London Borough of Hackney

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Hackney
—  London borough  —

Coat of arms

Council logo
Hackney shown within Greater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionLondon
Ceremonial countyGreater London
StatusLondon borough
Admin HQMare Street, Hackney
Incorporated1 April 1965
Government
 • TypeLondon borough council
 • BodyHackney London Borough Council
 • LeadershipMayor & Cabinet (Labour)
 • Executive MayorJules Pipe CBE
 • MPsDiane Abbott
Meg Hillier
 • London AssemblyJennette Arnold AM for North East
 • EU ParliamentLondon
Area
 • Total7.36 sq mi (19.06 km2)
Area rank321st (of 326)
Population (2011 est.)
 • Total246,300
 • Rank61st (of 326)
 • Density33,000/sq mi (13,000/km2)
 • Ethnicity[1]47.1% White British
2.6% White Irish
11.2% Other White
1.6% White & Black Caribbean
0.8% White & Black African
0.8% White & Asian
1.2% Other Mixed
4.1% Indian
1.4% Pakistani
2.8% Bangladeshi
1.0% Other Asian
9.2% Black Caribbean
10.8% Black African
2.2% Other Black
1.4% Chinese
1.9% Other
Time zoneGMT (UTC0)
 • Summer (DST)BST (UTC+1)
PostcodesE, EC, N
Police forceMetropolitan Police
Websitewww.hackney.gov.uk
 
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Hackney
—  London borough  —

Coat of arms

Council logo
Hackney shown within Greater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionLondon
Ceremonial countyGreater London
StatusLondon borough
Admin HQMare Street, Hackney
Incorporated1 April 1965
Government
 • TypeLondon borough council
 • BodyHackney London Borough Council
 • LeadershipMayor & Cabinet (Labour)
 • Executive MayorJules Pipe CBE
 • MPsDiane Abbott
Meg Hillier
 • London AssemblyJennette Arnold AM for North East
 • EU ParliamentLondon
Area
 • Total7.36 sq mi (19.06 km2)
Area rank321st (of 326)
Population (2011 est.)
 • Total246,300
 • Rank61st (of 326)
 • Density33,000/sq mi (13,000/km2)
 • Ethnicity[1]47.1% White British
2.6% White Irish
11.2% Other White
1.6% White & Black Caribbean
0.8% White & Black African
0.8% White & Asian
1.2% Other Mixed
4.1% Indian
1.4% Pakistani
2.8% Bangladeshi
1.0% Other Asian
9.2% Black Caribbean
10.8% Black African
2.2% Other Black
1.4% Chinese
1.9% Other
Time zoneGMT (UTC0)
 • Summer (DST)BST (UTC+1)
PostcodesE, EC, N
Police forceMetropolitan Police
Websitewww.hackney.gov.uk

The London Borough of Hackney (About this sound pronunciation) is a London borough of North/North East London/North,[2] and forms part of Inner London.[3] The local authority is Hackney London Borough Council.

Hackney's southwestern boundary is adjacent to the City and Broadgate. Also in the southwest is Hoxton and Shoreditch which are at the heart of the London arts scene and home to many clubs, bars, shops and restaurants; Hoxton Square is its central point. The Borough of Hackney has attracted some office development and the development of Shoreditch and Hoxton has caused land values to rise, thus expanding the range for prospective development. Much of Hackney maintains its inner-city character and in places like Dalston large housing estates now sit side-by-side with gated communities.

The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is the area roughly extending north from Mare Street and surrounding the Church of St John-at-Hackney; known as Hackney Central. Hackney Town Hall Square has been funded to develop as a new 'creative quarter'. Surrounding the public square itself is the now bankrupt Ocean music venue [being refurbished as a four screen cinema complex in late 2011], a new Library, Technology and Learning Centre, Hackney Museum and the refurbished Hackney Empire. A new Town Hall complex has been built out of public funds behind the original building. South Hackney abuts Victoria Park (which is in neighbouring Tower Hamlets) and terraced Victorian and Edwardian housing has survived to this day.

To the north of the borough are Upper and Lower Clapton, Stamford Hill and Stoke Newington. To the east is the large open space of the Hackney Marshes and the districts of Hackney Wick and Homerton. Light industries employing over 3,000 people have been designated in this area to allow the land around the River Lea (the eastern boundary) to be used for the 2012 Summer Olympics, thus making the area one of the host boroughs of the London 2012 Games.

There are 1,300 listed buildings in Hackney, including the iconic Grade II* Hackney Empire, Tudor Sutton House, and the Grade I medieval St Augustine's Tower. The Borough contains 25 conservation areas including Clapton Square, and many urban open-spaces including Clapton Common and Clissold Park. Conservation areas also protect large areas of Georgian and Victorian housing, and areas of industrial heritage.[4]

Contents

History

St Augustine's Tower. A former property of the Knights of St John dating from the 13th century, St Augustine's Tower is Hackney's oldest building. The tower is all that remains of the ancient medieval parish church, which was demolished in 1798 (September 2005)

The borough was formed in 1965 from the area of the earlier metropolitan boroughs of Hackney, Shoreditch and Stoke Newington. The new council included representative sympols of the predecessor boroughs in its new combined coat of arms: Shoreditch by three bells from Shoreditch Church (from the rhyme Oranges and Lemons..); Stoke Newington by two trees bearing fruit; and Hackney by the eight-pointed Maltese Cross of the principal landowners of the parish in the Middle Ages, the Order of St John of Jerusalem. The shield is surmounted by representation of St Augustine's Tower, part of Hackney's ancient parish church located in the historical centre of Hackney. The motto is Justitia turris nostra (Latin for Being fair is what makes us strong).[5]

The Council displays, in Hackney Town Hall, portrait of HM The Queen, wearing the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem robes of which she is Patron.

The borough has a rich history; the Roman road, Ermine Street, forms the western edge of the borough. Most of the rest of the land was covered with open oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers and streams that crossed the area. Hackney lay within the Catuvellauni tribal territory.[6] The eastern boundary of the borough is marked by the River Lea. This was an ancient boundary between pre-Roman tribes, and in the Roman era, was tidal up to Hackney Wick and continued to be the boundary between the historic counties of Middlesex and Essex.

Sutton House was built in 1535

In the Tudor period the lands of religious orders were seized by the Crown and put up for sale. Thus Hackney became a retreat for the nobility around Hackney Central and Homerton, including Henry VIII's Palace by Lea Bridge roundabout, where BSix Sixth Form College stands today.[7] Sutton House, on Homerton High Street, is the oldest surviving dwelling in Hackney, originally built as Bryck Place for Sir Ralph Sadleir, a diplomat, in 1535. The village of Hackney flourished from the Tudor to late Georgian periods as a rural retreat – brought to an end by the construction of the railway in the 1850s. Notable residents have included Robert Aske, William Cecil, Samuel Courtauld, Samuel Hoare, Joseph Priestley, and Thomas Sutton.

Curtain Theatre circa 1600 print. Note: some authorities believe this to be a depiction of The Theatre – the other Elizabethan theatre in Shoreditch.

London's first Tudor theatres were built at Shoreditch and the Gunpowder Plot was first exposed nearby in Hoxton too.[8] Many grand houses stood in Stoke Newington and Stamford Hill, with the latter providing a haven for Hackney's many Orthodox Jewish residents from the 1930s. Alfred Hitchcock made many of his first films in Hoxton at the Gainsborough Studios in Poole Street.[9]

After industrialisation, extensive post-war development and immigration, the area's many Georgian and Victorian terraces are being gentrified, warehouses are being converted and new apartments are being built.[10] It was inner London's 'greenest borough' and London Transport's 'best bike borough 2006',[11] with 62 parks and open spaces, covering 815 acres (3.3 km2).[12] Seven Hackney parks have now achieved Green Flag status.[13] One, Abney Park, became scheduled in 2009 as one of Britain's historic park and garden at risk from neglect and decay.[14] Hackney Marshes play host to the largest collection of football pitches in Europe; and was the site of part of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Governance

Hackney Town Hall was built in the 1930s for the former Metropolitan Borough. (October 2005)

The borough comprises two parliamentary constituencies: Hackney North and Stoke Newington (represented by Diane Abbott MP) and Hackney South and Shoreditch (represented by Meg Hillier MP); both are Privy Counsellors and Labour Party Members of Parliament. The borough is in the North East London Assembly constituency returning Jennette Arnold AM, as the directly elected Assembly Member. Hackney is part of the London constituency in the European Parliament.

Unlike most other English local authorities, the Borough is now governed by a directly-elected Mayor who is also the political leader of the Council. The Mayor – currently Jules Pipe CBE[15] – is supported by a cabinet, councillors and a Speaker who fulfils the civic and ceremonial duties previously undertaken by the (non-political) mayor.[16]

At the Hackney Council election on 6 May 2010 the Labour Party were returned with 50 Councillors; winning six additional seats. The Conservative Party forms the largest opposition party on the Council with four Councillors; and the Liberal Democrats have three.[17]

Between 1999 and 2001 serious concerns were expressed about Hackney's performance as a Council by the Audit Commission, and many aspects of council services were failing.[18] This led to considerable negative press coverage that still tranishes perceptions of the area. In 2005, MORI identified that selected residents were significantly more satisfied than they had been in 2002, and in 2007 the Audit Commission showed that improvements continue to be made in council performance, with the council now achieving 'three stars', and described as 'improving strongly'![19] Every ward remains among the 10% most deprived in the country, with 47% of children living in low income households.[18]

Hackney has a reputation as one of the most crime-ridden London boroughs, and some of its streets have even been referred to as "Murder Mile",[20] but cooperation between local police and council has resulted in the borough experiencing a bigger drop in crime than in any other London borough in the four year period up to 2007 (28% reduction).[21]

Geography

Location

The London Borough of Hackney is an Inner London Borough within Greater London. It is to the north-east of the City of London; and neighboured by the London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, to the south; Islington to the west at Southgate Road; Haringey to the north. On the east, the River Lea forms the boundary with Waltham Forest; and to the south-east is Newham. Historically, the River Lea formed the boundary between the predecessor counties of Middlesex and Essex.

Hackney Town Hall is approximately 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Charing Cross, St Pauls Cathedral being situated in between; and 3.8 miles (6.1 km) from the GLA City Hall near Tower Bridge.

Districts and postcodes

Some locations in the London Borough of Hackney.

The most southerly district in the borough is Shoreditch, adjacent to the City. To the north-west, bordering Islington, the City, and north of Old Street is Hoxton. To the north of Shoreditch is Haggerston, north of the Regents Canal. Bethnal Green also forms of the southern parts of the borough, also this is formally and majoritised within neighbouring Tower Hamlets.

Settlements to the west of the borough followed the line of the former Ermine Street, with De Beauvoir Town — a Victorian estate to the west of the (now) Kingsland Road. Further north, lie Dalston, Stoke Newington and Stamford Hill — where the borough abuts Haringey.

A further group of settlements follow another north-south radial road, with South Hackney to the east of Cambridge Heath Road — north of Victoria Park; and Hackney Central commencing at Mare Street. London Fields was formerly common land to the west of this place, but now forms a district in its own right. To the north, Homerton lies immediately east of the centre of Hackney. The River Lea forms the borough's eastern boundary. Hackney Wick, the Hackney Marshes, Lower and Upper Clapton all lie along the this eastern boundary.

Postal districts were assigned to the former parts of the borough in 1857/8. Most of the borough would originally have been covered by a planned 'NE' postal district, but this was abolished in 1866. Most of the borough is covered by the eastern postal district, but Shoreditch constitutes five separate postcodes. Areas to the west of Kingsland Road and in the north of the borough are predominantly covered by the northern postal district.

Traditionally, much of the borough was and remains considered as a part of East London, with Hoxton and Shoreditch being part of the East End of London. In the 2008 revision of the London Plan, the borough was officially reassigned to the north London sub-region for administrative purposes.[2]

Topography

The London Borough of Hackney covers an area of 19.06 square kilometres (7.4 sq mi). Its primary geographic feature is the course of the River Lea; and the associated River Lee Navigation, which passes through Hackney Cut — an artificial channel of the Lea built in 1770 across the Hackney Marshes to straighten a meander of the natural river. A tributary of the Lea, Hackney Brook was fully culverted in 1860 by the Metropolitan Board of Works.[22]

The New River passes through the borough close to Finsbury Park and flows towards Islington. The Regents Canal also crosses the borough to the south of De Beauvoir Town in the west, joining the Hertford Union Canal below Victoria Park.[22]

Within the Borough, the land rises westward from the Lea reaching 30 metres (98 ft) above sea level at Clapton Common and Stamford Hill. The area around Victoria Park, in the south of the borough lies about 15 metres (49 ft) above sea level. At Spring Hill, in Upper Clapton the road descends sharply from 25 metres (82 ft) to only 10 metres (33 ft) at High Hill Ferry, on the Lee Navigation.[22]

Geology

The Lea and Hackney Marshes are underlain by alluvium soils; and the higher ground between Homerton and Stamford Hill is formed on a widening bed of London Clay. Brickearth deposits are within tongues of clay extending beneath Clapton Common, Stamford Hill and Stoke Newington High Street. The centre and south western districts lie on river terrace deposits of Taplow Gravel. Victoria Park and Well Street Common lie on flood plain gravel.[22]

Climate

This data was taken between 1971 and 2000 at the nearest national weather station in Greenwich; around 7 miles (11.3 km) south of Hackney Town Hall:

Climate data for London (Greenwich)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
19.7
(67.5)
25.3
(77.5)
29.8
(85.6)
32.8
(91.0)
35.6
(96.1)
36.5
(97.7)
38.1
(100.6)
35.4
(95.7)
29.9
(85.8)
21.1
(70.0)
17.7
(63.9)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
8.5
(47.3)
11.4
(52.5)
14.2
(57.6)
17.7
(63.9)
20.7
(69.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
19.7
(67.5)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
8.6
(47.5)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F)2.6
(36.7)
2.4
(36.3)
4.1
(39.4)
5.4
(41.7)
8.4
(47.1)
12.2
(54.0)
14.2
(57.6)
14.0
(57.2)
11.2
(52.2)
8.3
(46.9)
5.1
(41.2)
2.8
(37.0)
7.5
(45.5)
Record low °C (°F)−10
(14.0)
−9
(15.8)
−8
(17.6)
−2
(28.4)
−1
(30.2)
5.0
(41.0)
7.0
(44.6)
6.0
(42.8)
3.0
(37.4)
−4
(24.8)
−5
(23.0)
−7
(19.4)
−10
(14.0)
Precipitation mm (inches)51.6
(2.031)
38.2
(1.504)
40.5
(1.594)
45.0
(1.772)
46.5
(1.831)
47.3
(1.862)
41.1
(1.618)
51.6
(2.031)
50.4
(1.984)
68.8
(2.709)
58.0
(2.283)
53.0
(2.087)
591.8
(23.299)
Snowfall cm (inches)24.4
(9.61)
10.8
(4.25)
2.7
(1.06)
0.4
(0.16)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.08)
8.2
(3.23)
46.7
(18.39)
humidity91899190929293959695939192.3
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.88.59.69.49.08.38.07.68.510.710.19.9110.4
Avg. snowy days44310000001316
Mean monthly sunshine hours49.971.4107.1159.8181.2181.0192.1195.1138.9108.158.537.41,480.5
Source #1: Record highs and lows from BBC Weather,[23] except August and February maximum from Met Office[24] [25]
Source #2: All other data from Met Office,[26] except for humidity and snow data which are from NOAA[27]


Demography

Population
YearPop.±%
180114,609
181119,523+33.6%
182125,342+29.8%
183135,482+40.0%
184168,246+92.3%
185194,961+39.1%
1861172,385+81.5%
1871249,810+44.9%
1881327,234+31.0%
1891369,209+12.8%
1901374,132+1.3%
1911379,120+1.3%
1921368,469−2.8%
1931358,117−2.8%
1941305,501−14.7%
1951260,626−14.7%
1961240,521−7.7%
1971221,975−7.7%
1981179,536−19.1%
1991187,792+4.6%
2001202,819+8.0%
2010213,573+5.3%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time

In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 14,609. This rose steadily throughout the 19th century, as the district became built up; reaching 95,000 in the middle of that century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth increased — reaching nearly 374,000 by the turn of the century. This increase in population peaked before World War I, falling slowly in the aftermath until World War II began an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London (1944).[28] The population is now rising again, and the 2001 census gives Hackney a population of 202,824.[29]

The population is ethnically diverse. Of the resident population, 89,490 (41%) people describe themselves as White British. 30,978 (14%) are in other White ethnic groups, 63,009 (29%) are Black or Black British, 20,000 (9%) are Asian or Asian British, 8,501 (4%) describe themselves as 'Mixed', and 6,432 (3%) as Chinese or Other.

Stamford Hill has a large Haredim (Hasidic) population.

There is also a large Turkish and Kurdish population resident in Hackney. Turkish and Kurdish communities are located in all parts of the borough, though there is a greater concentration in north and central Hackney. Stoke Newington, Newington Green (London Borough of Islington) and Dalston have the greatest concentration of population and in particular Stoke Newington Road and Green Lanes have a high concentration of businesses and shops.

132,931 (66%) of the resident population were born in the UK. A further 10,095 (5%) were born in other parts of Europe, and the remaining 59,798 (29%) born elsewhere in the world.

The 2001 census also shows Christianity is the biggest religion in Hackney, with 44% of residents identifying Christian; 18% identified as Muslim, 4% Jewish, and 3% belonged to other religions. A further 19% stated no religion, and 12% did not state a response.

32% of householders are owner–occupiers.

Education

In 2002, the borough entered into a ten year contract with the Learning Trust, an independent collaborative body that organises education for Hackney's 27,000 pupils in over 70 schools, nurseries and play centres. The trust was set up in response to an OFSTED report that identified failings in the then existing system.[30] Two of London's most successful City Academies are in Hackney with another two in development and plans to rebuild or renovate every other Hackney school by 2016.

Transport

Hackney is poorly served by London Underground services: Only Manor House, located on its extreme north-western fringe on the boundary with Haringey, though Old Street sits only a few yards south-west of Hackney in Islington.

However, two London Overground lines serve Hackney: the North London Line crosses from west to east while the East London Line runs from Highbury & Islington and passes through Dalston Junction and on south through Haggerston, Hoxton, Shoreditch towards destinations south of the River Thames, including Crystal Palace, Croydon, and New Cross.

Additionally National Rail's Lea Valley Lines also pass through Hackney, with stations at London Fields, Hackney Downs, Rectory Road, Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, and Clapton.

It is proposed that Crossrail 2, the 'Chelsea-Hackney Line', would provide a direct Underground service to Hackney Central, Dalston and Homerton, although it is currently undecided whether this would be built as London Underground or main line specifications.

A busy sunset over Graham Road (with some contrails), Hackney Central (19 September 2005—3 days before the autumnal equinox)

London Overground

North London Line Travelling west to east — nearest London Overground stations are Dalston Kingsland, Hackney Central, Homerton and Hackney Wick

East London Line Travelling north to south — nearest London Overground stations are Dalston Junction, Haggerston, Hoxton and Shoreditch High Street

Lea Valley Lines

These stations are served by Greater Anglia:

Notable associated people

Notable attractions and institutions

Twinned towns

The London Borough of Hackney has formal twinning arrangements with:

FlagCountryTown[31]Region
BarbadosBarbadosBridgetownCaribbean
FranceFranceSuresnesWestern Paris
GermanyGermanyGöttingenLower Saxony
GrenadaGrenadaSt George'sCaribbean
IsraelIsraelHaifaNorthern Israel
RussiaRussiaPresnensky DistrictMoscow suburb

And an informal twinning with

South Africa Alexandra, South Africa.[31]

The borough also has informal links with South Africa, Turkey, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The Homerton University Hospital has its own twinning arrangements with the Rambam Medical Centre (Haifa, Israel) and St George's Hospital (Grenada). Schools are encouraged to pursue links with specific schools abroad – such as the arrangement between Our Lady's and a school in Hangzhou, South West China.[31]

References

  1. ^ Data Management and Analysis Group, Greater London Authority, Demography Update October 2007, (2007)
  2. ^ a b Map 5A.1 – London's sub-regions The London Plan (Greater London Authority, 2008) accessed 13 November 2009
  3. ^ Office of Public Sector InformationLondon Government Act 1963 (c.33) (as amended) accessed 13 November 2009
  4. ^ Hackney Society photographic survey accessed 23 January 2007
  5. ^ Details extracted from a council information sheet — May 2007
  6. ^ Roman Landscape (Brickfields Building Exploratory) accessed 10 May 2007
  7. ^ 'Hackney: Settlement and Building to c.1800', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10: Hackney (1995), pp. 10–4 Date accessed: 2 October 2006
  8. ^ Houses of Parliament factsheet on event accessed 6 March 2007
  9. ^ Visiting Hackney accessed 10 May 2007
  10. ^ Location, Location: Best and Worse Hackney One Year On (Channek 4 TV) accessed 7 November 2007
  11. ^ Hackney wins best bike borough (LBH Press release, 6 April 2006) accessed 7 November 2007
  12. ^ Parks department (LB Hackney) accessed 7 November 2007
  13. ^ Hackney Today 188 21 July 2008
  14. ^ English Heritage's 'At Risk' register accessed 5 July 2010
  15. ^ Results for the Mayoral Election on 6 May 2010 accessed 26 May 2010
  16. ^ The Speaker of Hackney Council accessed 27 May 2010
  17. ^ Mayor and Council Elections 2010 accessed 26 May 2010
  18. ^ a b Corporate Assessment Report: London Borough of Hackney (The Audit Commission August 2006) accessed 4 December 2007
  19. ^ City's councils get top ratings (BBC News) 7 February accessed 8 February 2008
  20. ^ Two more die on 'murder mile' | UK News | The Observer
  21. ^ Hackney Today 157 23 April 2007 accessed 6 June 2007
  22. ^ a b c d Hackney: Introduction, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10: Hackney (1995), pp. 1–4. Date accessed: 13 June 2009
  23. ^ "London, Greater London: Average conditions". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. http://www.webcitation.org/5wpjdyrKA. 
  24. ^ "August 2003 — Hot spell". Met Office. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. http://www.webcitation.org/5wpjI9SEw. 
  25. ^ http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/extremes/monthly_temperature_country.html#highest_daily_maximum_england
  26. ^ "Greenwich 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/averages/19812010/sites/greenwich.html. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  27. ^ "NOAA". NOAA. ftp://dossier.ogp.noaa.gov/GCOS/WMO-Normals/RA-VI/UK/03776.TXT. 
  28. ^ A Vision of Britain through time accessed 20 February 2009
  29. ^ Statistics for ethnicity [1], country of birth [2], and religion [3] are from the UK census.
  30. ^ Learning Trust history accessed 5 May 2007
  31. ^ a b c Twinning (LB Hackney) Accessed 19 September 2008

External links

London/Hackney travel guide from Wikitravel

Coordinates: 51°32′N 0°05′W / 51.533°N 0.083°W / 51.533; -0.083