This is a crucial part of a jumper's training since they perform most exercises for a very short period of time and often aren't aware of their form and technique. A common tool in many long jump workouts is the use of video taping. This enables the athlete to go back and watch their own progress as well as letting the athlete compare their own footage to that of some of the world class jumpers.

Training styles, duration, and intensity varies immensely from athlete to athlete and is based on the experience and strength of the athlete as well as on their coaching style.

World record progression[edit]

Men[edit]

World record progression for the Long Jump (men).

The first world record in the men's long jump was recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1912.[12] The inaugural record was Peter O'Connor's 7.61 m (24 ft 11½ in) leap from 1901. To date O'Connor, Jesse Owens, Bob Beamon and Mike Powell have each held the world record for over 20 years. In that same time, there has been barely 20 years when one of those four men have not held the world record. Note: the current women's world record is three years older than the current men's world record.

As of June 21, 2011, 18 world records have been ratified by the IAAF in the event.[12]

MarkWindAthleteVenueDate
7.61 m (24 ft 11½ in) Peter O'Connor (IRL)*Dublin1901-08-05[12]
7.69 m (25 ft 2¾ in) Edward Gourdin (USA)Cambridge1923-07-23[12]
7.76 m (25 ft 5½ in) Robert LeGendre (USA)Paris1924-07-07[12]
7.89 m (25 ft 10½ in) DeHart Hubbard (USA)Chicago1925-06-13[12]
7.90 m (25 ft 11 in) Edward Hamm (USA)Cambridge1928-07-07[12]
7.93 m (26 ft 0 in)0.0 m/s Sylvio Cator (HAI)Paris1928-09-09[12]
7.98 m (26 ft 2 in)0.5 m/s Chuhei Nambu (JPN)Tokyo1931-10-27[12]
8.13m (26' 8 1/4" in)1.5 m/s Jesse Owens (USA)Ann Arbor1935-05-25[12]
8.21 m (26 ft 11 in)0.0 m/s Ralph Boston (USA)Walnut1960-08-12[12]
8.24 m (27 ft 0¼ in)1.8 m/s Ralph Boston (USA)Modesto1961-05-27[12]
8.28 m (27 ft 1¾ in)1.2 m/s Ralph Boston (USA)Moscow1961-07-16[12]
8.31 m (27 ft 3 in)-0.1 m/s Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)Yerevan1962-06-10[12]
8.31 m (27 ft 3 in)0.0 m/s Ralph Boston (USA)Kingston1964-08-15[12]
8.34 m (27 ft 4¼ in)1.0 m/s Ralph Boston (USA)Los Angeles1964-09-12[12]
8.35 m (27 ft 4½ in)0.0 m/s Ralph Boston (USA)Modesto1965-05-29[12]
8.35 m (27 ft 4½ in) A0.0 m/s Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)Mexico City1967-10-19[12]
8.90 m (29 ft 2¼ in) A2.0 m/s Bob Beamon (USA)Mexico City1968-10-18[12]
8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in)0.3 m/s Mike Powell (USA)Tokyo1991-08-30[12]

*Ireland in 1901 was still part of the United Kingdom; however O'Connor considered himself Irish and was competing on this occasion as a member of the Irish Amateur Athletic Association. In the source above he is listed as "GBI/IRL".

Women[edit]

The first world record in the women's long jump was recognized by the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) in 1922.[17] The FSFI was absorbed by the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1936.

As of June 21, 2011, the IAAF (and the FSFI before it) have ratified 36 world records in the event.[17]

MarkWindAthleteVenueDate
5.16 m (16 ft 11 in) Marie Mejzlikova II (TCH)Prague1922-08-06[17]
5.30 m (17 ft 4½ in) Marie Mejzlikova II (TCH)Prague1923-09-23[17]
5.485 m (17 ft 11¾ in) Muriel Gunn (GBR)London1926-08-02[17]
  5.50 m (18 ft 0½ in)  Kinue Hitomi (JPN) Gothenburg, Sweden 28 August 1926[17]
  5.57 m (18 ft 3¼ in)  Muriel Gunn (GBR) London, United Kingdom 1 August 1927[17]
  5.98 m (19 ft 7¼ in)  Kinue Hitomi (JPN) Osaka, Japan 20 May 1928[17]
  6.12 m (20 ft 0¾ in)  Christel Schultz (GER) Berlin, Nazi Germany 30 July 1939[17]
  6.25 m (20 ft 6 in)  Francina Blankers-Koen (NED) Leiden, Netherlands 19 September 1943[17]
  6.28 m (20 ft 7 in)0.2  Yvette Williams (NZL) Gisborne, New Zealand 20 February 1954[17]
  6.28 m (20 ft 7 in)1.3  Galina Vinogradova (URS) Moscow, Soviet Union 11 September 1955[17]
  6.31 m (20 ft 8¼ in)0.5  Galina Vinogradova (URS) Tbilisi, Soviet Union 18 November 1955[17]
  6.35 m (20 ft 10 in)1.0  Elżbieta Krzesińska (POL) Budapest, Hungary 20 August 1956[17]
  6.35 m (20 ft 10 in)  Elżbieta Krzesińska (POL) Melbourne, Australia 27 November 1956[17]
  6.40 m (20 ft 11¾ in)0.0  Hildrun Claus (GDR) Erfurt, East Germany 7 August 1960[17]
  6.42 m (21 ft 0¾ in)1.4  Hildrun Claus (GDR) East Berlin, East Germany 23 June 1961[17]
  6.48 m (21 ft 3 in)-1.5  Tatyana Shchelkanova (URS) Moscow, Soviet Union 16 July 1961[17]
  6.53 m (21 ft 5 in)1.5  Tatyana Shchelkanova (URS) Leipzig, East Germany 10 June 1962[17]
  6.70 m (21 ft 11¾ in)  Tatyana Shchelkanova (URS) Moscow, Soviet Union 4 July 1964[17]
  6.76 m (22 ft 2 in)-1.6  Mary Rand (GBR) Tokyo, Japan 14 October 1964[17]
  6.82 m (22 ft 4½ in) A0.0  Viorica Viscopoleanu (ROU) Mexico City, Mexico 14 October 1968[17]
  6.84 m (22 ft 5¼ in)0.0  Heide Rosendahl (DEU) Torino, Italy 3 September 1970[17]
  6.92 m (22 ft 8¼ in)1.6  Angela Voigt (GDR) Dresden, East Germany 9 May 1976[17]
  6.99 m (22 ft 11 in)2.0  Siegrun Siegl (GDR) Dresden, East Germany 19 May 1976[17]
  7.07 m (23 ft 2¼ in)1.9  Vilma Bardauskiené (URS) Kishinyov, Soviet Union 18 August 1978[17]
  7.09 m (23 ft 3 in)0.0  Vilma Bardauskiené (URS) Prague, Czechoslovakia 29 August 1978[17]
  7.15 m (23 ft 5¼ in)0.3  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROU) Bucharest, Romania 1 August 1982[17]
  7.20 m (23 ft 7¼ in)-0.3  Valy Ionescu (ROU) Bucharest, Romania 1 August 1982[17]
  7.21 m (23 ft 7¾ in)0.6  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROU) Bucharest, Romania 15 May 1983[17]
  7.27 m (23 ft 10 in)0.6  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROU) Bucharest, Romania 4 June 1983[17]
  7.43 m (24 ft 4½ in)1.4  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROU) Bucharest, Romania 4 June 1983[17]
  7.44 m (24 ft 4¾ in)2.0  Heike Drechsler (GDR) East Berlin, East Germany 22 September 1985[17]
  7.45 m (24 ft 5¼ in)0.9  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Tallinn, Soviet Union 21 June 1986[17]
  7.45 m (24 ft 5¼ in)1.1  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Dresden, East Germany 3 July 1986[17]
  7.45 m (24 ft 5¼ in)0.6  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Indianapolis, United States 13 August 1987[17]
  7.45 m (24 ft 5¼ in)1.0  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Leningrad, Soviet Union 11 June 1988[17]
  7.52 m (24 ft 8 in)1.4  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Leningrad, Soviet Union 11 June 1988[17]


Source:[18]

Top ten performers[edit]

Accurate as of September 2, 2009.

Men[edit]

MarkWind*AthleteNationalityVenueDate
8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in)0.3Mike Powell United StatesTokyoAugust 30, 1991
8.90 m (29 ft 2¼ in) A2.0Bob Beamon United StatesMexico CityOctober 18, 1968
8.87 m (29 ft 1 in)−0.2Carl Lewis United StatesTokyoAugust 30, 1991
8.86 m (29 ft 0¾ in) A1.9Robert Emmiyan Soviet UnionTsakhkadzorMay 22, 1987
8.74 m (28 ft 8 in)1.4Larry Myricks United StatesIndianapolisJuly 18, 1988
8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) A2.0Erick Walder United StatesEl PasoApril 2, 1994
8.74 m (28 ft 8 in)−1.2Dwight Phillips United StatesEugeneJune 7, 2009
8.73 m (28 ft 7½ in)1.2Irving Saladino PanamaHengeloMay 24, 2008
8.71 m (28 ft 6¾ in)1.9Iván Pedroso CubaSalamancaJuly 18, 1995
8.66 m (28 ft 4¾ in)1.6Loúis Tsátoumas GreeceKalamátaJune 2, 2007

* meters/second
A = Altitude (above 1000 metres)
Source:[19]

Women[edit]

MarkWind*AthleteNationalityVenueDate
7.52 m (24 ft 8 in)1.4Galina Chistyakova Soviet UnionLeningradJune 11, 1988
7.49 m (24 ft 6¾ in)1.3Jackie Joyner-Kersee United StatesNew YorkMay 22, 1994
7.48 m (24 ft 6¼ in)1.2Heike Drechsler East GermanyNeubrandenburgJuly 9, 1988
7.43 m (24 ft 4½ in)1.4Anişoara Cuşmir RomaniaBucharestJune 4, 1983
7.42 m (24 ft 4 in)2.0Tatyana Kotova RussiaAnnecyJune 23, 2002
7.39 m (24 ft 2¾ in)0.5Yelena Belevskaya Soviet UnionBryanskJuly 18, 1987
7.37 m (24 ft 2 in)N/AInessa Kravets UkraineKievJune 13, 1992
7.33 m (24 ft 0½ in)0.4Tatyana Lebedeva RussiaTulaJuly 31, 2004
7.31 m (23 ft 11¾ in)1.5Olena Khlopotnova Soviet UnionAlma AtaSeptember 12, 1985
7.31 m (23 ft 11¾ in)−0.1Marion Jones United StatesZürichAugust 12, 1998

* meters/second
Source:[20]

Best year performances[edit]

Men's outdoor[edit]

YearDistanceAthletePlace
19608.21 m (26 ft 11 in) Ralph Boston (USA)Walnut
19618.28 m (27 ft 1¾ in) Ralph Boston (USA)Moscow
19628.31 m (27 ft 3 in) Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)Yerevan
19638.20m (26 ft 11 in)[14] Ralph Boston (USA)Modesto
19648.34 m (27 ft 4¼ in)[21] Ralph Boston (USA)Los Angeles
19658.35m (27 ft 5 in)[22] Ralph Boston (USA)Modesto
19668.23 m (27 ft 0 in) Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)Leselidze
19678.35 m (27 ft 4½ in) Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)Mexico City
19688.90 m (29 ft 2¼ in) Bob Beamon (USA)Mexico City
19698.21 m (26 ft 11 in) Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)
 Waldemar Stępień (POL)
Odessa
Chorzów
19708.35 m (27 ft 4½ in) Josef Schwarz (FRG)Stuttgart
19718.21 m (26 ft 11 in) Norman Tate (USA)El Paso
19728.23 m (27 ft 0 in) Randy Williams (USA)Munich
19738.35m (27 ft 1/2 in)[23] James McAlister (USA)Westwood
19748.30 m (27 ft 2¾ in) Arnie Robinson (USA)Modesto
19758.45 m (27 ft 8½ in) Nenad Stekić (YUG)Montreal
19768.35 m (27 ft 4½ in) Arnie Robinson (USA)Montreal
19778.27 m (27 ft 1½ in) Nenad Stekić (YUG)Nova Gorica
19788.32 m (27 ft 3½ in) Nenad Stekić (YUG)Rovereto
19798.52 m (27 ft 11¼ in) Larry Myricks (USA)Montreal
19808.54 m (28 ft 0 in) Lutz Dombrowski (GDR)Moscow
19818.62 m (28 ft 3¼ in) Carl Lewis (USA)Sacramento
19828.76 m (28 ft 8¾ in) Carl Lewis (USA)Indianapolis
19838.79 m (28 ft 10 in) Carl Lewis (USA)Indianapolis
19848.71 m (28 ft 6¾ in) Carl Lewis (USA)Westwood
19858.62 m (28 ft 3¼ in) Carl Lewis (USA)Brussels
19868.61 m (28 ft 2¾ in) Robert Emmiyan (URS)Moscow
19878.86 m (29 ft 0¾ in) Robert Emmiyan (URS)Tsakhkadzor
19888.76 m (28 ft 8¾ in) Carl Lewis (USA)Indianapolis
19898.70 m (28 ft 6½ in) Larry Myricks (USA)Houston
19908.66 m (28 ft 4¾ in) Mike Powell (USA)Villeneuve d'Ascq
19918.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in) Mike Powell (USA)Tokyo
19928.68 m (28 ft 5½ in) Carl Lewis (USA)Barcelona
19938.70 m (28 ft 6½ in) Mike Powell (USA)Salamanca
1994'8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) Erick Walder (USA)El Paso
19958.71 m (28 ft 6¾ in) Iván Pedroso (CUB)Salamanca
19968.58 m (28 ft 1¾ in) Erick Walder (USA)Springfield
19978.63 m (28 ft 3¾ in) Iván Pedroso (CUB)Padua
19988.60 m (28 ft 2½ in) James Beckford (JAM)Bad Langensalza
19998.60 m (28 ft 2½ in) Iván Pedroso (CUB)Padua
20008.65 m (28 ft 4½ in) Iván Pedroso (CUB)Jena
20018.41 m (27 ft 7 in) James Beckford (JAM)Turin
20028.52 m (27 ft 11¼ in) Savanté Stringfellow (USA)Palo Alto
20038.53 m (27 ft 11¾ in) Yago Lamela (ESP)Castellón de la Plana
20048.60 m (28 ft 2½ in) Dwight Phillips (USA)Linz
2005'8.60 m (28 ft 2½ in) Dwight Phillips (USA)Helsinki
20068.56 m (28 ft 1 in) Irving Saladino (PAN)Rio de Janeiro
20078.66 m (28 ft 4¾ in) Louis Tsatoumas (GRE)Kalamáta
20088.73 m (28 ft 7½ in) Irving Saladino (PAN)Hengelo
20098.74 m (28 ft 8 in) Dwight Phillips (USA)Eugene
20108.47 m (27 ft 9¼ in) Christian Reif (GER)Barcelona
20118.54 m (28 ft 0 in) Mitchell Watt (AUS)Stockholm
20128.35 m (27 ft 4½ in) Greg Rutherford (GBR)Chula Vista
20128.35 m (27 ft 4½ in) Sergey Morgunov (RUS)Cheboksary

Women's outdoor[edit]

YearDistanceAthletePlace
19766.99 m (22 ft 11 in) Siegrun Siegl (GDR)Dresden
19787.09 m (23 ft 3 in) Vilma Bardauskienė (URS)Prague
19796.90 m (22 ft 7½ in) Brigitte Wujak (GDR)Potsdam
19807.06 m (23 ft 1¾ in) Tatyana Kolpakova (URS)Moscow
19816.96 m (22 ft 10 in) Jodi Anderson (USA)Colorado Springs
19827.20 m (23 ft 7¼ in) Valy Ionescu (ROU)Bucharest
19837.43 m (24 ft 4½ in) Anisoara Cusmir (ROU)Bucharest
19847.40 m (24 ft 3¼ in) Heike Drechsler (GDR)Dresden
19857.44 m (24 ft 4¾ in) Heike Drechsler (GDR)Berlin
19867.45 m (24 ft 5¼ in) Heike Drechsler (GDR)Tallinn
19877.45 m (24 ft 5¼ in) Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)Indianapolis
19887.52 m (24 ft 8 in) Galina Chistyakova (URS)Leningrad
19897.24 m (23 ft 9 in) Galina Chistyakova (URS)Volgograd
19907.35 m (24 ft 1¼ in) Galina Chistyakova (URS)Bratislava
19917.37 m (24 ft 2 in) Heike Drechsler (GER)Sestriere
19927.48 m (24 ft 6¼ in) Heike Drechsler (GER)Lausanne
19937.21 m (23 ft 7¾ in) Heike Drechsler (GER)Zürich
19947.49 m (24 ft 6¾ in) Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)New York City
19957.07 m (23 ft 2¼ in) Heike Drechsler (GER)Linz
19967.12 m (23 ft 4¼ in) Chioma Ajunwa (NGA)Atlanta
19977.05 m (23 ft 1½ in) Lyudmila Galkina (RUS)Athens
19987.31 m (23 ft 11¾ in) Marion Jones (USA)Eugene
19997.26 m (23 ft 9¾ in) Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA)Bogotá
20007.09 m (23 ft 3 in) Fiona May (ITA)Rio de Janeiro
20017.12 m (23 ft 4¼ in) Tatyana Kotova (RUS)Turin
20027.42 m (24 ft 4 in) Tatyana Kotova (RUS)Annecy
20037.06 m (23 ft 1¾ in) Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA)Milan
20047.33 m (24 ft 0½ in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)Tula
20057.04 m (23 ft 1 in) Irina Simagina (RUS)Sochi
20067.12 m (23 ft 4¼ in) Tatyana Kotova (RUS)Novosibirsk
20077.21 m (23 ft 7¾ in) Lyudmila Kolchanova (RUS)Sochi
20087.12 m (23 ft 4¼ in) Naide Gomes (POR)Monaco
20097.10 m (23 ft 3½ in) Brittney Reese (USA)Berlin
20107.13 m (23 ft 4½ in) Olga Kucherenko (RUS)Sochi
20117.19 m (23 ft 7 in) Brittney Reese (USA)Eugene
20127.15 m (23 ft 5¼ in) Brittney Reese (USA)Eugene

National records[edit]

Men[edit]

NationDistanceAthleteVenueDateRef
 United States8.95 m (29 ft 4¼ in)Mike PowellTokyo1991-08-30
 Soviet Union/
 Armenia
8.86 m (29 ft 0¾ in)Robert EmmiyanTsakhkadzor1987-05-22
 Panama8.73 m (28 ft 7½ in)Irving SaladinoHengelo2008-05-24
 Cuba8.71 m (28 ft 6¾ in)Iván PedrosoSalamanca1995-07-18
 Greece8.66 m (28 ft 4¾ in)Louis TsatoumasKalamata2007-06-02
 Jamaica8.62 m (28 ft 3¼ in)James BeckfordOrlando1997-04-05
 Spain8.56 m (28 ft 1 in)Yago LamelaTurin1999-06-24
 Russia8.56 m (28 ft 1 in)Aleksandr MenkovMoscow16 August 2013[24]
 East Germany/
 Germany
8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)Lutz DombrowskiMoscow1980-07-28
 Australia8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)Mitchell WattStockholm2011-07-29
 South Africa8.50 m (27 ft 10½ in)Godfrey MokoenaMadrid2009-07-04
 Saudi Arabia8.48 m (27 ft 9¾ in)Mohamed Salman Al-KhuwalidiSotteville-lès-Rouen2006-07-02
 Italy8.47 m (27 ft 9¼ in)Andrew HoweOsaka2007-08-30
 Mexico8.46 m (27 ft 9 in)Luis RiveraKazan2013-07-12[25][26]
 Senegal8.46 m (27 ft 9 in)Cheikh Tidiane TouréBad Langensalza1997-06-15
 Yugoslavia/
 Serbia
8.45 m (27 ft 8½ in)Nenad StekićMontreal1975-07-25
 Ghana8.43 m (27 ft 7¾ in)Ignisious GaisahRome2006-07-14
 France8.42 m (27 ft 7¼ in)Salim SdiriPierre-Bénite2009-06-12
 Bahamas8.41 m (27 ft 7 in)Craig HepburnNassau1993-06-17
 Zimbabwe8.40 m (27 ft 6½ in)Ngonidzashe MakushaDes Moines2011-06-09
 Brazil8.40 m (27 ft 6½ in)Douglas de SouzaSão Paulo1995-02-15
 Slovenia8.40 m (27 ft 6½ in)Gregor CankarCelje1997-05-18
 People's Republic of China8.40 m (27 ft 6½ in)Lao JianfengZhaoqing1997-05-28
 Morocco8.40 m (27 ft 6½ in)Yahya BerrabahBeyrouth2009-10-02
 Romania8.37 m (27 ft 5½ in)Bogdan TudorBad Cannstatt1995-07-09
 Portugal8.36 m (27 ft 5 in)Carlos CaladoLisbon1997-06-20
 Ukraine8.35 m (27 ft 4½ in)Sergey LayevskiyDnepropetrovsk1988-07-16
Roman ShchurenkoKiev2000-07-25
 United Kingdom8.35 m (27 ft 4½ in)Christopher TomlinsonParis2011-07-08
 Taiwan8.34 m (27 ft 4¼ in)Nai Huei-FangShanghai1993-05-14
 Venezuela8.34 m (27 ft 4¼ in)Victor CastilloCochabamba2004-05-30
 Bulgaria8.33 m (27 ft 3¾ in)Ivaylo MladenovSeville1995-06-03
 Belarus8.33 m (27 ft 3¾ in)Aleksandr GlovatskiySestriere1996-08-07
 Egypt8.31 m (27 ft 3 in)Hassine Hatem MoursalOslo1999-06-30
 Hungary8.30 m (27 ft 2¾ in)László SzalmaBudapest1985-07-07
 Austria8.30 m (27 ft 2¾ in)Andreas SteinerInnsbruck1988-06-04
 Netherlands8.29 m (27 ft 2¼ in)Ignisious GaisahMoscow2013-08-16
 Mauritius8.28 m (27 ft 1¾ in)Jonathan ChimierAthens2004-08-24
 Poland8.28 m (27 ft 1¾ in)Grzegorz MarciniszynMals2001-07-14
 Nigeria8.27 m (27 ft 1½ in)Yussuf AlliLagos1989-08-08
 Botswana8.27 m (27 ft 1½ in)Gable GarenamotseRhede2006-08-20
 Algeria8.26 m (27 ft 1 in)Issam NimaZaragoza2007-07-28
 Czech Republic8.25 m (27 ft 0¾ in)Milan MikulášPrague1988-07-16
 Republic of Moldova8.25 m (27 ft 0¾ in)Sergey PodgainiyChisinau1990-08-18
 Japan8.25 m (27 ft 0¾ in)Masaki Morinaga[27]Shizuoka1992-05-05
 Belgium8.25 m (27 ft 0¾ in)Erik NysHechtel1996-07-06
 Denmark8.25 m (27 ft 0¾ in)Morten JensenGothenburg2005-07-03
 Namibia8.24 m (27 ft 0¼ in)Stephan LouwGermiston2008-01-12
 Croatia8.23 m (27 ft 0 in)Siniša ErgotićZagreb2002-06-05
 Sweden8.22 m (26 ft 11½ in)Michel TornéusKuortane2012-07-22
 Bermuda8.22 m (26 ft 11½ in)Tyrone SmithMayagüez2010-07-26
 Finland8.22 m (26 ft 11½ in)Tommi EviläGothenburg2008-06-28
 Korea8.20 m (26 ft 10¾ in)Kim Deok HyeonBelgrade2009-07-12
 Canada8.20 m (26 ft 10¾ in)Edrick FlorealSherbrooke1991-07-20
 Kazakhstan8.16 m (26 ft 9¼ in)Sergey VasilenkoAlma Ata1988-06-18
 Qatar8.13 m (26 ft 8 in)Abdulrahman Faraj Al-NubiManila2003-09-21
 Estonia8.10 m (26 ft 6¾ in)Erki NoolGötzis1995-05-27
 Peru8.10 m (26 ft 6¾ in)Jorge McFarlaneSucre2009-11-23
 Uzbekistan8.10 m (26 ft 6¾ in)Aleksandr PototskiyBryansk1992-06-04
 India8.09 m (26 ft 6½ in)Kumaravel Prem KumarNew Delhi5 August 2013[28]
 Turkey8.08 m (26 ft 6 in)Mesut YavaşIstanbul2000-06-24
 New Zealand8.05 m (26 ft 4¾ in)Bob ThomasWhangarei1968-01-20
 Latvia8.05 m (26 ft 4¾ in)Juris ToneMoscow1983-06-21
 Thailand8.04 m (26 ft 4½ in)Supanara SukhasvastiBanglore2010-06-05
 Norway8.02 m (26 ft 3½ in)Kristen FløgstadBislett1973-08-04
 Philippines7.99 m (26 ft 2½ in)Henry DagmilEagle Rock2008-06-07[29]
 Israel7.99 m (26 ft 2½ in)Yochai HaleviTel Aviv2010-05-15
 Viet Nam7.90 m (25 ft 11 in)Nguyen Ngoc QuanHanoi1997-05-02
 Malaysia7.88 m (25 ft 10 in)Josbert TinusBangkok2007-10-05
 Indonesia7.85 m (25 ft 9 in)Agus Reza IrawanJakarta1995-09-21
 United Arab Emirates7.79 m (25 ft 6½ in)Mousbeh Ali SaidLatakia1992-09-06
 Singapore7.62 m (25 ft 0 in)Matthew Goh YujieVientiane2009-12-05
 Bahrain7.47 m (24 ft 6 in)Mohamed Imam BakhashManama2003-10-16
 Lebanon7.43 m (24 ft 4½ in)Marc HabibLebanon2004-07-22
 Jersey7.21 m (23 ft 7¾ in)Ross JeffsJersey2012-07-01
 Laos7.20 m (23 ft 7¼ in)Phouphet SingbandithNorwalk1990-05-07
 Afghanistan7.05 m (23 ft 1½ in)Mohammed AnwarKabul1940
 Brunei7.04 m (23 ft 1 in)Daniel ChungKota Kinabalu1993-08-07

On coinage[edit]

Track and field events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Long Jump commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. The obverse of the coin portrays a modern athlete at the moment he is touching the ground, while the ancient athlete in the background is shown while starting off his jump, as he is seen on a black-figure vase of the 5th century BC.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "USATF – 2006 Competition Rules". USA Track & Field. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  2. ^ a b c Swaddling, Judith. The Ancient Olympic Games. University of Texas Pres. ISBN 0292777515. 
  3. ^ a b Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.66
  4. ^ Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004 p.66
  5. ^ Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.67
  6. ^ "Ancient Origins". The Times/The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  7. ^ Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.68
  8. ^ Tricard, Louise Mead (1996-07-01). American Women's Track & Field: A History, 1895 Through 1980. McFarland & Company. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-7864-0219-9. 
  9. ^ 100 Metres – men – senior – outdoor. iaaf.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
  10. ^ Pedroso may lose record. The Victoria Advocate (August 4, 1995).
  11. ^ Athlete profile for Iván Pedroso. Iaaf.org (1972-12-17). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "IAAF World Championships: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Daegu 2011." (PDF). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2011. pp. Pages 595, 605. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  13. ^ Marty Post (25 August 2011). "After 51 years, Owens' longevity record finally falls". IAAF. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  14. ^ a b http://onceuponatimeinthevest.blogspot.com/2013/03/june-1963-and-new-440-wr-by-adolph.html Note: This article indicates they were measuring in Imperial at Modesto in 1963 (and probably most other years in this era). Particularly notable is that this measurement under windy conditions is likely the best wind legal, but not even the winning jump of the competition (Phil Shinnick 27'4") or Boston's best jump that day
  15. ^ http://www.counterpunch.org/2004/03/06/the-blackballing-of-phil-shinnick/
  16. ^ Ian Thomsen (4 August 1995). "Long Jump Record Unlikely to Be Ratified". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al "IAAF World Championships: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Daegu 2011." (PDF). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2011. pp. Pages 595, 700. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  18. ^ The Athletics Site: world record progression. Athletix.org (2012-09-09). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
  19. ^ Long Jump All Time Men iaaf.org
  20. ^ Long Jump All Time Women iaaf.org
  21. ^ http://www.usatf.org/usatf/files/69/695a8112-b7a0-4b9d-9dbb-8b4bca22677c.pdf Note: Olympic Trials measured metrically. Also did 8.49w that day
  22. ^ http://www.trackandfieldnews.com/discussion/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=50405 Note: Measured in Imperial
  23. ^ http://www.trackandfieldnews.com/discussion/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=29034 measured imperial
  24. ^ "Long Jump Series Result - 14th IAAF World Championships". IAAF. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  25. ^ "27th Summer Universiade in Kazan, July 6-17 2013 - Luis Alberto Rivera". kazan2013.ru. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  26. ^ "Luis Rivera es el número uno del ranking mundial". mediotiempo.com. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  27. ^ National Records. JAAF
  28. ^ Jonathan Selvaraj (6 August 2013). "Premkumar jumps 8.09 m, breaks nine-year-old long jump mark". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  29. ^ 2008 SCA Jim Bush Championships. Scausatf.org (2008-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]