Lizard (comics)

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The Lizard
The-Lizard-Comic-Book-Character.jpg
The Lizard
Publication information
PublisherMarvel Comics
First appearanceThe Amazing Spider-Man (vol. 1) #6 (November 1963)
Created byStan Lee
Steve Ditko
In-story information
Alter egoCurtis "Curt" Connors
Team affiliationsSinister Six
Sinister Twelve
Abilities
  • Superhuman strength, speed, agility, reflexes, stamina, durability and leaping
  • Telepathic control over reptiles, and to bring out nearby creatures' primitive reptilian instincts
  • Genius-level intellect
  • Regenerative healing factor
  • Hardened scale-like skin
  • Razor-sharp teeth and claws
  • Ferocious hand-to-hand combatant
  • 6-foot-long tail capable of shattering concrete
 
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The Lizard
The-Lizard-Comic-Book-Character.jpg
The Lizard
Publication information
PublisherMarvel Comics
First appearanceThe Amazing Spider-Man (vol. 1) #6 (November 1963)
Created byStan Lee
Steve Ditko
In-story information
Alter egoCurtis "Curt" Connors
Team affiliationsSinister Six
Sinister Twelve
Abilities
  • Superhuman strength, speed, agility, reflexes, stamina, durability and leaping
  • Telepathic control over reptiles, and to bring out nearby creatures' primitive reptilian instincts
  • Genius-level intellect
  • Regenerative healing factor
  • Hardened scale-like skin
  • Razor-sharp teeth and claws
  • Ferocious hand-to-hand combatant
  • 6-foot-long tail capable of shattering concrete

The Lizard, a.k.a. Curt Connors is a fictional character, a supervillain in the Marvel Comics Universe. He is an enemy of Spider-Man. The Lizard first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #6 (November 1963), and was created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. In 2009, the Lizard was named IGN's 62nd Greatest Comic Villain of All Time.[1]

In the stories, Curt Connors was a genetic biologist who researched the ability of certain reptiles to regrow missing limbs, partially to find a way to regrow his own missing arm. After a test on himself, he transforms into a violent lizard monster. Though able to revert to his human form, he suffers occasional fits of his alter ego breaking free.

Connors was played by Dylan Baker in Spider-Man 2 and Spider-Man 3. Rhys Ifans portrays Dr. Curtis Connors and his Lizard alter ego as the main antagonist in The Amazing Spider-Man.

Contents

Fictional character biography

Origin

Curtis "Curt" Connors was born in Coral Gables, Florida. He was a gifted surgeon who enlisted in the U.S. Army and was sent off to war. He performed emergency battlefield surgery on wounded GIs, but his right arm was injured in a blast and had to be amputated.[2][3] After his return to civilian life as a research technologist, Connors became obsessed with uncovering the secrets of reptilian limb regeneration. Working from his home in the Florida Everglades with the help of war buddy Ted Sallis, he finally developed an experimental serum taken from reptilian DNA.[3] He successfully regrew the missing limb of a rabbit and then chose to test it on himself. Connors ingested the formula and his missing arm did indeed grow back. The formula had a side effect; Connors was subsequently transformed into a reptilian humanoid monster. Spider-Man discovered this situation during a trip to Florida to investigate newspaper reports of the Lizard after the Bugle challenged him. Spider-Man was then able to use Connors' notes to create an antidote to restore him to his human form and mentality.[2] Another attempt to develop this serum for safe use again resulted in Connors transforming into the Lizard, but on this occasion he was saved thanks to his former colleague Professor Charles Xavier and his first team of X-Men, Beast and Angel tracking the Lizard down in the swamps so that Iceman could send him into hibernation long enough to develop a cure.[4]

Life in New York

Later, Curt Connors relocated to New York City. He was able to repay Spider-Man by developing a formula to save May Parker's life after Peter Parker had given his aunt his radioactive blood during a transfusion, unintentionally putting her in mortal peril.[5] It later became clear that the success of Connors' apparent cure from the Lizard persona was short-lived. A repeating pattern occurred, with stress or a chemical reaction turning Connors into the Lizard, Spider-Man fighting him, and then forming some kind of temporary cure to reverse the transformation until the next time. A second personality had formed with the Lizard, one with the familiar goal shared by many villains of taking over the world. The Lizard envisioned a world where all humans had been transformed into (or replaced by) super-reptiles like himself. Despite the Lizard's overall hatred of humans, he was often shown to be unwilling to harm his wife Martha or young son Billy.

As Connors, he aided Spider-Man in defeating the Rhino by developing a formula to dissolve the Rhino's costume, but accidentally transformed himself into the Lizard due to exposure to the chemicals needed to create the formula and was restored by Spider-Man.[6] Connors was later kidnapped and forced to create a rejuvenation serum for Silvermane.[7] However, the stress from this caused Connors to transform, the Lizard battled Spider-Man and the Human Torch, and was then restored to normal once again by Spider-Man.[8]

During another encounter with Spider-Man after Peter's attempts to remove his powers resulted in him growing four extra arms, a bite from Morbius endowed the Lizard with Connors' personality via the infection of a strange enzyme. Connors then synthesized an antidote for himself and Spider-Man using the Morbius enzyme.[9] Curt Connors later aided Spider-Man, Ka-Zar, and the Black Panther against Stegron.[10] After the apparent death of the Jackal, Dr. Connors determined that Spider-Man was not a clone.[11] Later, the Lizard battled with Stegron and Spider-Man after Stegron kidnapped Billy Connors.[12] For a time, Peter Parker worked as a teaching assistant to Dr. Connors at Empire State University, although Connors had no idea that Peter was actually Spider-Man.[13][14]

During the first of the Secret Wars, the Lizard refused to participate on either side of the conflict. Although he was collected by the Beyonder along with other villains, he broke away from the main group after the first battle to settle in a swamp, where he befriended the Wasp, who had helped him treat an injury he sustained in the first battle. After the Lizard was blasted by the magic of the Enchantress, he reverted back to human form.[15] After Connors' return from this event, his wife took their son Billy and separated from Curt. The Lizard had apparently been affected by inter-dimensional teleportation so that Connors' mind presided over the Lizard, and battled the Owl alongside Spider-Man.[16] However, mystical activity during the Inferno crisis once again brought the Lizard's bestial nature to the fore, and Spider-Man cured him again.[17]

The 1990s to 2008's Brand New Day

Connors then tried to straighten out his life and control the Lizard, with some degree of success. This ended when the villain Calypso used her voodoo magic to take control of the Lizard (during the Torment storyline) for her own purposes, reducing him to a mindless savage state. After a series of bloody battles, the Lizard and Calypso were defeated by Spider-Man, and Spider-Man assumed that he perished under Calypso's spell.[18] Connors once again gained control of the Lizard's mind and body, although it was very weak. Curt carried out a plan to cure himself temporarily,[19] after which he voluntarily submitted to incarceration in the supervillain prison, the Vault.[20] When Calypso forced the transformation and attempted to control the Lizard once again, the creature killed her and escaped from the Vault. After this escape, the Lizard fell into a quicksand pit during a battle with Spider-Man and the bounty hunter Warrant and was believed to have died.[21] This would soon be proven incorrect.

Shortly after Connors' apparent death in quicksand during the Lizard's battle with Spider-Man and Warrant, a huge bestial Lizard appeared,[22] shortly after Connors was called in to investigate Peter Parker's sudden sickness (the result of Peter's recently-lost spider-powers returning). Spider-Man (Ben Reilly) realized that not only had the Lizard survived, but revealed later his new monstrous transformation seemed to be permanent and the personality of Curt Connors appeared completely lost. However, when this savage mindless Lizard later unexpectedly encountered Dr. Connors himself while Connors was helping Peter, Curt became the true Lizard once again and saved his family by killing the "Lizard-clone". It was revealed that the Lizard-clone was a scientific accident resulting from an experimental formula being tested on a piece of the original Lizard's tail, which had then grown into a fully formed second creature.[23]

Although reunited after Curt's apparent death, Martha and Billy were diagnosed with cancer after being exposed to carcinogens from living near an industrial lab in Florida. Spider-Man assisted Curt in successfully forcing Monnano, the lab's owner, to admit culpability, but Martha died from her cancer.[24] Billy recovered but remained bitter towards his father. Curt's guilt and internalized angerled him to become the Lizard once again, and once human, Curt attempted a bank robbery so he would be sent to prison.[25] After a short lived term, Connors was released and changed into the Lizard once more, this time due to a scheme by Norman Osborn to form the "Sinister Twelve" to kill Spider-Man. The Sinister Twelve were defeated and captured by the combined forces of Daredevil, the Fantastic Four, and the Avengers.[26]

The Lizard resurfaced to face Spider-Man with the aid of Billy, who was changed into an adolescent Lizard by his father.[27] Both the Lizard and his son were captured and reverted. Billy's transformational ability has been ignored since. A new Sinister Six team, including new member Lizard, appeared during the superhero Civil War, but was stopped by Captain America and his Secret Avengers.[28] The Lizard was imprisoned on Ryker's Island, where Connors participated in a S.H.I.E.L.D. project developing a less potent version of the gamma radiation by performing experiments on Emil Blonsky. Carnage and Shriek let loose a number of inmates in the prison and proceeded to take it over. Carnage sought to use the gamma radiation for his own purposes, and during an encounter with the him, Connors transformed into the Lizard again and rampaged throughout the facility. He attacked and almost killed Mysterio, and battled Spider-Man in the prison's sewer network. He was eventually incapacitated with tranquilizer and restored to human form.[29]

Post-Civil War, Curt Connors aided Spider-Man in developing a cure for the victims of Calvin Zabo, also known as Mister Hyde, who were mutated with unstable versions of Spider-Man's powers.[30] Dr. Connors has also monitored the progress of the hero Komodo, a female grad student who stole a sample of Connors' Lizard formula. She modified the formula for her own DNA to grow back her missing legs and to give herself reptilian powers.[31]

Brand New Day and beyond

Doctor Curt Connors appeared in the Brand New Day storyline, where he experimented with animal stem cells as well as aiding forensic specialist Carlie Cooper. A new villain, Freak (the third version) mistook Connors' stem cells experiment for drugs, and Curt helped Spider-Man defeat him during their second encounter.[32]

During the events of The Gauntlet, Doctor Curt Connors is working for the pharmaceutical company Phelcorp under executive Brian King. Connors has lost custody of his son, Billy. The lizard persona tries to goad Connors to give it control, and he relents when his assistant sleeps with King. When he changes, the Lizard devours King.[33] Peter Parker decides to protect Billy and swings to his foster parents' home, where he finds that Billy was kidnapped and his new parents held hostage by Ana Kravinoff. Ana has left Billy in an ally, where the Lizard eats him and destroys the Connors persona temporarily.[34] The devouring of Billy causes the Lizard to gain a new form, sporting a leaner physique, long brown hair, spikes on its right forearm, human intelligence and the telepathic ability to communicate with the underdeveloped "lizard part" of human brains; he demonstrates the latter ability by hypnotizing Spider-Man into thinking he has prey to stalk, causing the superhero to leave. Operating from the sewers, the Lizard hypnotizes several people into taking what they want.[35] Away from the Lizard, Spider-Man ingests Connors' lizard suppressant formula, which makes Spider-Man immune to the Lizard's mind controlling powers. Spider-Man then combats the Lizard and injects him with some of the formula and reveals he regrets what he has done: Connors' psyche is still in the Lizard's body. The Lizard disappears after the fight.[36]

During the Origin of the Species , the Lizard joins Doctor Octopus' supervillain team[37] and steals Menace's baby.[38] As Doctor Octopus and Spider-Man fight within the Lizard's hideout, the Lizard attacks Spider-Man and returns the baby, revealing that he already took a blood sample from the baby and found out that Norman Osborn is not the father and the baby is useless to him. Doctor Octopus then attacks the Lizard while Spider-Man escapes with the baby, but the Lizard flees.[39]

A short time later, while investigate kidnappings in New York, the X-Men find themselves working with Spider-Man after they discover that the abductor is the Lizard, who has been turning the victims into lizard people while maintaining his control over the city's reptile population.[40] The X-Men and Spider-Man discover that Lizard is being used by the Dark Beast, who has given the Lizard his 'reptilian shift' abilities by using a machine.[41] During the battle, Lizard shifts Gambit, Storm, and Wolverine into lizard people, Emma Frost and Spider-Man escape the machine's effects and release the Lizard and use him to defeat Dark Beast, who is arrested while Lizard escapes.[42]

Sometime later, Doctor Morbius discovers the Lizard[43] and used DNA samples from Billy Connors' corpse to restore Curt Connors to humanity. Unfortunately, the lizard's psyche is still present[44] and is pretending to be Connors so that he will be left alone. Lizard/Connors releases blood into the air supply to provoke Morbius into attacking other lab workers. Lizard/Connors then tries to recreate his original Lizard formula so he can change again, but Morbius' cure instead only allows him to regrow his missing arm. Lizard/Connors then injects other lab personnel with his formula to discover how to 'cure' himself.[45] Attempting to appear to be 'normal' Connors, Lizard/Connors cuts off his regrown limb so he can appear to be normal, but the Lizard begins to appreciate human life, to the point that when he finds the correct Lizard serum, he contemplates remaining human,[46] but he takes the cure when Spider-Man arrives and threatens him with custody. This results in yet another streamlined, new form. A new cure is developed for the lab employees he changed, but this formula fails on Lizard's new form and is instead knocked out and taken to the Raft. Visiting him in the Raft, Spider-Man is unaware that the serum restored Connors' psyche, and Connors remains in prison willingly as he feels he deserves it for his actions as the Lizard.[47]

Peter Parker (whose mind was trapped within Doctor Octopus' dying body) is freed from the Raft by Trapster, Hydro-Man, and Scorpion. Trapster offers to free the Lizard, but Connors declines.[48] When Morbius the Living Vampire manages to escape his cell, Lizard points out that where would he go if he manages to escape. For unknown reasons, Morbius the Living Vampire frees Lizard from his cell.[49]

Powers and abilities

Doctor Curtis Connors gave himself superhuman powers as a result of exposure to mutagenic chemicals, allowing him to transform into the Lizard. In human form, he has none of his superhuman powers, but he is highly intelligent and a well known scientist in fields of genetics, physics, biochemistry, and herpetology.

When Connors is transformed into the Lizard, his strength is increased to superhuman levels. Likewise, his speed, stamina, agility, and reflexes are also raised to a level equivalent to that of Spider-Man. He can also scale walls using a combination of his sharp claws and micro-scales on his hands and feet that create molecular friction like those of a gecko lizard. He is highly resistant to injury due to his thick scaly hide, allowing him to resist punctures and lacerations from ordinary weapons and lower-caliber firearms. In addition, the Lizard has highly enhanced healing abilities which allow him to quickly recover from grievous wounds, including regenerating lost limbs. He also has a powerful tail which he can whip at high speeds. The Lizard has razor-sharp teeth set in muscular jaws that can deal a lethal bite. Like a reptile, he has cold-blooded characteristics and is therefore sensitive to drops in temperature; a sufficiently cold environment will cause his metabolism to slow drastically and become dormant if he is exposed to cold temperatures for too long.

The Lizard can mentally communicate and command all reptiles within a mile of himself via limited telepathy. He has also on at least one occasion secreted powerful pheromones which caused nearby humans to behave violently. Post-Brand New Day, a further enhancement of his telepathy granted him the power of telepathically compelling humans to act out their primal urges, by suppressing emotional control in their amygdala (the "lizard brain").[volume & issue needed]

Based on various physiological and environmental factors, the Lizard's intelligence can range from bestial and animalistic to normal human intelligence. The Lizard personality has most often manifested with human intelligence, capable of speech and higher reasoning, although some versions have been more feral than others. During the Secret Wars in particular, he appeared less ruthless than his normal portrayal, showing concern for Volcana[50] and the Wasp[51] after they showed him kindness despite his usual disdain for humans. However, even when operating at the level of a human, the Lizard is rarely as intelligent as Dr. Connors, showing on many occasions an inability to understand his human-self's work and use it to further his own ends despite his best efforts.[52]

The Lizard has apparently "destroyed" the Curt Connors persona, but has subsequently begun to display some of Connors's human emotions.[volume & issue needed] In contrast to his previously feral nature, he has also shown sufficient intellectual capabilities to understand Connors' work and use it for himself, although he is still hampered by his inability to fully comprehend human emotions.[volume & issue needed]

Continuity

In a 2004 story arc entitled Lizard's Tale, written by Paul Jenkins in the Spectacular Spider-Man comic book, it was revealed that the Lizard persona was not a separate personality from Dr. Connors after all - Curt had been consciously controlling his reptilian alter ego all along. Furthermore, Connors was shown to know that Peter Parker was Spider-Man, despite the discovery of the secret identity never being explained or depicted. The story ended with Dr. Connors deliberately getting himself sent to prison and hoping the Lizard wouldn't be unleashed again. The Lizard's next appearance after this was as a member of the Sinister Twelve, where he showed no indication of being controlled by the mind of Dr. Connors. Although the idea of Connors controlling the Lizard was subsequently ignored, when the Lizard's mind was briefly trapped in Connors' human form, he attempted to mutate the staff of Horizon Labs into lizard-creatures like himself, with none of the other lizards demonstrating the same hostility to humans as the Lizard, prompting Spider-Man to speculate that the Lizard's anti-human traits came from Connors' anger at the world for his lost arm and family rather than the Lizard being completely separate from Connors.[47]

Another continuity-related issue involves Connors' son Billy. Unlike many other Marvel Comics children, he had not appreciably grown up since the comics' stories of the 1960s. Billy's visible age also seemed to waver back and forth between approximately eight and thirteen years old, depending on the particular comic artist drawing the character.

Other versions

Ultimate Marvel

Ultimate Lizard appears in a dream sequence, as drawn by Mark Bagley in Ultimate Spider-Man #60.

The one comic storyline to date featuring the Ultimate Marvel universe version of the Lizard appeared in Ultimate Marvel Team-Up # 10. The character has appeared in a few subsequent issues of Ultimate Spider-Man, but only in flashbacks and dream sequences. Ultimate Lizard appears to be based on a basilisk lizard in design and has been presented as being less intelligent than the original Marvel Universe Lizard.[53]

Curt Connors is noted geneticist who lost his right arm under unrevealed circumstances. He dedicated himself to finding a means of restoring lost limbs studying the regenerative capabilities of reptiles. However after five years without major breakthroughs, his sponsors were on the verge of cutting his funding. Drowning his disappointment with alcohol, the drunken Conners injected himself with an experimental serum in a desperate attempt to achieve results. The serum regenerated his right arm, but also transformed Connors into an inhuman reptilian creature. Seeking refuge in the sewers, he became an urban legend dubbed "The Lizard" by the press. A sympathetic Spider-Man sought out Conners who attacked the young hero until Man-Thing happened upon the scene and restored Conners to human form. Conners' restored right arm soon withered and died. However, his DNA remained irreparably damaged with dormant potential for further transformation. Curt Connors cut himself off from his wife and son out of fear for their safety.[54]

Dr. Curt Connors also unintentionally created the Ultimate version of the supervillain Carnage using DNA from Spider-Man and based on an analysis of his old friend Richard Parker's work (along with Edward Brock, Sr.) on the Venom suit.[55] Due to the ensuing chaos, he was arrested and Stark Industries canceled their financial support of his experiments, but his assistant Ben Reilly still had one sample of Parker DNA, setting the stage for the Ultimate Clone Saga.[56] He was last seen in Ultimate Spider-Man #127, where Dr. Curt Connors was pardoned and recruited by S.H.I.E.L.D. He, along with Tony Stark, were interviewing Gwen Stacy ("Stacy Experiment", which was in fact the new Carnage), when the Triskellion was blown apart by Norman Osborn, upon his escape.[57]

Early details of Conners' history match his 616 counterpart, with him studying reptiles to fix his arm (the cause of this has yet to be revealed), and the condition of him leaving his wife and son (here called Doris and Timmy [58]) out of fear, thereby turning to alcoholism.[53]

Exiles

The reality-hopping heroic team, the Exiles, once found themselves on an alternate earth where Connors' experiment (in this world for a left arm rather than a right) had taken a different turn. Finding himself as the Lizard, Curt felt the need to "reproduce" by immediately injecting the Lizard-formula into other people. He infected his family and they infected others, all feeling the urge to spread the transformation into Lizard-men. The forces of this particular world eventually managed to restrain the infected reptile-people behind miles-long, man-made walls. When the Exiles visited this world, they discovered that Connors - having turned back into his human form a year ago - was intending to detonate a nuclear bomb in an abandoned submarine to wipe out the lizard race,[volume & issue needed] but they were able to talk him down by arguing that the radioactive fallout would cause more damage, particularly since the lizards were now mere herbivores (albeit partly because of the absence of other kinds of meat).[volume & issue needed] Grief-stricken over what had become of his life, Connors subsequently killed himself.[59]

Marvel 1602

In this reality, Curtis Connors is a philosopher who was infected with the bubonic plague. He created an elixir that transformed him into a reptilian creature that resembled a Velociraptor, but retained his mind. He worked with Baron Victor Octavius to capture the Spider.[60]

Marvel Noir

In the Marvel Noir reality, Curt Connors is an assistant to Dr. Otto Octavius.[61] They operated in an abandoned hospital building on Ellis Island, where they secretly used kidnapped African-Americans as specimen subjects in turning them into mindless slaves. It is unknown what happened to Connors after federal authorities raided the hospital, though he was presumably arrested among Octavius' affiliates.[62]

Marvel Zombies

In Marvel Zombies, the Lizard, like almost every other hero and villain, has become a zombie. This particular incarnation of the Lizard is apparently destroyed when he is blasted apart by several cosmic-powered heroes while fighting (and eating) Galactus.[63]

MC2

The Connors Family appear in the first story of the Mr. and Mrs. Spider-Man series, set in the MC2 universe. Mary Jane comforts a distraught Martha when Curt goes missing again, whilst Peter, now a parent to his infant daughter May ("Mayday"), is more hesitant than before to become Spider-Man. He is eventually encouraged by his wife to track down and prevent the Lizard's latest rampage.[64]

Marvel Age

Lizard's history is the same in this reality. Spider-Man went to Florida to investigate the "Lizard Man" sightings. Spider-Man meets Martha Connors and learns that Lizard is her husband Dr. Curt Connors. After making an antidote, Spider-Man ensnares Lizard and uses the antidote to restore him to Curt Connors. Peter Parker later told J. Jonah Jameson that the "Lizard Man" was a hoax.[65]

In other media

Television

The Lizard in the "Night of the Lizard" episode of Spider-Man: The Animated Series.
The Lizard in The Spectacular Spider-Man animated series.

Films

The Lizard as seen in The Amazing Spider-Man.

Video games

Toys and collectibles

Live performance

The Lizard appears as a member of the Sinister Six in the Broadway show, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, in which he is played by Brandon Rubendall.[70]

References

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  2. ^ a b Amazing Spider-Man #6
  3. ^ a b Web of Spider-Man Vol. 2, #6
  4. ^ X-Men: First Class #2
  5. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #32-33
  6. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #43-45
  7. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #73-74
  8. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #75-77
  9. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #102
  10. ^ Marvel Team-Up #19-20
  11. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #150
  12. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #165-166
  13. ^ Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man #32
  14. ^ Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 32. ISBN 1-4165-3141-6.
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  16. ^ Spectacular Spider-Man #127
  17. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #313
  18. ^ Spider-Man #1-5
  19. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #365
  20. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Annual #27
  21. ^ Web of Spider-Man #109-111
  22. ^ Spider-Man Super Special #1, 1995
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  24. ^ Spider-Man: Quality of Life #1-4
  25. ^ Spectacular Spider-Man Vol. 2, #11-13
  26. ^ Marvel Knights Spider-Man #7-11
  27. ^ Sensational Spider-Man #23-27
  28. ^ Civil War #3
  29. ^ Carnage 1-5, 2011
  30. ^ Sensational Spider-Man #35-37
  31. ^ Avengers: The Initiative #3
  32. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #553-558
  33. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #630
  34. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #631
  35. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #632
  36. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #633
  37. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #642
  38. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #645
  39. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #646
  40. ^ X-Men Vol. 3, #8
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  42. ^ X-Men Vol. 3, #10
  43. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #679.1
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  45. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #689
  46. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #690
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  58. ^ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #1-2
  59. ^ Exiles #17
  60. ^ Spider-Man 1602
  61. ^ Spider-Man Noir: Eyes Without a Face #1
  62. ^ Spider-Man Noir: Eyes Without a Face #4
  63. ^ Marvel Zombies #4
  64. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Family #1, Oct 2008
  65. ^ Marvel Age: Spider-Man #5
  66. ^ Goldman, Eric (January 23, 2007). "Exclusive: Lizard Leapin' Into Spidey 4?". IGN.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20081230040122/http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/757/757729p1.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
  67. ^ Elliott, Sean (May 29, 2008). "Exclusive Interview: 'Spider-Man 3' Producer Grant Curtis talks about villains for 'Spidey 4' + His own origins - Part 1". iF Magazine. Archived from the original on September 27, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927224542/http://www.ifmagazine.com/feature.asp?article=2127. Retrieved May 29, 2008.
  68. ^ Carroll, Larry (June 26, 2008). "Sam Raimi May Not Helm 'Spider-Man 4'; Wants Carnage, Vulture As Villains If He Does". MTV.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/619utZMxs.
  69. ^ Jeff Sneider (October 13, 2010). "Exclusive: Sony's New 'Spider-Man' Villain Is ... The Lizard!". thewrap.com. http://www.thewrap.com/movies/column-post/exclusive-sony-new-spider-man-villain-lizard-21693. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  70. ^ http://www.abouttheartists.com/characters/73082

External links