Lizabeth Scott

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Lizabeth Scott
Publicity still for Dead Reckoning (1947).jpg
Lizabeth Scott, 1947
BornEmma Matzo
(1922-09-29) September 29, 1922 (age 91)
Scranton, Pennsylvania, US
Other namesElizabeth Scott
EthnicityRussian-American
Alma materAlvienne School of the Theatre
OccupationActress, singer, model
Years active1942–1972
Political party
Republican
ReligionCatholic
SignatureAutograph of Lizabeth Scott with transparent background.png
 
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Lizabeth Scott
Publicity still for Dead Reckoning (1947).jpg
Lizabeth Scott, 1947
BornEmma Matzo
(1922-09-29) September 29, 1922 (age 91)
Scranton, Pennsylvania, US
Other namesElizabeth Scott
EthnicityRussian-American
Alma materAlvienne School of the Theatre
OccupationActress, singer, model
Years active1942–1972
Political party
Republican
ReligionCatholic
SignatureAutograph of Lizabeth Scott with transparent background.png

Lizabeth Virginia Scott[1] (born September 29, 1922) is an American film actress, known for her deep voice and smoky sensual looks. After performing the Sabina role in the first Broadway and Boston stage productions of The Skin of Our Teeth, she emerged internationally in such films as The Strange Love of Martha Ivers (1946) with Barbara Stanwyck, Dead Reckoning (1947) with Humphrey Bogart, Desert Fury (1948) with John Hodiak, and Too Late for Tears (1949) with Don DeFore. No other actress has appeared in more film noir.

Early life[edit]

She was born Emma Matzo[2] in Scranton, Pennsylvania,[3][4] oldest of six children born to John Matzo (1895–1968)[5][6][7] and Mary Pennock[8][9][10] Matzo (1899–1981). Reference works,[11][12] biographies,[13][14] public records[15][16] and newspaper articles[17][18] have given conflicting accounts of the ethnic origins of her parents. For example, historian Paul R. Magocsi described her parents as Rusyns.[19] However, in a video interview, Scott described herself as Russian.[20] Her family lived in the Pine Brook section of Scranton,[21] where John Matzo owned Matzo Market,[22] a grocery store on the ground floor of the Matzos' two-story, red-brick house[23] on the corner of Capouse Avenue and Ash Street.[24][25][26] Scott has described her father as a "lifelong Republican," which influenced her own capitalistic views. The family was immersed in all things cultural, especially music. This love of music would influence Scott's voice.[27]

Scott's famous accent, timbre and tempo began during first grade. Her parents sent her to weekly lessons at a local elocution school, held in "the living room of a Victorian house, where a Grande Dame would preside ..."[28] As a result, Scott lost the Northeast Pennsylvania English spoken in the Scranton area. Scott's trademark broad "A"[29] is characteristic of Mid-Atlantic English, an anonymous world English[30] with characteristics of American and British English. It was used on radio, stage and film throughout the English-speaking world from the 1920s to 1960s.[31][32] However, Scott has attributed the pitch or tone of her voice[33] to heredity as a younger sister, a New York City model,[34] had a similarly deep voice.[35] In addition, Scott was given six years of piano lessons and two of voice.[36] As a young girl, working in her father's store, she dreamed of being a journalist, then an opera singer and finally an actress.[37] At the age of 11, she was the Fairy Godmother in a pantomime play, Cinderella, at summer camp.[38] During Christmas season she would take part in pageants at the local Catholic church her family attended. Yet despite a strict Catholic upbringing, Scott described herself as "rebellious and outspoken" as a young girl, despite her mother telling her to subdue her emotions and "be a lady."[36] When asked what was the best advice she was given, Scott replied, "I don't know, but I sure didn't take it." However, Scott mentioned adolescent favorites such as Ralph Waldo Emerson's Essays as having the greatest influence on her and Marcel Proust's Remembrance of Things Past as her favorite book of all time.[39]

Scott attended Marywood Seminary, a local Catholic girls' school.[40] She transferred to Scranton's Central High School, where she performed in several plays.[41] After graduating, she spent the summer working with the Mae Desmond Players[42] at a stock theater in the nearby community of Newfoundland.[43] She then travelled down to Abingdon, Virginia and worked at the Barter Theatre.[24] In the autumn she attended Marywood College (now Marywood University), but quit after six months. "I never wanted to finish college because of the feeling I had ... that life was very short and there were so many more important aspects of life to be explored."[36] Mary Matzo wanted her daughter to become a journalist. But when Scott said she would either become a stage actress—or a nun—her mother relented. In 1939, with her father's help, the 17-year-old Scott moved to New York City, where she stayed at the Ferguson Residence for Women,[44] "a dormitory-style residence in a converted mansion on 68th Street near Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side."[45] Scott attended the Alvienne School of the Theatre[46][47] in the Grand Opera House on 8th Avenue and 23rd Street. There she studied for 18 months,[36] where she resisted attempts by the teachers to pitch her voice higher.[48] During this time, Scott read Maxwell Anderson's Mary of Scotland, a play about Mary, Queen of Scots and Elizabeth I, from which she derived the stage name "Elizabeth Scott." She would later drop the "E" from Elizabeth.[37]

Debut[edit]

In late 1940, an 18-year-old Scott auditioned for Hellzapoppin (1938). From several hundred women, she was chosen by vaudevillians John "Ole" Olsen and Harold "Chic" Johnson, stars of the original Broadway production. She was assigned to one of three road companies, Scott's being lead by Billy House and Eddie Garr[49] (father of actress Teri Garr). Landing her first professional job, she would be billed as "Elizabeth Scott."[50] Scott's tour opened November 3, 1940 at the Shubert Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut. Scott did blackouts and other types of sketch comedy[51][52] during her 18-month tour of 63 cities across the US.[3] Her salary was $50 a week. Scott returned to New York in the spring of 1942, where she joined a summer stock company at the 52nd Street Theatre[53] on the subway circuit,[54] the then equivalent of off-Broadway. Eventually, she starred as Sadie Thompson in John Colton's play Rain (1923). Though no drama critic reviewed the play,[55] a press agent for new actresses, Joe Russell—known locally as "The Man who meets the Greyhound Bus"[56]—persuaded a producer with a problem to see it.[57][58]

Michael Myerberg just moved an experimental production from New Haven, Connecticut to the Plymouth Theatre. Impressed by Scott's Sadie Thompson, he hired her as the understudy for Tallulah Bankhead (1902–1968) despite Bankhead's protests. Bankhead was the star of Thornton Wilder's then new play, The Skin of Our Teeth (1942). Bankhead had previously signed a contract forbidding an understudy for the Sabina role, which Myerberg breached when hiring Scott—rumors of an affair between the married Myerberg and the new understudy were rife.[59][60] Scott has said that her fondest memory is when Myerberg told her, "I love you." But the two would eventually part.[61]

Bankhead's ill-concealed contempt for Myerberg,[62] originating with the New Haven production, was now exacerbated. Previously, Bankhead controlled the production by not showing up for rehearsal. Now Myerberg could simply put Scott in Bankhead's place.[59] Scott has acknowledged that Myerberg used her to keep Bankhead under control and that Bankhead was furious at the situation.[3] Describing her own experience with Bankhead, Scott recalled, "She never spoke to me, except to bark out commands. Finally, one day, I'd had enough. I told her to say 'please,' and after that she did."[44]

The rivalry between the two actresses is cited as an alternative[63] to the Martina Lawrence-Elizabeth Bergner origin[64] of Mary Orr's short story, The Wisdom of Eve (1946),[65] the basis of the 1950 film All About Eve. Broadway legend had it that Bankhead was being victimized by Scott, who was supposedly the real-life Eve Harrington.[66] Bankhead later accused Mary Orr of basing the protagonist Margo Channing on her, which Orr denied. But Bette Davis' personal costume designer, Edith Head,[67] said she dressed Davis, who played Channing, on the understanding that Davis was supposed to look and act like Bankhead.[68] However during the eight months[69] Scott was understudy, she never had an opportunity to substitute for Bankhead, as Scott's presence guaranteed Bankhead's. Scott was cast as "Girl/Drum Majorette."[70][71] Scott was 20-years old when the play opened—Bankhead was 40. Though the play ran November 18, 1942 – September 25, 1943, Scott left the production during Miriam Hopkins' tenure.[3][72]

Rise to fame[edit]

Hal Wallis[edit]

The continuing feud between Myerberg and Bankhead worsened her ulcer, leading her to not renew her contract.[73] Anticipating Bankhead's move, Myerberg suddenly signed Miriam Hopkins (1902–1972) in March.[74] Caught off-guard, Scott would eventually quit in disappointment. Bankhead's final zinger to Scott was "You be as good as she (Hopkins) is."[75] For a brief period Scott understudied for Hopkins. While Scott liked Hopkins much more than Bankhead, she was still disappointed about being passed over for the Sabina role, ignoring the fact that her real purpose on the production was to keep Bankhead "in her corner."[3] Before quitting, Scott replaced Hopkins for one night only.[76] When Scott finally went on stage as Sabina, she was surprised by both the approval and fascination of the audience.[3] Her replacement as Sabina understudy was another future femme fatale, 19-year-old Gloria Hallward, soon to be known as Gloria Grahame (1923–1981). Similarly to Scott–Bankhead, Grahame never substituted for Hopkins, either. When Michael Myerberg pulled Grahame from the play for another experimental production in Philadelphia[77]Star Dust[78]—there was no understudy when Gladys George took over for Hopkins.[79] On August 30, 1943, Scott once again played Sabina when George was ill.[80] Joe Russell was in the Plymouth Theatre audience that night. Afterward, when a Californian friend came to New York on one of his biannual visits to Broadway, Russell told him about Scott's performance. Russell's friend was an up-and-coming film producer for Warner Brothers, Hal Wallis.[81]

Scott returned to her drama studies and some fashion modeling. Meanwhile, an associate[82] and neighbor[83] of Joe Russell, Irving Hoffman,[84] a New York press agent and columnist for The Hollywood Reporter, had befriended Scott and tried to introduce her to helpful people. Hoffman earlier did the same for a 19-year-old model who was then being approached by several Hollywood studios[85]Lauren Bacall (born 1924).[86] On September 29, 1943, Hoffman held a birthday party at the Stork Club—Scott had turned 21. By happenstance or design, Wallis was also at the club that night.[87] Hoffman introduced Scott to Wallis, who arranged for an interview the following day. When Scott returned home, however, she found a telegram offering her the lead for the Boston run of The Skin of Our Teeth. Miriam Hopkins was ill. Scott sent Wallis her apologies, canceling the interview.[88] Scott recalled "On the train up to Boston, to replace Miss Hopkins, I decided I needed to make the name more of an attention-grabber. And that's when I decided to drop the 'E' from Elizabeth."[44]

California[edit]

Lizabeth Scott in You Came Along

Hopkins recovered in two weeks and Scott was back in New York.[89] Scott returned to modeling for the Walter Thornton Agency,[90] which Lauren Bacall also worked for.[91] Sometime during this period, Scott would actually go out with Bacall on a double date.[92] Bacall was currently a cover girl for Harper's Bazaar. Later that year, Scott herself would appear in a Harper's photographic spread, which was allegedly admired by film agent Charles Feldman of Famous Artists Corporation (now ICM Partners). In a telegram to Scott he asked her to undergo a screen test. He invited her to Los Angeles and stay at the Beverly Hills Hotel, all expenses paid.[3] Coincidentally or not, he just signed on Bacall, who would soon be making her first film.[93] And the name of Feldman's agency was just that: "by the mid-1940s Feldman could boast of having three hundred clients, including actors, writers, and directors."[94] Among the clientele would include future Scott costar, Kirk Douglas.[95]

On March 2, 1944, when Casablanca (1942) won the Best Picture Award at Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Casablanca's producer, Hal Wallis, rose to accept the Academy Award, but the Warner family prevented him leaving the aisle of seats. Instead, the studio head, Jack Warner, accepted the award, while Wallis looked on helplessly.[96] This incident would change the focus of Scott's career from stage to screen actress. During that same month, Scott made a five-day trip to Los Angeles and stayed at the hotel, where she was forgotten by Feldman for 10 days.[3][97][98]

After reaching Feldman on the telephone, Scott was given a 10-page test script. Being a stage actress, Scott knew nothing about screen acting. Her first screen test was at Universal,[99] then at William Goetz's International Pictures. She was rejected by both studios (just before the two merged into Universal-International). Then she tested at Warner Brothers. But this time around, Wallis' sister, Minna Wallis, arranged for film director Fritz Lang to coach Scott. Here he taught Scott not to stop when flubbing a line while the camera was rolling, as the bad footage could be cut out later.[3] She read a scene from The Male Animal (1942).[24] Years later, Scott would confess that she "fell in love with the camera. 'There was just something about it ... Nothing made me happier than to do things for it, the camera. It was as if I were mesmerized by that lens. In actuality I was performing for it. I was interested in pleasing it to the ultimate.'"[100] However, when Jack Warner saw the screen test, he also rejected Scott, who recalled that years later, when she attended parties at Warner's house, he never once mentioned ever seeing the test.[101] The reason for Warner's rejection varies among film historians, ranging from Warner telling Charles Feldman: "She'll never be a star, only a second leading lady"[102] to stopping a rival to Bacall, who was already signed on to Warner Brothers.[103] In addition to Bacall, at the Warner Teddington Studios in London, there was a blonde, sultry-type actress named Elizabeth Scott (1915–2001),[104] who looked similar to Veronica Lake (1922–1973) and Lana Turner (1921–1995), as well as Lizabeth Scott. This Scott was the second leading lady in the Warner noir Fingers (1941).[105] A graduate from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Scott had a contract with Warner Brothers in Hollywood, but did not to come to California due to the war.[106]

Hal Wallis also saw the American Scott's test and recognized her potential.[107] In a meeting Wallis told Scott, "If I could, I would put you under contract." But she did not believe him. She thought him as powerful as Warner and was "prevaricating."[3][108] Unknown to Scott, years of infighting between Jack Warner and Wallis were about to climax. Under acrimonious circumstances, Wallis left Warner Brothers for Paramount Pictures.[109] On the day that Scott was scheduled to leave for New York, she read in Variety that Wallis was at Paramount. But she spent several months in New York[3][110] before Feldman telegraphed her in August 1944—Wallis wanted to sign her to a contract.[111]

To Have and Have Not (1944), Bacall's first film, made its New York premiere October 11, 1944, but was released January 20, 1945.[112] This film would be basis of accusing Scott of being a "Bacall manquée" for the rest of her career.[113] Scott moved to Los Angeles in November 1944.[111] Later that winter, Scott tested for Love Letters (1945)[114] and the role of Susan in The Affairs of Susan (1945),[115] but was cast in neither.

At the age of 22, Scott's film debut was the comedy-drama You Came Along (1945) opposite Robert Cummings. Originally conceived as a Barbara Stanwyck (1907–1990) vehicle,[76] Ayn Rand's script concerns an Army Air Force officer, Bob Collins, who tries to hide his terminal leukemia from his handler, Ivy Hotchkiss (Scott), a US Treasury PR flack, whom Bob just met during a war bond drive. They become romantically involved, agreeing it's "just fun up in the air." Then Ivy finds out the truth and makes a fateful decision to make the most of the little time they have together. Production ran February 6–April 6, 1945.[116] During the shooting of You Came Along, Hal Wallis showed Scott's screen test to Hollywood columnist Bob Thomas. Wallis said: "Notice how her eyes are alive and sparkling ... Once in a while she reads a line too fast, but direction will cure that. That voice makes her intriguing." Almost four months before the release of Scott's first film, Thomas' March 16, 1945 column was the first to make a comparison between Lauren Bacall and Scott, thus beginning a critical trend to marginalize Scott in favor of Bacall.[117][118][119] The Thomas meme would continue to haunt Scott's reputation to the present day.[120][121] In 1991 Pauline Kael would write that Scott's acting in the later Dead Reckoning (1947) was "processed out of Mary Astor and Lauren Bacall routines."[122]

Despite Scott's initial difficulties with Cummings, she soon gained his respect with her performance and force of personality. After shooting, Cummings even went out of his way to quench rumors that he would never work with Scott again.[123] However, Scott never made any headway with the director, John Farrow. Farrow lobbied for Teresa Wright (1918–2005) and when he did not get her, he made his displeasure known to Scott throughout the shoot.[108] You Came Along, remains, however, Scott's favorite of all the films she made.[124] The film premiered in Los Angeles on August 2, 1945.[125] Later in October 1945, Tallulah Bankhead denied Paramount publicity saying Scott was her understudy on Broadway. "'Nobody ever understudies me,' baritones the Alabam' belle. 'When I don't go on, the play doesn't go on!'"[126]

Paramount years[edit]

The Threat[edit]

Martha Ivers[edit]

Lizabeth Scott in The Strange Love of Martha Ivers

In September 1945, Paramount public relations dubbed Scott "The Threat," which derived from a critic's description of Scott: "She's the Threat, to the Body, the Voice and the Look."[127] "The Body" (Marie McDonald, 1923–1965),[128] "The Voice" (Frank Sinatra)[129] and "The Look" (Lauren Bacall)[130] were supposed to be threatened by Scott's arrival on the Hollywood scene. However, McDonald's measurements were 36½-22½-35 with a height of 5'6", versus Scott's 34-24-34[102] with a height of 5'6".[131][132] Nor was Scott permitted to sing after her first film,[133] invariably being dubbed by Trudy Stevens.[134] Scott herself never cared for the moniker, though she found "meanie" roles easier to play.[135] Early in February 1946, Scott was dating an unknown actor named Burton Lancaster, with whom Scott would do a screen test.[136] Under contract to Hal Wallis, the actor would be loaned out to Universal-International for The Killers (1946) under the name of Burt Lancaster.[137] Lancaster's first marriage was in trouble and despite rumors of marriage between him and Scott,[138] the two would break-up the following year.

Later in 1946, Scott's moniker proved prophetic with a 37-year-old Barbara Stanwyck, who, in a letter, objected about Scott's top billing in The Strange Love of Martha Ivers (1946): "I will not be co-starred with any other person other than a recognized male or female star." Lawyers for Wallis and Stanwyck hashed it out. Eventually, the final billing ran Stanwyck, Van Heflin and Scott at the top, with newcomer Kirk Douglas in second place.[139] But Wallis' interest in promoting Scott was obsessive. The AFI page on Martha Ivers notes: "Director Lewis Milestone is quoted in an article in the Los Angeles Sun Mirror on 8 Dec 1946 as having said that he would never make another picture with producer Hal Wallis because Wallis wanted to reshoot scenes in this film for more close-ups of Lizabeth Scott; Milestone reportedly told Wallis to shoot them himself—which he did."[140] Wallis ended up adding extra footage of Scott at the expense of Stanwyck's footage, which later led to a contretemps between Stanwyck and Wallis.[141] Concerning her first film noir, Scott recalled how strange it was to be in a film with Stanwyck and only have one brief scene together, where the entire dialog consisted of greetings.[46] The screenplay by Robert Rossen depicts two separate story-lines running parallel—one dominated by Martha Ivers (Stanwyck) and the other by Antonia "Toni" Marachek (Scott). The Heflin character, Sam, interfaces both story-lines, which only overlap in the one scene where the fatale Martha and ingénue Toni meet. Sam is a returning war veteran who is stuck with a wrecked car in his childhood hometown of Iverstown, owned by a matriarch industrialist, Martha, who runs it like the mob boss of a big corrupt city. After Toni is jailed on a parole violation, Sam approaches Martha's weak-willed husband, the local district attorney and Martha's childhood partner-in-crime, Walter O'Neil (Kirk Douglas). Though Sam only asks for help to free Toni, Walter suspects Sam of ulterior motives. Martha, fearing that Sam knows her secret, tries to trap him inside her opulent but dark world.[142] Toni, a typical Rossenian heroine of the working-class, represents a poorer but more moral existence for Sam. Due to its depiction of upper-class and police corruption, as well as the political affiliations of the screenwriter,[143] the film was listed by the FBI as communist propaganda.[144] Production ran October 2–early December 1945. It was released September 13, 1946.[145]

The February 1946 issue of Popular Photography served up a "capsule psychological diagnosis" of Scott by celebrity photographer Philippe Halsman, which repeated the usual unfavorable comparisons to Bankhead and Bacall, as well as a new moniker, "the menace." Halsman did the Life photograph of Bacall that her moniker, "The Look," derived from.[146] Before Scott moved to Los Angeles, both she and Halsman lived on West 67th Street in New York City, where her all dressed-in-black appearance would frighten Halsman whenever she took walks through the neighborhood.[147] Scott had much better luck with another "photographer of the stars," Maurice Seymour, a White Russian whom she dated in the 1940s.[148] In addition to taking publicity photographs of Lizabeth Scott, Seymour also photographed the British Elizabeth Scott.[149]

Lizabeth Scott on British television

In June 1946[150] Scott would gain the distinction of being the first Hollywood star to visit Britain since the end of the Second World War.[151] She was there to attend the London premiere of Martha Ivers[152] and a promotional tour through the country. In Liverpool and Manchester she was met by massive crowds. Her appeal was now truly international.[153] During her stay in Britain, Scott was interviewed by Wynford Vaughan-Thomas on Picture Page, a news magazine program, at the BBC's Alexandra Palace studios.[154]

Wallis would continue to cast Scott in film noir thrillers, as Scott's sensuality and deep voice lent itself to the genre. Like the later Elizabeth Taylor,[155] Scott was one of those rare actresses that needed little makeup beyond lipstick.[156] In Scranton, classmates would make fun of her naturally dark brows and blonde hair, thinking them dyed. As an adult, Scott's appearance was so striking that columnist and friend Dorothy Kilgallen described Scott as "wheat-haired."[157] While Scott was still in Britain, shooting began on a new noir that Scott would join when she returned—Dead Reckoning.[158]

Dead Reckoning[edit]

The smoky blonde actress was initially compared to Bacall because of the 1940s pin-curl, bobbed hair and deeper than average voice,[159] even more so after she starred with Bacall's husband, Humphrey Bogart, in Dead Reckoning, where Bogart's character, Murdock, calls Scott the "Cinderella with the husky voice."[160] Columbia originally intended Rita Hayworth (1918–1987) for the role,[161] who was busy with The Lady from Shanghai (1947). Then attention turned to Bacall, who also refused.[162][163] As a result, Scott was borrowed from Hal Wallis.[164]

The film itself starts in flashback. Rip Murdock (Humphrey Bogart), fearing for his life, reveals everything he knows to a priest in church. Murdock and Johnny Drake (William Prince) are Medal of Honor recipients. On their way to Washington by train, Drake goes AWOL, leading Murdock on a manhunt that ends with Drake's charred body in a morgue. Murdock is told that Drake is a murder suspect. Murdock finds the widow of Drake's alleged victim, Coral "Dusty" Chandler (Scott), who sings at a nightclub owned by Martinelli (Morris Carnovsky). Scott here makes her debut as an Ann Sheridan-like figure, smoky, mysterious, ambiguous as to motive, unlike the direct characters that Bacall depicted. As Murdock gradually discovers the truth behind Drake's death, he falls in love with Dusty, who may not be the innocent bystander that she seems.[165]

When the film was finally released and the reviews came in, they revealed that most critics never caught the differences in the accent, diction and timbre of Scott and Bacall.[166][167][168] Bacall's accent is pre-WW2, upper-middle-class New York metropolitan, often mistaken for Mid-Atlantic due to the broad "A" and non-rhotic pronunciation of words containing "R."[169] Unlike Scott's inherited low tone, Bacall originally had a naturally high tone with a nasal timbre and fast tempo, but trained herself to pitch her voice lower and slow down her delivery for To Have and Have Not.[170][171] Bacall's singing voice is alto,[172] while Scott's is mezzo-soprano.[173] Despite Bacall's "mannered toughness" and Scott's "breathy theatricality,"[28] when Bacall did the voice-over for a 1990s cat-food commercial,[174] some people thought it was Scott.[175][176]

Physically, Bacall's facial structure is similar to K. T. Stevens (1919–1994),[177] Gene Tierney (1920–1991),[178] Yvonne de Carlo (1922–2007),[179] Nancy Guild (1925–1999),[180] Patricia Neal (1926–2010) and Hal Wallis' then new discovery from Argentina, Kristine Miller (born 1929).[181] Lizabeth Scott is closer physically to the British Elizabeth Scott and three actresses that would appear during the 1950s, Melina Mercouri (1920–1994), Virginia Leith (born 1932)[182] and another Charles Feldman protégé, Rosemarie Bowe (born 1932).[183] But more notable than any actual similarity between Bacall and Scott are the same people, institutions and events that would affect to varying degrees their careers: the Second World War, the Walter Thornton Agency, Harper's Bazaar, Irving Hoffman, Charles Feldman and the Famous Talent Corporation, Humphrey Bogart, the Hollywood columnist community—and eventually the "Second Red Scare" (1947–1954).[184] Bacall regularly visited the Dead Reckoning set and even went out to lunch with Scott.[185] Also, both actresses made Bogart's personal list of the nine "most potent" kissers "in movie love scenes" he filmed with.[186][187]

At the age of 24, Scott's billing and portrait were equal to Bogart's on the film's lobby posters and in advertisements. Most often portrayed in publicity stills was the Jean Louis gown-and-glove outfit worn in the nightclub scene, the most iconic gown Scott worn in her entire film career (see infobox). Designed with little front and no back, Louis called it his 1948 "umbilicalar model."[188] Dead Reckoning would be the first of many femme fatale roles for Scott. In September 1946, a Motion Picture Herald poll of exhibitors voted her the seventh-most promising "star of tomorrow."[189] Production ran 10 June–4 September 1946. It premiered in New York the week of 23 January 1947.[190] Despite the initial positive publicity, the long-term effect of Dead Reckoning would be to typecast the former comedienne for her entire career, in which she would appear in 13 more noirs, though she would be a femme fatales in only two of them. During the 1947–1949 period her career would peak out, but Dead Reckoning and Bogart did give Scott a boost she would never see again. In the following year, contrary to general expectations, Bacall herself approved of the casting of Scott in Dead Reckoning.[191]

Other films[edit]

1940s[edit]

Arthur Kennedy with Lizabeth Scott in Too Late for Tears

With the coming of the Second World War, a new type of Hollywood actress appeared on the big screen. Film historian Kevin Starr described it thus: "The stars emerging in 1940, by contrast—Rita Hayworth, Ann Sheridan, Ida Lupino, Lupe Vélez, Marie Windsor, Lana Turner, Lizabeth Scott—each possessed a certain hardness, an invisible shield of attitude and defense, that suggested that times were getting serious and that comedy would not be able to handle all the issues ... Just a few years earlier Hollywood had been presenting the wisecracking platinum blonde, frank, sexy, self-actualizing. Now with the war, that insouciance had become hard-boiled."[192]

This "hard-boiled" quality appeared in Scott's two previous films and would be repeated in Desert Fury (1947), which was the second noir filmed in color and a Western one as well.[193] It starred John Hodiak, Burt Lancaster, Wendell Corey and Mary Astor (1906–1987). Astor played Fritzi Haller,[194] a casino and bordello owner, who runs the desert town of Chuckawalla. Scott played Fritzi's 19-year-old daughter, Paula, who, on her expulsion from "her fifth finishing school,"[195] returns home. She falls for gangster Eddie Bendix (Hodiak), and faces a great deal of opposition from everyone else. Generally panned by critics when it first appeared,[196][197][198] it has been gaining critical praise and comprehension in the passing years. Even the once ridiculed high-fashion clothes of Scott's[199]—by Edith Head with the colors the Southwest in mind[200]—play a role in the continued fascination with the film.[201] Robert Rossen's screenplay repeated the matriarch-run-town trope of The Strange Love of Martha Ivers. Originally, Hal Wallis hired Ramona Stewart (1922–2006), a 23-year-old graduate from the University of Southern California, to write the screenplay, which was based on her unpublished Desert Town (1947),[202] a coming-of-age novel bought by Wallis before its serialization in Collier's.[203] But Wallis later hired Rossen to write the script that was used. Another 23-year-old, Betsy Drake, was originally cast as Paula,[204] but "failed" the screen test[205] and was replaced by Scott (who was 24 at the time). Much of the shooting was done on location in Cottonwood, Arizona.[206] Shooting took place mid-August–early November 1946. The film was released August 15, 1947.[207] The male lead, John Hodiak, previously starred with Tallulah Bankhead in Lifeboat (1944). Also, his wife Anne Baxter would play the role of Eve Harrington in All About Eve. During the shooting of Desert Fury scenes that took place in Los Angeles, Scott would briefly reappear with Burt Lancaster in a spoof William Tell sketch in Variety Girl (1947).

In December 1946, Scott again starred with Lancaster, Corey and Douglas in Wallis' I Walk Alone (1948), a noirish story of betrayal and vengeance. In her second torch singer role, Scott is Kay Lawrence, who befriends a convict, Frankie Madison (Lancaster), who returns to New York after 14 years in prison to collect a debt from Kay's ex-boyfriend, Noll "Dink" Turner, played by Douglas. Turner is the owner of the Regent Club, which Frankie owns a share of. Both men compete for Kay's affections as they battle for control of the business that Turner built while Frankie was in prison.[208] The film was a dramatic hit with the audience.[209] But there was more drama behind the scenes of the film, originally titled Deadlock. The Kay Lawrence role was originally intended to be Kristine Miller's breakout role.[210] But Scott, ever competitive with all actresses,[46] grabbed role for herself. Miller later recalled, "(Wallis) planned to star me in 'I Walk Alone.' He tested me with Burt; it was a wonderful test. But then Lizabeth Scott decided she wanted the role, and Lizabeth got whatever she wanted—from Hal Wallis! (Laughs) So, I got the second part instead."[211] Miller, who previously appeared in a walk-on role in Desert Fury, would always be in Scott's shadow. Miller never became a big star. Douglas, while working with Lancaster on the film, noted: "Lizabeth Scott played the girl we were involved with in the movie. In real life she was involved with Hal Wallis. This was a problem. Very often, she'd be in his office for a long time, emerge teary-eyed, and be difficult to work with for the rest of the day."[212] Though relations between Lancaster and Scott were previously romantic, there had been a falling-out. Lancaster's behavior toward Scott was chilly, especially during one kissing scene, leaving Scott looking exasperated.[213] During the shoot, Hal Wallis forced Lancaster to into a shotgun Yuma marriage.[214] Shooting took place early December 1946–mid-February 1947. The film was released January 16, 1948.[215] By April 9, 1947, Lancaster tried to break his 7-year contract with Paramount. He claimed it violated a previous freelance deal—but added that he did not want to work with Scott anymore.[216] Despite all the issues among the cast and past critics, I Walk Alone is usually judged now to be a classic film noir.[217]

On October 27, 1947, in Washington, D.C., Bogart led Bacall and the Committee for the First Amendment—25 members of the film industry—into the House Un-American Activities Committee's hearings on communist influence in Hollywood.[218] The actors maintained the innocence of the Hollywood Ten. Scott would eventually star in films with four members of the Committee for the First Amendment—Jane Wyatt (1910–2006), Lucille Ball (1911–1989, member of the Communist Party USA for one year—1936),[219] Robert Ryan and Paul Henreid—in addition to Bogart himself. Later Bogart was forced to recant his position against the Hollywood blacklist by allowing his name to be used as a byline for the article, "I'm No Communist,"[220] in the March 1948 Photoplay.[221] John Cromwell, who directed Dead Reckoning, would later be blacklisted in the 1950s as his loyalty to the US was questioned during the HUAC hearings,[222] as would Kim Hunter (1922–2002),[223] who played Scott's sister in You Came Along. One of the key witnesses testifying against the Hollywood Ten was Jack Warner, who fired Robert Rossen for allegedly injecting communist propaganda into screenplays.[224] Another witness was an ex-communist and reporter for the New York Journal-American, Howard Rushmore, who would later write an exposé on Lizabeth Scott.[225]

In January 1948, a 26-year-old Scott played her third and last ingénue in the second favorite film she would make[226]Pitfall (1948) with Dick Powell and Jane Wyatt as a middle-aged couple growing apart. Director André de Toth (whose own marriage to Veronica Lake was disintegrating at the time) explained his reasons for casting Mona: "I wanted Lizabeth Scott. I didn't want some blonde with big tits. You had to believe that this girl was real. Even if I took one of these over-sexed types who could not act, it would change how the Powell character is drawn into the affair. Remember the point of the script was that he's just a middle-level insurance investigator. He's tired of his job, spending time in his little office with a drab secretary. So I could have made a different picture, with a prettier girl than Lizabeth Scott, and told the story of that girl, her problems; but that wasn't this movie. That would make it phony, if you cast it with Marilyn Monroe, a type like that. I needed somebody real."[227] In post-war Los Angeles, the Powell character, John Forbes, is investigating Mona Stevens (Scott), a model at May Department Store, in connection with an embezzlement case. Her jailed boyfriend Bill Smiley (Byron Barr) brought expensive presents for Mona. As John searches her Marina Del Rey apartment for evidence, she returns home and catches him in the act. Despite initial appearances, she is no femme fatale.[228] Bored with his wife (Jane Wyatt), John conducts an affair, but he soon competes for Mona with a voyeuristic detective, J.B. "Mack" MacDonald, played by a then unknown Canadian actor, Raymond Burr. Soon all the characters are enmeshed in a murderous, five-way relationship. Shooting took place January 15–February 18, 1948 at General Service Studios. It was released August 19, 1948.[229] In the story, Mack dominates Mona by making her model various outfits at a fashion show, echoing Hal Wallis' own obsession with Scott's image in film and advertisements. In real life, Wallis would insist that publicity stills of Scott be retouched with extra care, that cheap products not be endorsed, that the price of high-fashion clothes modeled by Scott never to be mentioned in print. Price was no object to a true star.[230] This idée fixe was especially echoed by the fashion parade in Desert Fury.

In May 1948, it was announced that Jane Greer (1924–2001) and Robert Mitchum would star in a football-themed story by Irwin Shaw, originally titled "Interference."[231] Afterward, Lucille Ball replaced Greer and Victor Mature replaced Mitchum. Scott was slated to play the female costar. Then Scott replaced Ball as leading lady.[232] The reason for the role switch is unknown, though Ball never forgave Mature for his rudeness when they made Seven Days' Leave (1942).[233] But the 37-year-old Ball was in career slump at the time and had to take the secondary role of club secretary. Mature played football star Pete Wilson, who has a heart problem. As a result, he faces a dilemma that could end his marriage—or his life. Scott was Pete's wife, Liza "Lize" Wilson, an avaricious, social climbing interior decorator, who might leave Pete if he quits football and loses his lucrative income.[234] The original ending has Pete leaving Lize for the nobler secretary. But to the bewilderment of critics, it was changed to an ambiguous ending where Pete stays with Lize.[235][236] The final film, titled Easy Living (1949), was shot early July–mid-August 1948, but was released October 8, 1949.[237] Despite the general negative response when it was released, the 1949 New York Times review was uncommonly positive, though typically dismissive of Scott's performance.[238] Critics of the day still saw Scott as a femme fatale, despite Easy Living being a sports-drama. But current critiques tend to see Scott as an underrated dramatic actress in her Lize role.[239][240]

In September 1948, Scott would play the ultimate femme fatale in Too Late for Tears, with Don DeFore, Dan Duryea, Arthur Kennedy and Kristine Miller. The story again takes place in post-war Los Angeles, where the facade of a typical married couple is shattered when someone by mistake throws $60,000 into their car. In an effort to keep the money, the wife, Jane Palmer (Scott), leaves a trail of bodies to the very end.[241] This Hitchcock-like, black-and-white noir is widely considered Scott's best film and performance, eliciting praise even from the traditionally hostile New York Times.[242] But the film was a box office failure when it was released and the producer, Hunt Stromberg, was forced into bankruptcy. The then discredited screenwriter, Roy Huggins, denounced the director Byron Haskin and said the film "had all the suspense of a two-hour ride on a merry-go-round."[243] Huggins, a former member of the Communist Party USA, would be blacklisted and forced to testify as a friendly witness for the HUAC in 1952.[244] Yet 64 years after the box office failure, a film historian has noted the film's staying power: "Too Late for Tears is a relatively 'unknown and unseen' noir and deserves this recognition, especially for its storyline, acting and the incredible performance of Lizabeth Scott in the femme fatale role."[245] Though shooting took place mid-September to mid-October 1948 at Republic Pictures, the film was released July 8, 1949.[246] During the shooting of a scene where Scott screams at Duryea, she accidentally broke a blood vessel in her throat.[247]

Lizabeth Scott in Paid in Full

At the end of 1948, Scott shifted dramatic gears in Paid in Full (1950). Mousy Jane Langley (Scott), a department store illustrator, allows younger sister Nancy (Diana Lynn, 1926–1971), a beautiful store model, to marry Bill Prentice (Robert Cummings), despite Jane's love for him. A few years later, Jane has an argument with Nancy, who catches Jane and Bill having an affair. Distraught, Jane backs up her car and accidentally kills her young niece. The Prentices then divorce. Jane eventually marries Bill herself and gets pregnant, despite warnings from all around. Before Jane dies after giving birth, she gives the baby to her sister.[248] Hal Wallis first read about the real-life story by Dr. Frederick M. Loomis in Reader's Digest on a flight to London.[249] In a film reminiscent of Stella Dallas (1937) and Mildred Pierce (1945), both Cummings and the original screenwriter, Robert Rossen, were out of their depth. Rossen had to be replaced—but the film succeeded surprisingly well.[250] The makeup department, however, was not entirely successful in toning down Scott's looks, in contrast to the supposedly more glamorous sister. Also, Scott deliberately chose clothes to enhance her figure.[251] There was reportedly a "scene stealing" competition between Scott and Lynn on the set.[252] Production ran mid-October–late November 1948. The film would not be released until March 1950.[253]

On Tuesday, January 25, 1949, Scott collapsed and went into hysterics on the RKO set of The Big Steal (1949).[254] She immediately quit after three-days' production.[255] According to Scott's replacement, Jane Greer, Scott quit because she was concerned about being associated with the leading man, Robert Mitchum, who at the time was incarcerated at the local honor farm for a marijuana conviction[256]—Mitchum was convicted January 10, 1949.[257] It was also later alleged that Hal Wallis was supposedly responsible for Scott's bowing out.[258] Yet, Scott would star with Mitchum in a RKO film two years later. During this same period, the press would report rumors of Scott's stage fright, an ailment common to actors.[259] Scott herself has admitted to stage fright, explaining her absence during premieres of her films.[260] Similarly to Jean Arthur,[261] Scott's stage fright may have been associated with some psychosomatic illness.[262]

During Scott's recovery period, Walter Winchell, in his June 9, 1949 "On Broadway" column, repeated a rumor of Scott's impending marriage to Mortimer Hall,[263] CEO and president of radio station KLAC and son of Dorothy Schiff, publisher of the New York Post.[264] But Scott and Hall would later break up. Hall would eventually marry actress Ruth Roman (1922–1999), pursue Rosemarie Bowe[265]—who looked similar to Scott—divorce Roman, then marry Scott's Paid in Full costar Diana Lynn.

By June 22, 1949 Scott was reportedly recovered from her January episode and was to be loaned out by Hal Wallis to the Princeton Drama Festival.[266] In July 1949, Scott returned to the stage in the title role of Philip Yordan's play, Anna Lucasta, at the McCarter Theatre, Princeton, New Jersey."[267] The press reported: "Folks who expected fireworks when Liz Scott and Tallulah Bankhead crossed paths at the Princeton Drama Festival were vastly disappointed. It was all sweetness and light."[268]

Finally, Scott decided to legalize her stage name. Having been known professionally as "Lizabeth Scott" for almost seven years, Superior Court Judge Clarence M. Hanson[269] granted on Wednesday, September 14, 1949, a request to legally change Emma Matzo to Lizabeth Scott, who was 15 days from her 28th birthday.[270] In November, Scott returned to the stage: "Lizabeth Scott, out of movies for the winter, opened at the East Hartford, Conn. theater in Anna Lucasta."[271]

1950s[edit]

1950 would see Scott act in four films. In a continuing effort to escape her femme fatale typecasting, Scott would play another self-sacrificing, June Allyson-like character before reverting to her usual torch singer/socialite roles. In The Company She Keeps (1951), a soap opera-noir hybrid, she played Joan Willburn, a probation officer who sacrifices her fiancé to a scheming convict, Diane Stuart (Jane Greer), who echoes Scott's Toni Marachek from Martha Ivers. Diane moves to Los Angeles to start a new life. She is met there by Joan, who procures Diane a job in a hospital. After Joan turns down a marriage proposal from a journalist, Larry Collins (Dennis O'Keefe), Diane begins dating him. Joan initially resists the idea of Diane marrying Larry, but eventually gives it her blessing.[272] While Greer's famous beauty[273] was toned down for the film, Scott's was not. As a result, similarly to Paid in Full, critics were generally unconvinced that the leading man would choose the dowdy Diane over Joan. Most critics thought Scott and Greer were miscast and should have switched roles.[274][275] Columnist Erskine Johnson summed it thus: "Lizabeth Scott is on her second reach-for-the-handkerchief-Mabel picture for RKO." Scott herself described her character Joan: "I call this girl the lovely damsel type."[276] Production ran early March–early April 1950. It was released Jan 6, 1951.[277] A box-office failure due to the then perceived miscasting and mix of noir and "weepie" genres, The Company She Keeps has risen in critical esteem with a more sophisticated audience in later years.[278]

Scott played her third torch singer role in Dark City (1950), a traditional film noir. Her boyfriend, Danny Haley—Charlton Heston in his film debut—is a bookie who is the apparent target of a vengeful brother of a dead man that Haley swindled. Originally Burt Lancaster was cast as the leading man, but he refused to work with Scott again. Hal Wallis instead loaned him out to 20th Century Fox and MGM.[279] Production ran April 5–May 12, 1950. It was released October 1950.[280] In a May interview Scott said she was reading the entire oeuvre of Aldous Huxley.[281] In another interview she admitted almost joining a "cult" endorsed by Huxley.[282][283][284] Huxley, screenwriter Christopher Isherwood and Roddy McDowell were members of the local British expatriate community[285] that explored concepts like reincarnation, fate and destiny, of which Scott also acquired.[226][286] In this, Scott resembles Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a popular Catholic author within the Huxley circle. Yet, conversely, Scott was a friend and reader of Ayn Rand,[286] an Aristotelian atheist.[287] Later that year, Scott was cast to do the summer stock version of Tennessee Williams' Summer and Smoke (1948).[288] Instead, she quit the production and audited two morning courses—philosophy and political science—for six weeks at the University of Southern California.[289][290]

In Two of a Kind (1951), Scott is Brandy Kirby, a socialite who seduces a gambler, Michael "Lefty" Farrell (Edmond O'Brien), into joining a caper. Brandy is working with her boyfriend attorney, Vincent Mailer (Alexander Knox), both of whom want Mike to persuade an industrialist to change his will, making a long-lost son the beneficiary to ten million dollars. And Mike is to impersonate that son. Brandy coaches Mike on details of the McIntyre boy's life. She then arranges for Mike to meet Kathy McIntyre (Terry Moore, born 1929), the McIntyres' niece, an ingenué who naïvely introduces Mike to her uncle and aunt, William and Maida McIntyre. While Maida is convinced Mike is her son, her husband is still skeptical and refuses to change his will. Brandy tries to protect Mike, who endangers himself when he refuses to help Vincent murder the McIntyres. Production ran 10 October–November 2, 1950. It was released July 1951.[291] Originally titled Lefty Farrell,[292] much of the shooting was done on location at Malibu, California.[293]

Red Mountain (1952) is set in the 1860s, starring Scott as Chris, the only member of her family to survive the Civil War. Red Mountain would be the second of Scott's three Westerns, though the only traditional non-noir one. The leading man was Alan Ladd in a typical knight errant role—Brett Sherwood, a Confederate Army captain seeking to make a last stand against the Union. Arthur Kennedy, as a freed Confederate POW fiancé, rejoined Scott as one of her two love interests.[294] The villain of the story, General Quantrell (based on the real-life William Quantrill), was played by John Ireland, who would be blacklisted during the 1950s as a suspected communist[295] along with costar Jeff Corey.[296] Director William Dieterle, another suspected communist, would soon find himself ostracized by the big studios.[297] When Dieterle became sick on the Gallup, New Mexico shooting location, Hal Wallis sent Scott's old adversary from You Came Along, John Farrow, to direct. The George W. George screenplay was based on an original story by John Meredyth Lucas, who had issues with both Farrow and Ladd, who was drinking heavily at the time. Ladd refused to wear a Confederate uniform and regulation Navy Colt, while Farrow would not follow the script. Lucas ended up disowning the resulting film.[298] Scott injured her knee during a stunt in which she jumped off a 12-foot ledge—she injured herself on the fourth try. She had to be flown out from location.[299] Production ran October 25-early December 1950. It was released May 1952.[300]

On February 21, 1951, Scott flew from New York to Rio de Janeiro. She accompanied other Hollywood celebrities on a ten-day junket through South America. The group included Joan Fontaine, Patricia Neal, Ricardo Montalban, Evelyn Keyes, Florence Marley, John Derek, June Haver and Wendell Corey. The main event was the very first Punta del Este International Film Festival, held in the seacoast resort town of Punta Del Este, Uruguay.[301] During the stopover in Rio de Janeiro, Scott suffered a relapse of her stage fright when meeting crowds at a local beach.[302] On a plane heading to Montevideo, one of the four plane engines went out as they were flying out of Rio de Janeiro over the Atlantic. The plane was able to fly back to the airport. When the group returned to the airport the next day, they were met by a massive crowd and had to be escorted to the plane by police.[303] Weeks later Scott was still nervous from the trip.[302]

Scott would play her fourth and last torch singer role in The Racket (1951), another conventional noir. Irene Hayes (Scott) in caught up in a struggle between a big city police captain (Robert Mitchum) and a local crime boss (Robert Ryan), who resembled the real-life Bugsy Siegel. The film was released two months after the Kefauver hearings, in which Virginia Hill, a real-life femme fatale and mistress of Siegel,[304] denied having any knowledge of organized crime. While Irene Hayes was thought to be modeled on the smoky-voiced Hill, Scott denied the rumor.[305] Production ran April 9–May 14, 1951. It was released November 1951.[306] The Racket would be director John Cromwell's third and last film with Scott as he would be blacklisted till 1957, the year of Scott's retirement.

Scott returned to Britain in October 1951 to film Stolen Face (1952), a noir that presages Alfred Hitchcock's Vertigo (1958) by several years.[307] It combined elements from medical science-fiction, which would be repeated in the later work of the director, Terence Fisher, in his cycle of Hammer horror films. Paul Henreid is Dr. Philip Ritter, a London plastic surgeon, who upon losing the love of an American concert pianist, Alice Brent (Scott), recreates her face on a disfigured female criminal. They marry with disastrous results when Alice returns to England.[308] By allowing Henreid to be the leading man, Hal Wallis and Scott were among the first to break the Hollywood blacklist, nine years before Scott costar Kirk Douglas hired Dalton Trumbo for Spartacus (1960).[309][310] As a former member of the Committee for the First Amendment, Henreid was forced to seek work in Europe till hired by Alfred Hitchcock to direct the Alfred Hitchcock Presents television series in 1955.[311] Scott would later star in an anti-McCarthy noir, with results to be compounded with a future visit to Cannes, France. Shooting took place late October–early December 1951 at Riverside Studios, London.[312] During the production Scott was a guest at the Odeon Cinema, Leicester Square, London, where the Royal Film Performance of Where No Vultures Fly (1951) played. Along with other Hollywood actresses like Jane Russell, Scott got her chance to curtsy Queen Elizabeth.[313][314]

During an April 1952 session of the HUAC, the director of The Skin of Our Teeth, Elia Kazan, testified that Morris Carnovsky, who played Scott's husband in Dead Reckoning, was a communist, effectively ending Carnovsky's Hollywood career.[315] Later that spring, Scott returned to her beginnings as a comedienne when she began work on her first comedy noir, Scared Stiff, with Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis. Scott played an heiress who inherits a haunted castle on Lost Island off the coast of Cuba.[316] Though Scott would recall fond memories of working on the set in the years ahead,[124] at the time of filming she found it trying. Scott found Lewis' impersonations of her offensive, while a jealous Hal Wallis instructed the director, George Marshall, not to let the romantic scenes between Scott and Martin get too steamy. As Wallis' future wife Martha Hyer would later note, "Hal Wallis was a very possessive man."[317] Despite Scott's best efforts, including making excuses for Lewis' behavior to the press, most of her scenes, as well as Carmen Miranda's (1909–1955), ended up on the cutting room floor.[318] Shooting took place late May–mid-July 1952. The film premiered the week of 28 May 1953 in Los Angeles.[319] Despite the negative experience and reviews, Scared Stiff remains Scott's third favorite film.[226] The original Paramount project was a spoof on Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945). Scott was to play a psychiatrist and Martin and Lewis were to be her patients.[320] The name of the proposed film was Dream Puss.[102]

Scott's stage fright was worsening. During the October 19, 1952 live broadcast of NBC's Colgate Comedy Hour, Scott reportedly hid in her dressing-room, until the casting director, Howard Ross, taunted her to face the audience.[321] By the end of October 1952, of the original 48 big name actors under contract to Paramount in 1947, only four were left—Bing Crosby, Bob Hope, William Holden and Lizabeth Scott.[322]

In April 1953, the 30-year-old Scott would do her last film as a Paramount contractee. Bad for Each Other (1953) is set in Scott's home state of Pennsylvania, though in the southwest near Pittsburgh. In a story reminiscent of John O'Hara's Gibbsville saga, Scott is a decadent heiress, Helen Curtis, who tries to dominate a poor but idealistic physician, Tom Owen (Charlton Heston). Tom is a former Army doctor, who returns from the Korea War to his hometown of Coalville. When he finds out his brother, a corrupt mining engineer, was killed in an accident, he visits the mine owner, Dan Reasonover. During a party at Reasonover's mansion, he meets Reasonover's daughter, Helen, a two-time divorcée. She talks him into joining the practice of her physician, who treats the imaginary ailments of society matrons. They become engaged, but despite Helen's scheming to keep him in her jeweled world, he opts to leave it for his impoverished community instead when his friend, James Crowley, is killed. It is implied that Tom will eventually marry the nurse, Joan Lasher,[323] played by Dianne Foster (born 1928). The source material for the screenplay, Horace McCoy's novel Scalpel, was more nuanced than the linear morality play of Bad For Each Other. Though Tom breaks his engagement with Helen and returns to Coalville, there he breaks up with Joan, who returns to her fiancé James Crowley (who does not die in the novel), while Tom returns to fiancée Helen, who forgives him and takes him back. Tom ends up teaching at Harvard Medical School. Helen of the novel was closer in character to Joan the probation officer of The Company She Keeps than the seductress that Scott portrayed. Film historians familiar with the novel usually conjecture that the screenwriter, Irving Wallace, deliberately tailored the script to take advantage of Scott's noir typecasting.[324] Shooting took place April 23–May 21, 1953. This film would be Hal Wallis' last attempt to re-pair Burt Lancaster and Scott. Patricia Neal was originally cast as Helen,[325] but when Scott replaced Neal, Lancaster had to be replaced by Heston.[326] The film is conspicuously missing in Heston's 592 page 1997 autobiography.[327] Though Heston and Scott previously worked together in Dark City, there was reported feuding between the two on the set.[328] The film was a box office failure. Eight months later in February 1954, Hal Wallis and Scott parted ways. Scott was now a freelancer.[329]

In Scott's most overtly politically-themed film, Silver Lode (1954), she returned to the Western noir of Desert Fury, only in a traditional 19th century setting. Scott is a would-be bride, whose groom, Dan Ballard (John Payne), is the target of a lynch mob on their Fourth of July wedding day.[330] As the loyal fiancée, Scott is unwavering in facing volatile public opinion, fueled by the fear that Ballard is someone other than he appears.[331] The film repeats many of the themes found in previous Western noirs as The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), as well as the then recent anti-blacklist Johnny Guitar that premiered the previous month.[332] Dan Duryea was cast as a villain named Ned McCarty, ostensibly named after William Henry McCarty (alias Billy the Kid), but usually assumed by film historians to be an allusion to Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy.[333][334][335] One of the actors, Frank Sully, who played the town's telegrapher, often appeared in the FBI's COMPIC (Communist Infiltration-Motion Picture Industry) files.[336] Scott's female costar, Dolores Moran (1926–1982), an Ann Sheridan lookalike whose scenes in To Have and Have Not were cut out in favor of Bacall's, would end her career with this film. Shooting took place late December 1953–mid-January 1954 at Republic Studios.[337] Unlike previous Hollywood efforts against blacklisting, such as the Committee for the First Amendment, manned mostly by Democrats, Republicans dominated the Silver Lode production. Though the screenwriter, Karen DeWolf, was a left-wing activist,[338] director Allan Dwan[339] and John Payne were Republican, as well as Scott and RKO's owner, Howard Hughes. The film premiered in Los Angeles, June 24, 1954. When released the critical response to the film itself was muted[340] as the film appeared immediately after the Army–McCarthy hearings and McCarthy's influence was already in decline.

In April 1954, Scott would attend the Cannes Film Festival, where she would pose wading barefoot in a fountain[341] and surf for photographers.[342] Though she would immediately leave for London after the festival,[343] her visit to Cannes would have unforeseen consequences, in which she would face her own crisis of public opinion. Later that month it was announced that she would be the host of High Adventure (1957–1958), a travelogue television series for CBS, but she never appeared in it.[344]

While Scott was signed to Paramount, she was often on loan to other studios, as was the standard practice during the studio system era. She worked with half of the eight major studios during the Golden Age of film. As a result, almost half her output and several of her best known films were with studios other than Paramount.[164]

Critical reception[edit]

Bosley Crowther[edit]

Though the public response to Scott was generally favorable during the Paramount years, the film critics were less so, repeating unfavorable comparisons with Lauren Bacall and Tallulah Bankhead,[166][167][168] which all began with Bob Thomas' March 1945 comment on Scott's screen test: "Her throaty voice may well make Lauren Bacall sound like a mezzo soprano."[117] The most prominent critic of the era, Bosley Crowther of The New York Times, was uniformly negative.[345][346][347][348] Typical of Crowther was: "As the torch singer jilted by the (Kirk Douglas character) and thereafter inclined towards revenge, Lizabeth Scott has no more personality than a model in the window of a department store."[349] Of Dark City he described Scott as "frighteningly grotesque."[350] However, Crowther was unique in that he never made the Bacall comparison (though he was negative on Bacall too).[351][352][353] When Crowther gave a bad review of You Came Along, Scott recalled, "Being very young and naïve at the time, I didn't know you weren't suppose to do such things, so I called him up and complained. I told him how hard everyone worked to make such a beautiful movie, and I couldn't understand how he could be so cruel. I must say he took it awfully well, and was very kind to me."[27]

Later critics[edit]

Though Lizabeth Scott started her career as a comedienne with Hellzapoppin and The Skin of Our Teeth, she was typecast by the critics and public in the seductress, Rita Hayworth category, together with actresses like Ava Gardner, Maria Montez, Rhonda Fleming and Veronica Lake.[354] In January 1946, columnist Erskine Johnson would observed that the biggest surprise of 1945 was that "it became fashionable to be bad." Former Hollywood heroines, saints and comediennes would join the ranks of seductresses.[355] But despite Scott's femme fatale image, her most common role in 22 films was the heiress-socialite, of which she played variants of eight times, versus three femme fatales (Coral Chandler, Jane Palmer, Lily Conover). Of the four nightclub singer roles, only one was a femme fatale. Scott played the "ingénue-gone-wrong" three times (Toni Marachek, Paula Haller, Mona Stevens). Joan the probation officer of The Company She Keeps was a rare departure, as was the single mother (Elsa Jenner) of The Weapon. Yet even in her non-noir films Scott would remain in Lauren Bacall's shadow with some current critics.[240][356] Typical is Richard Schickel, who described Scott as "an inferior Bacall-look-alike."[357]

Historically, the Bacall character of To Have and Have Not traces back through a line of deep-voiced actresses developed by producers like Walter Wanger, who discovered Clara Bow (1905–1965), Hedy Lamarr (1913–2000)[358] and Yvonne De Carlo.[359] When Lauren Bacall first appeared on the screen in 1944, despite the close resemblance to Gene Tierney, critics saw her as imitating Veronica Lake's hair,[360] manner[361] and deep voice,[362] with Scott following in 1945 (You Came Along), then Nancy Guild in 1946 (Somewhere in the Night).[363] But before Lake's breakout role in I Wanted Wings (1941), there were already actresses like Hedy Lamarr of Algiers (1938) and Joan Bennett of Trade Winds (1938), both of whom were made-over by Wanger to resemble even earlier actresses like Ann Sheridan (1915–1967).[364][365] The noir hairstyles of Lake, Bacall and Scott derive from the peek-a-boo styles of the 1930s—high-volume curls held with hairspray and long pins[366]—which were wore by actresses like Sheridan during that decade.[367][368] The Sheridans and Tallulah Bankheads of the 1930s were influenced in looks, voice and manner by the two actresses they most admired—Marlene Dietrich (1901–1992),[369] who was Paramount's answer to Hollywood's original husky-voiced femme fatale, MGM's Greta Garbo (1905–1990).[370] Unlike Hollywood's first popular femme fatale—Theda Bara (1885–1955)[371]—Garbo and Dietrich survived the transition from silent film to sound and served as role models for actresses of the pre-war era on either side of the Atlantic.[372]

Despite the myriad of deep-voiced,[373][374][375][376] lookalike actresses[377] created by competing studios before To Have and Have Not,[378] the popular pairing of Bacall and Scott remains permanent, if only for their association with Humphrey Bogart. Yet Scott's femme fatales still had the traditional male versus female conflict that was missing in Lauren Bacall's noir films—The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947)—as Bacall was never a femme fatale and always supported the hero.[379] Nor conversely did Scott ever played a true heroine in the romantic Betty Hutton mode as did Bacall.[354] Even when Scott played a non-villain, the character tended to be a victim of circumstances and was seldom assertively heroic as Bacall's characters, who were in their world, but never of it. The most assertive Scott characters were femme fatales, who were always of their world. Even Scott's ingénue roles reinforced her fatale image.[380][381]

The cinematographic style of Scott's noir films, from The Strange Love of Martha Ivers to No Time for Tears, is Expressionistic—the "foreboding deep space, the use of the wide-angle lens to create an element of distortion in the juxtaposition of foreground and background, the aggressive, staccato editing rhythms, and the oblique camera angles, whether in tilted close-ups or the preference for floor ..."[382] Standard film noir iconography contribute to the total effect. Though Scott handled firearms in only five films, the handgun is an integral part of her popular image[195][383] as are the lit cigarette,[48][384][385] elaborate coiffure and evening gown with opera gloves.[386][387] Due to the retro 1920–30s designs of Edith Head, Scott's principal dress designer, Scott largely escaped the "square shoulders look" of the 1940s, making Scott atypical of the period.[388] Film historian Eddie Muller has noted that no other actress has appeared in so many noir films,[389] with 15 of her 22 films qualifying.[390] In addition to the classical black-and-white noir, Scott appeared in noir variants, such as color (3), Western (2), comedy (2) and soap opera (3).[391]

Scott's style of acting, characteristic of other film actors of the 1940s—a cool, naturalistic underplay derived from multiple sources[392]—was often depreciated by critics who preferred the more emphatic stage styles of the pre-film era or the later method styles. Typical of the '40s was Dick McCrone: "Miss Scott, who is an excellent clothes horse, rounds out the principals as Lancaster's moll. Otherwise, she's still the same frozen-face actress she was in Desert Fury and a couple of pictures before that."[393] Current film historians critical of Scott either repeat Bob Thomas' image of an ersatz Bacall,[394][395] Bosley Crowther in describing Scott's acting as wooden,[396][397] or a pastiche of actresses of the period, as did Pauline Kael.[398][399] But other historians see Scott's acting in a different light.[245][400] Jerome Charyn described the style as "dreamwalking":[401] "And then, among the Dolly Sisters and Errol Flynn, Bing Crosby and Dotty Lamour, the Brazilian Bombshell, Scheherazade, Ali Baba, and the elephant boy—all the fluff and exotic pastry that Hollywood could produce—appeared a very odd animal, the dreamwalker, like Turhan Bey, Sonny Tufts, Paul Henreid, Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake, Lizabeth Scott, and Dana Andrews, whose face had a frozen quality and always looked half-asleep ... The dreamwalker seemed to mirror all our own fears. His (and her) numbness was the crazed underside of that cinematic energy in the wake of the (Second World) war."[402]

With the revival of interest in film noir and its corresponding acting style, beginning in the 1980s—possibly in reaction to past and current emotive acting styles—Scott's acting reputation has increased among critics and film historians.[379][403][404]

Radio[edit]

During the Golden Age of Radio, Scott would reprise her film roles in abridged radio versions. Typical were her appearances on Lux Radio Theatre: You Came Along with Van Johnson in the Cummings role (July 1, 1946) and I Walk Alone (May 24, 1948).[405] One notable radio performance was the Molle Mystery Theatre episode, Female Of The Species (June 7, 1946).[406] Scott was also a guest host on Family Theater.[407]

Confidential[edit]

Rushmore's story[edit]

After being fired from the New York Journal-American in 1954,[408] Howard Rushmore became the chief editor[409] of a New York scandal magazine, Confidential. For Rushmore it was a return to his days as film critic of the communist Daily Worker, but on the opposing side. He was fired from the Worker in 1939 for giving an ambivalent review of Gone with the Wind (1939).[410][411]

After Rushmore left the CPUSA, he joined the anti-communist Journal-American that year. There, the former communist reinvented himself—he began investigating the very industry that produced the films he once reviewed.[412] In 1943 after the birth of a daughter,[413] Rushmore separated from his wife. In 1945, Rushmore met a new writer on the Journal-American—Frances McCoy née Everitt, a widow with two young daughters.[414] McCoy was an ex-Powers model-cover girl and would become the fashion editor at the paper.[415] Later in 1945, after divorcing Ruth,[416][417] Rushmore married McCoy.[418]

In 1947, Rushmore became a key witness in the House Un-American Activities Committee's hearings in Washington, D.C. that the Bogarts protested against. Rushmore testified against Edward G. Robinson, Charles Chaplin, Clifford Odets and Dalton Trumbo as potential or real communists. Unknown to public at large, since 1943 the US Army Signal Intelligence Service was decrypting Soviet intelligence traffic through the Venona project, which revealed that most Soviet agents operated east of the Mississippi. But Venona failed to reveal any Soviet agent working in Hollywood directly involved with espionage or sabotage,[419] though members and former members of the Communist Party USA did work in the film industry, many of whom would be blacklisted[420] by the major studios.[421] The public's unawareness of Venona enabled Rushmore to continue with his stories about the dangers of communists in Hollywood. His fame as an anti-communist investigator grew. Eventually, he would be seen dining with William F. Buckley and Roy Cohn at the Stork Club.[422] Till the spring of 1953, he was director of research for Senator Joseph McCarthy. Most of the allegations made by McCarthy, as chairman of the 1953 televised Subcommittee on Investigations hearings held in New York City, originated with Rushmore. Then he left McCarthy's inner circle for a brief return at the Journal-American. After criticizing his estranged friend, Roy Cohn, in print, Rushmore was fired from the paper. Then his old mentor, Walter Winchell, got him a job with Confidential.[423]

In early 1955, several months after the Army–McCarthy hearings and premiere of Silver Lode, Rushmore wrote an exposé on Lizabeth Scott, a second-generation Republican[27] and Catholic host of Family Theater. The publisher, Robert Harrison, was initially intrigued but skeptical. To verify some aspects of the story, he hired an out-of-work actress, Veronica "Ronnie" Quillan,[424] to have luncheon with Scott. Quillan was to be bugged with a wristwatch microphone (Minifone) by the Hollywood Detective Agency. But the agency owner, H. L. Von Wittenburg, backed out and the plan never went through. He told Harrison, "I think this work stinks."[425] Despite the lack of evidence, Confidential then sent a copy of the story to Scott herself.[426][427]

What Scott read was that a police raid occurred on a Hollywood Hills bungalow[428] at 8142 Laurel View Drive the previous autumn.[429] Two female adults, one male adult and a 17-year-old female were arrested on prostitution charges. The bordello was run in part by John Visciglia, a film studio accountant. The police found an address book with the names and telephone numbers of various people in the film industry, including two numbers allegedly belonging to Scott, who lived in West Los Angeles from the late 1940s to the present day.[99][430] "HO 2-0064" had a Hollywood prefix[431] and was the residential number of a retired couple, Henry A. and Mamie R. Finke,[432] of 4465 West 2nd Street, Los Angeles,[433] while "BR 2-6111"[434] belonged to the 20th Century Fox switchboard at 10201 West Pico Boulevard, Los Angeles.[435] It was listed as 20th Century's main number from the late 1940s to the early 1960s.[436][437] Scott did not work for 20th Century until 1956, when she would do one episode of The 20th Century Fox Hour (BR 2-6111 was common knowledge in the film industry and the basis of "Lizabeth Scott's phone number" jokes in Hollywood after the Rushmore article appeared).[438]

Rushmore then allegedly quotes a January 10, 1946, Hollywood Citizen-News interview with Scott by columnist Sidney Skolsky: "She confided that she always wore male cologne, slept in men's pajamas and positively hated frilly, feminine dresses."[439] "Male cologne" does not appear in Skolsky's original text[440] and the closest reference to "hated frilly, feminine dresses" is: "Her pet aversions are gushy women, surrealistic art and dresses that are too deliberately sexy. The trait(s) she hates in men are name-dropping and parlor politician." Skolsky did note the new actress' then impoverished situation—she wore men's pajamas while doing her daily activities, including reading and eating, on a medium-sized bed (apparently the only furniture) in a small apartment without a telephone.[441] The Rushmore article further stated that Scott spent her off-work hours with "Hollywood's weird society of baritone babes" (a euphemism for lesbians). He also linked Scott's trip to Cannes to a Parisian woman named "Frede."[442] "In one jaunt to Europe (Scott) headed straight for Paris and the left bank where she took up with Frede, the city's most notorious Lesbian queen and the operator of a night club devoted exclusively to entertaining deviates like herself."[443] Frédérique "Frédé" Baulé managed "Carroll's," an upper-class, cabaret-type nightclub[444] at 36 Rue de Ponthieu, Paris, France.[445] It featured mainstream entertainers of the day like Eartha Kitt[446] and was devoted exclusively to entertaining café society[447] and celebrities like Orson Welles.[448] One of the owners was Marlene Dietrich, who happened to be the subject of "The Untold Story of Marlene Dietrich" in the then current issue of Confidential.

Hollywood Research Inc. was the new intelligence-gathering front of Confidential. Run by Marjorie Meade, Robert Harrison's 26-year-old niece, she was the one of the most feared persons in Hollywood since her arrival in January 1955.[449] Once a proposed story was assembled, either she or an agent would visit the subject and present a copy as a "buy-back" proposal.[450] But instead of paying the magazine not to publish the article, Scott sued. On July 25, 1955—two months before the issue's printed publication date—while the Marlene Dietrich issue was still on the newstands, Jerry Giesler, Scott's lawyer, initiated a $2.5 million libel suit.[451]

1957 mistrial[edit]

In retaliation, Confidential published the Scott story in the next issue. Under the byline of "Matt Williams," it was published as "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book."[442][452] In November 1955, at the age of 33, Scott again went to Britain to film The Weapon (1957). As with other European films of the 1950s–1970s period aimed at a US audience, Scott starred with another American actor, Steve Cochran, who played US Army CID officer Mark Andrews. Scott is Elsa Jenner, the widowed mother of Erik Jenner (Jon Whiteley), who finds a pistol and accidentally shoots a friend. He hides the pistol and runs away. The weapon was used in a murder 10 years previously. Mrs. Jenner, Andrews and the murderer—Joshua Henry (George Cole)—are all in a race to find the boy. Though production took place early November–early December 1955, the film was not released until 1956 in Britain and 1957 in the US.[453]

The next spring, despite Giesler's reassurances to the press, the legal effort against Confidential would go nowhere. Since the magazine was domiciled in New York State, and Scott was a California resident who initiated the suit in her own state, the suit was stopped. On March 7, 1956, Los Angeles Supreme Court judge Leon T. David quashed Scott's suit on grounds that the magazine was not published in California. Despite this setback, in addition to Scott's suit, "Giesler said he also would refile in New York a $2 million suit by actor Robert Mitchum against the magazine if it also is quashed here."[454] Meanwhile, Rushmore tried to get Harrison to publish a story about former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt having an alleged affair with her African-American chauffeur.[455] When Harrison refused, Rushmore quit and became a witness for California Attorney General Edmund "Pat" Brown. Since Confidential was ensconced in New York state, and New York refused to let Brown extradite Harrison to California, Brown instead put Hollywood Research and Harrison's niece on trial. On August 7, 1957, The People of the State of California v. Robert Harrison et al. trial began.[456][457] It would eventually involve over 200 actors, most of whom fled California to avoid defense subpoenas. Rushmore, now the state's star witness, testified that the magazine knowingly published unverified allegations, despite the magazine's reputation for double-checking facts:[458] "Some of the stories are true and some have nothing to back them up at all. Harrison many times overruled his libel attorneys and went ahead on something." According to Rushmore, Harrison told the attorneys, "I'd go out of business if I printed the kind of stuff you guys want."[459] Ronnie Quillan herself testified at the same trial that she never verified the Scott story, thus not making the story "suit proof," but that Rushmore agreed to publish it anyway.[426] But the state's case against Hollywood Research weakened as plaintiffs settled out of court, one-by-one. A mistrial was declared on October 1, 1957 when the jury could not agree on a verdict as three of the most prominent plaintiffs—Liberace, Dorothy Dandridge and Maureen O'Hara—had left the case. But to spare his niece a retrial, Harrison promised the Attorney General to publish only positive stories.[458]

In the wake of the sensational revelations of the 1957 trial, Scott's case was forgotten by the media.[460] Despite latter day claims that Scott's film career was ruined by the Confidential scandal,[461][462][463][464] by the time the September 1955 issue of Confidential appeared, her career was entering its dormant phase. Scott began her career at a time when established actors were away at war, giving then unknowns as John Hodiak, Robert Walker, Dane Clark, Turhan Bey, Janis Paige and Scott a chance at stardom. When the old stars returned to the studio payrolls, the new stars declined.[355] In addition, the rise of television and breakup of the studio system further curtailed film production. Film historians generally agree that Scott's career essentially peaked between 1947 and 1949.[465] By February 1953 her stage fright was such that she even hid from friends.[466] Scott did not renew her Paramount contract in February 1954, 18 months before "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book" was published. Between the end of her contract and Rushmore's article, she turned down numerous scripts, including a part in Wallis' The Rose Tattoo (1955).[467] But instead of reinventing herself as Bacall did, returning to Broadway, Scott chose another path. After completing Loving You (1957), a 34-year-old Scott retired from the big screen and did not return to the stage. Later that year, she recorded her album, Lizabeth. During that same period, Howard Rushmore was under psychiatric care. On January 4, 1958, the author of "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book" would shoot Frances Rushmore and himself in a New York taxicab incident.[408]

Music[edit]

Erskine Johnson reported back in January 1954 that Scott was being trained by Hollywood voice teacher Harriet Lee,[468] and later by Lillian Rosedale Goodman—the final result was that Scott "has a vocal range of two octaves, A below C to High C,"[469] making Scott a mezzo-soprano. In July of 1956, Johnson reported that Scott was under the management of Earl Mills, who also managed the singing career of Dorothy Dandridge. Scott was planning to debut as a torch singer on the nightclub circuit.[470]

In 1957 Scott worked on her last major film, Loving You, with Elvis Presley in his second musical. Scott played Glenda Markle, the manager of a failed country band, led by her disgruntled ex-husband, Walter "Tex" Warner (Wendell Corey). By accident, she discovers the musical talent of a young delivery man, Deke Rivers (Presley), and uses him to revive the band's fortunes by appealing to teenagers. Glenda creates interest in her protégé with unorthodox stratagems. The director, Hal Kanter, said that Glenda's marketing techniques were based on those of Presley's real-life manager, Colonel Tom Parker.[471] During the shooting of Loving You, Scott was reported to be infatuated with Presley. During scenes where Glenda was not present, Scott would distract the production crew by trying to get a closer look at Presley. During a kissing scene, she playfully bit him on the cheek, leaving a red mark, which she called "just a little love nibble." The scene had to be reshot with the other side of his face to the camera.[472] Though Hal Wallis tried to get Scott's singing voice undubbed for the production, he was overruled by the studio heads, despite all of Scott's previous voice training. Production ran late January 1957–mid-March 1957.[473]

Undaunted by Paramount's refusal to let her true singing voice be heard, Scott signed a recording contract with Vik Records (a subsidiary of RCA Victor). Scott recorded her album with Henri René and his orchestra in Hollywood on October 28, 29 and 30, 1957. The recordings were arranged by George Wyle and Henri René, while Herman Diaz, Jr. produced and directed. Simply titled Lizabeth, the 12 tracks are a mixture of torch songs and playful romantic ballads. The album includes Willow Weep For Me, Can't Get Out Of This Mood and Cole Porter's I'm In Love Again.[474] The inner notes has an interview with Scott by columnist Earl Wilson, who writes in typical Wilsonian prose, "Liz, who's quite a blouseful, is a fan of Ralph Waldo Emerson, sleeps in the nude, loves deep-sea fishing ... and adores sexy clothes."[475] Edith Head designed a gown especially for the LP cover.[476] Finally on Wednesday, April 23, 1958, Scott made her public singing debut on CBS' The Big Record.[477]

Later years[edit]

Fiancé[edit]

Lizabeth Scott in Burke's Law

The 1960s saw Scott continuing to guest-star on television, including a notable 1960 episode of Adventures in Paradise, "The Amazon," opposite Gardner McKay. Scott played the titular character, derived from a boyfriend's dialog: "She is a sleek, well-groomed tigress, a man-eating shark—an Amazon! She chews men up and spits them out."[478] In Burke's Law "Who Killed Cable Roberts?" (1963), she camps it up as the ungrieving widow of a celebrity big game hunter in the Hemingway mode.[479] Scott returned to 20th Century Fox to film "The Luck of Harry Lime" (1965), an episode of The Third Man. She was directed by her former costar Paul Henreid from Stolen Face.[480] But much of her private time was dedicated to classes at the University of Southern California.[481]

In May 1969, the future wedding of Scott to oil executive William Dugger of San Antonio, Texas was announced[482] after a two-year engagement.[483] He was formerly married to the actress Mara Lane,[484] sister of Jocelyn Lane. During the 1960s, Dugger and Scott would appear as items in gossip columns—they were seen at the Kowloon restaurant in Los Angeles,[485] in England attending a pheasant shoot, then dressing up for a cocktail party,[486] or vacationing in Acapulco.[487] Scott also visited Dugger's mother, sister and brother-in-law in San Antonio, while Dugger was down in South America inspecting family properties in Peru and Uruguay.[488] In late 1969, musician Rexino Mondo was helping Scott decorate her fiance's mansion on Mulholland Drive before the wedding: "The urns were in place. Liz took my arm and guided me down a hall into a large room, then introduced me to her fiance, Texas oil baron William Lafayette Dugger, Jr. He was in his late forties, of medium build, good-looking, with dark hair, a warm personality, and a strong handshake." Dugger himself described Scott as "A misunderstood soul searching for love. Her outward appearance is just a shell." Dugger planned to make a film in Rome starring Scott, but suddenly died on August 8, 1969. A handwritten codicil to his will leaving half his estate to his fiancée was contested by Dugger's sister, Sarah Dugger Schwartz.[489] The will was judged invalid in 1971.[490]

Previous to Dugger, several books claimed Scott was a mistress of Hal Wallis, then married to actress Louise Fazenda (1895–1962).[212][491][492][493] Wallis had a falling out with Scott around the time of Bad for Each Other, with recriminations on Wallis' part. After Scott freelanced for a few years, Wallis made an effort to revive the relationship by making Scott the leading lady opposite Presley, as it might be his last chance to star Scott in anything.[494] After shooting was completed, Scott walked away film acting to try her hand at singing. The 14-year-relationship that began at the Stork Club in 1943 came to an end. As Scott put it: "... out of the clear blue sky one morning, I woke and decided that I never wanted to make another film again. It was just a spark, I can't explain it."[495] Allegedly, when asked what happened to the "E" in Scott's first name (the setup to numerous old Hollywood jokes),[496] Wallis replied, "It was lost along with her talent." Scott herself knew the relationship was over—only Wallis remained in denial. Scott avoided the symbiosis of Herbert Yates-Vera Ralston and returned to school. After Louise Fazenda's death in 1962, Wallis went into a depression and became a recluse before marrying Martha Hyer in 1966. In later life, he was reticent on the subject of Scott,[497] despite an unjealous Hyer urging him to include Scott and his other mistresses in his autobiography. Though Casablanca was the film Wallis was most proud of, the ones he would repeatedly watch were those of Lizabeth Scott. Even during his second marriage, Wallis would continue to screen Scott at home, night after night.[498]

In 1948 Scott was reportedly divorced from Russian Prince (Knyaz Князь) Stass Reed,[499][500] whom she dated the previous year.[501] In 1953 Scott was briefly engaged to architect John C. Lindsey,[502] whom later became Diana Lynn's first husband before Mortimer Hall (Lynn was dating Stass Reed before she suddenly married Lindsay).[503] Scott herself tended toward secrecy in personal relationships and publicly disparaged former dates who tell all to the press. Once their date appears in the press, "... the man goes off (her) date list ... 'I think,' said Miss Scott, 'that gentlemen don't tell.'"[504] In 1948 Burt Lancaster, the sort of "serious, compulsive womanizer"[505] that Scott scorned, said of Scott: "Becoming her close friend ... is 'a long stretch at hard labor.'"[35] In the period between 1945 to the 1970s, the press reported Scott dating Van Johnson,[29] Stewart Granger,[506] James Mason,[507] plastic surgeon Gregory Pollock,[508][509][510] Richard Quine,[511] William Dozier,[512] Philip Cochran,[513] Herb Caen,[514] Peter Lawford,[515] Anson Bond of the clothing store chain family,[516] Seymour Bayer of the pharmaceutical family,[517] Marquess of Milford Haven,[518] race-track owner Gerald "Jerry" Herzfeld,[519] Eddie Sutherland[520] and Laurence Harvey[506] among scores of others. Burt Bacharach himself would date Scott during his breakup with Angie Dickinson.[521] According to Bacharach: "She personified what I love about a woman, which is not too feminine but a little bit masculine. Just the strength and the coolness and the separation from the frilly woman who is always touching you and wanting something ... I think Diane Keaton had that kind of quality."[522]

Nostalgia[edit]

Scott made her final film appearance in her second comedy noir, Pulp (1972), a nostalgic pastiche of noir tropes[523] starring Michael Caine and Mickey Rooney. Scott plays a man-eating cougar, Princess Betty Cippola, who lives with the Beautiful People on Malta. One of her ex-husbands is Preston Gilbert (Rooney), an expatriate Hollywood actor famous for his gangster roles. But with Gilbert's sinister mob connections, critics usually surmise him to be a parody of the real-life George Raft.[524] Gilbert hires a pulp writer, Mickey King (Caine), to ghost his autobiography, but murderous complications ensue.[525] The director and screenwriter, Mike Hodges, spent a long time coaxing Scott out of retirement to fly to Malta for the shooting. Scott said that while she enjoyed the monochromic beauty of Malta, the humidity created physical challenges, such as puffing up her hair on the sets.[260] Scott was not pleased that most of her footage was cut out—eight scenes in all, despite Mike Hodges' apologies.[495] Her sporadic appearances made it difficult for some viewers to account for her presence in the film.[526] Hodges for his part reported that both Mickey Rooney and Scott were challenging to work with while shooting. Rooney was overly energetic and had to be shot on rehearsal as he never repeated himself. Scott was equally as tiring as she "hadn't make a picture in 15 years and I had to really coax her into coming back." But Scott overcame her stage fright and Hodges was pleased with both Scott's and Rooney's performances. The film premiered in London on August 16, 1972. Despite disagreements among the cast, crew and past critics, Pulp, as with the 1949 No Time for Tears, is increasingly considered an artistic success by film historians.[527]

Since then Scott has kept away from public view and declined most interview requests.[528] From the 1970s on, she has reportedly been engaged in real estate development[529] and volunteer work for various charities, such as Project HOPE[530][531] and the Ancient Arts Council of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.[532]

She did, however, appear on stage at an American Film Institute tribute to Hal Wallis in 1987. She was photographed next to an image of herself on the poster for The Strange Love of Martha Ivers at the AMPAS Centennial Celebration for Barbara Stanwyck on 16 May 2007.[533] She attended another screening of the film on June 28, 2010 as part of AMPAS's "Oscar Noir" series at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills.[534]

In 2003, film historian Bernard F. Dick interviewed Scott for his biography of Hal Wallis. The results was an entire chapter titled "Morning Star." In the chapter, the author observed that during the interview, Scott (80 or 81-years-old) was still able to recite her opening monologue from The Skin of Our Teeth, which she had learned six decades earlier.[535]

Despite all the films she worked on, Scott's favorite is one she never appeared in—Doctor Zhivago (1965).[44] Ever the non-conformist,[176] she never stopped living Ralph Waldo Emerson's precept: "To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment."[536] Lizabeth Scott has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contribution to motion pictures at 1624 Vine Street in Hollywood.[537]

Filmography[edit]

Titles in the public domain.* See cites for copyright renewal dates.

No.Title, US release yearStudio, producerDirector,
screen-
writer
Scott's
role
Leading
man
Costars
1You Came Along
(1945)*
Paramount,
Hal Wallis
John Farrow, Ayn RandIvy "Hotcha" HotchkissRobert CummingsDon DeFore,
Charles Drake,
Helen Forrest,
Kim Hunter
2The Strange Love of Martha Ivers
(1946)*
Hal Wallis Productions/
Paramount,
Hal Wallis
Lewis Milestone, Robert RossenAntonia "Toni" MarachekVan HeflinBarbara Stanwyck,
Kirk Douglas
3Dead Reckoning (1947)[538]Columbia, Sidney BiddellJohn Cromwell, Steve FisherCoral "Dusty" ChandlerHumphrey BogartMorris Carnovsky,
William Prince,
Marvin Miller
4Desert Fury (1947)[539]Paramount,
Hal Wallis
Lewis Allen, Robert RossenPaula HallerJohn HodiakBurt Lancaster,
Mary Astor,
Wendell Corey,
Kristine Miller
5Variety Girl (1947)[540]Paramount,
Daniel Dare
George Marshall, Monte BriceHerselfBurt
Lancaster
Mary Hatcher,
Olga San Juan
6I Walk Alone (1948)[541]Paramount,
Hal Wallis
Byron Haskin, Charles SchneeKay LawrenceBurt LancasterKirk Douglas,
Kristine Miller,
Wendell Corey
7Pitfall (1948)*United Artists, Samuel BischoffAndré De Toth,
Karl Kamb
Mona StevensDick PowellJane Wyatt,
Raymond Burr,
Byron Barr,
Ann Doran
8Too Late for Tears (1949)*United Artists,
Hunt Stromberg
Byron Haskin,
Roy Huggins
Jane PalmerDon DeForeDan Duryea,
Arthur Kennedy,
Kristine Miller
9Easy Living (1949)[542]RKO,
Robert Sparks
Jacques Tourneur,
Irwin Shaw
Liza "Lize" WilsonVictor MatureLucille Ball,
Sonny Tufts,
Lloyd Nolan,
Jack Parr
10Paid in Full (1950)*Paramount,
Hal Wallis
William Dieterle,
Robert Blees
Jane LangleyRobert CummingsDiana Lynn,
Eve Arden,
Ray Collins
11Dark City (1950)[543]Paramount,
Hal Wallis
William Dieterle,
John Meredyth Lucas
Fran GarlandDanny Haley/
Richard Branton (Charlton Heston)
Viveca Lindfors,
Dean Jagger,
Don DeFore,
Jack Webb,
Harry Morgan
12The Company She Keeps (1951)[544]RKO,
John Houseman
John Cromwell,
Ketti Frings
Joan WillburnDennis O'KeefeJane Greer,
Fay Baker,
John Hoyt
13Two of a Kind (1951)[545]Columbia, William DozierHenry Levin, Lawrence KimbleBrandy KirbyEdmund O'BrienTerry Moore,
Alexander Knox,
Griff Barnett
14Red Mountain (1951)[546]Paramount,
Hal Wallis
William Dieterle,
George W. George
ChrisAlan LaddArthur Kennedy,
John Ireland,
Jeff Corey,
Neville Brand
15The Racket (1951)[547]RKO,
Edmund Grainger
John Cromwell,
William Wister Haines
Irene HayesRobert MitchumRobert Ryan,
Ray Collins,
William Talman,
Joyce Mackenzie,
Robert Conrad
16Stolen Face (1952)[548]Hammer/Lippert,
Anthony Hinds
Terence Fisher,
Martin Berkeley
Alice Brent/
Lily Conover (after surgery)
Paul HenreidAndré Morell,
Mary Mackenzie
17Lux Video Theatre
(TV series)
"Amo, Amas, Amat" (1952)*
J. Walter Thompson Agency,
Cal Kuhl
Richard Goode,
Anne Howard Bailey
Margaret BaileyNicky Hanks (Ralph Meeker)Oliver Thorndike
18Lux Video Theatre
(TV series)
"Make Believe Bride" (1953)*
J. Walter Thompson Agency,
Cal Kuhl
Howard Loeb,
Anne Howard Bailey
BetsyDon DeForeGlenn Anders
19Scared Stiff (1953)[549]Paramount,
Hal Wallis
George Marshall, Herbert BakerMary CarrollDean MartinJerry Lewis,
Carmen Miranda
20Bad for Each Other (1953)[550]Columbia,
William Fadiman
Irving Rapper, Irving WallaceHelen CurtisCharlton HestonDianne Foster,
Mildred Dunnock,
Ray Collins
21Silver Lode (1954)[551]RKO,
Benedict Bogeaus
Allan Dwan, Karen DeWolfRose EvansJohn PayneDan Duryea,
Dolores Moran,
Alan Hale, Jr.,
Stuart Whitman
22Studio 57
(TV series)
"I'll Always Love You, Natalie" (1955)[552]
Revue ProductionsLawrence Kimble[553]
(screenwriter)
Clara Townsley[553]Patric KnowlesWilliam Roerick,
Edward Platt,
Ed Reimers
23The 20th Century Fox Hour
(TV series)
"Overnight Haul" (1956)[554]
20th Century Fox Television, Peter PackerJules Bricken, Leonard FreemanFrances FowlerRichard ConteRichard Eyer
24The Weapon (1957)[555]Periclean Productions,
Irving H. Levin
Val Guest, Fred FreibergerElsa JennerSteve CochranJon Whiteley,
Herbert Marshall
George Cole
25Loving You (1957)[556]Paramount,
Hal Wallis
Hal Kanter, Herbert BakerGlenda MarkleElvis PresleyWendell Corey,
Dolores Hart
26Adventures in Paradise
(TV series)
"The Amazon" (1960)[557]
20th Century Fox Television,
Richard Goldstone
Joseph Lejtes, William FrougCarla MacKinleyGardner McKayClaude Akins,
Tom Drake
27Burke's Law
(TV series)
"Who Killed Cable Roberts?" (1963)[558]
Four Star,
Aaron Spelling
Jeffrey Hayden,
Gwen Bagni
Mona RobertsGene BarryPaul Lynde,
Mary Astor,
Zsa Zsa Gabor,
John Saxon
28The Third Man
(TV series)
"The Luck of Harry Lime" (1965)*
20th Century Fox Television,
John Llewellyn Moxey
Paul Henreid,
Gene Wang
Diane MastersMichael RennieJonathan Harris,
Willis Bouchey
29Pulp (1972)[559]United Artists,
Michael Klinger
Mike Hodges
(both)
Princess Betty CippolaMichael CaineMickey Rooney,
Lionel Stander,
Nadia Cassini

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janice H. McElroy (Pennsylvania Division, American Association of University Women, June 1, 1983), Our Hidden Heritage: Pennsylvania Women in History, p. 379
  2. ^ [1] FamilySearch (accessed April 27, 2014) "Emma Matzo in household of John Matzo, 'United States Census, 1930.'" FamilySearch. Emma Matzo is the name given in the 1930 US Census, April 8, 1930, which lists Emma Matzo, aged 8, daughter of John and Mary Matzo. Mary's date of birth is listed as 1901, instead of 1899 as given in the Social Security Index. John's immigration date to the US is 1913, Mary's is 1920.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k [2] Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed April 27, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 1 of 8
  4. ^ AP (Friday, October 21, 1949), "Star Changes Name," The San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California), p. 25. AP article gives Scott's birthplace as Dunmore, Pennsylvania, while Scott gives her birthplace as Scranton in the Langer video interview.
  5. ^ [3] FamilySearch (accessed April 27, 2014), "John Matzo in household of John Munchak, 'United States Census, 1920'," FamilySearch. Year of birth used in the article text (1895) is from the Social Security Index. The 1920 US Census gives John Matzo a birth year of 1898 and Hungary as the country of origin. The 1930 and 1940 censuses give a year of birth of 1897.
  6. ^ [4] FamilySearch (accessed April 27, 2014), "John Matzo, 'United States Census, 1930'," FamilySearch. The 1930 US Census gives John Matzo a birth year of 1897 and Bohemia as the country of origin.
  7. ^ [5] FamilySearch (accessed April 27, 2014), "John Matzo, "United States Census, 1940'," FamilySearch. The 1940 US Census gives John Matzo a birth year of 1897 and Austria as the country of origin.
  8. ^ Janice H. McElroy (Pennsylvania Division, American Association of University Women, June 1, 1983), Our Hidden Heritage: Pennsylvania Women in History, p. 380
  9. ^ Gilbert Cope, Henry Graham Ashmead (Higginson Book Company, 1904), Historic Homes and Institutions and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs of Chester and Delaware Counties, Pennsylvania, Volume 1, pp. 479–480. Pennock is a Quaker Cornish name that first appeared in Pennsylvania in the late 17th century and used by families of various ethnicities in the US.
  10. ^ [6] FamilySearch (accessed April 27, 2014), "Mary Matzo in household of John Matzo, 'United States Census, 1930'," FamilySearch. Year of birth used in the article text (1899) is from the Social Security Index. The 1930 US Census gives Mary Matzo a birth year of 1901 and Bohemia as the country of origin. 1901 is the same as "Mary R. Pennock," who, according to the 1910 US Census, was born in Monroe, New York—less than 90 miles east of Scranton, Pennsylvania—to William and Catherine Pennock. Catherine was born in what is now Northern Ireland in 1874 and immigrated to the US in 1900.
  11. ^ Walter Dushnyck, Nicholas L. Chirovsky (Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, November 1, 1991), The Ukrainian Heritage in America, p. 331. Scott is described as Carpatho-Ukrainian.
  12. ^ Andrew Spicer (Scarecrow Press, March 19, 2010), Historical Dictionary of Film Noir, p. 273. Spicer says "Born Emma Matzo to Slovakian parents ..."
  13. ^ James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 519. The father is described as English-born and the mother as Russian.
  14. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 96. John Matzo is described as Italian and Mary Matzo as Slovakian.
  15. ^ [7] FamilySearch (accessed April 27, 2014), "Mary Matzo in household of John Matzo, 'United States Census, 1940'," FamilySearch. The 1940 US Census gives Mary Matzo a birth year of 1901 and Austria as the country of origin.
  16. ^ [8] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Ward 7, Scranton, Pennsylvania," 1940 U.S. Federal Population Census. The 1940 U.S. Federal Population Census lists the father's birthplace as Austria (then Austria-Hungary). The mother's birthplace is also listed as Austria. Scott's siblings are Mary, John, Justine, Helen and Augustine.
  17. ^ [9] Al Yaremko (September 1, 1945; accessed April 27, 2014), "Another Ukrainian Movie Star Makes Debut," Ukrainian Weekly, p. 6. Yaremko article says Scott's parents are Ukrainian and notes the resemblance to Veronica Lake.
  18. ^ [10] J. D. Spiro (September 11, 1949; accessed April 27, 2014), "Lizabeth Is So Different," The Milwaukee Journal (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), p. 3. Interview describes Scott's mother as a White Russian, who came to the US at the age of 16 (the 1930 US Census states she immigrated to the US from Bohemia at age of 18–19). The father is described as English.
  19. ^ Paul R. Magocsi (Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, July 30, 2005), Our people: Carpatho-Rusyns and their descendants in North America, 4th Revised edition, p. 81. Scott's parents are described as Rusyns from Carpathian Ruthenia, in what is present-day Uzhhorod, Ukraine.
  20. ^ [11] Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed April 27, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 5 of 8
  21. ^ [12] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Lackawanna County Censuses." Ward 7 contains "Pine Brook" section of Scranton. 1940 US Census placed Matzo family in Ward 7.
  22. ^ Alfred N. Hare (Thursday, June 28, 1934), "Mercantile Appraisement," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 18. Store address is 1001 Capouse (Avenue).
  23. ^ Anonymous (Thursday, September 1, 1927), "New Mark For Construction In August Set," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 12. Construction of the $17,000 ($229,383 in 2014 dollars) "store and dwelling" began in August 1927.
  24. ^ a b c David Ragan (Prentice Hall, July 1, 1985), "Lizabeth Scott," Movie Stars of the 40s, p. 191
  25. ^ [13] Google Maps (accessed April 27, 2014), "1001 Capouse Avenue, Scranton, Pennsylvania." Google Maps
  26. ^ David Ragan (Prentice Hall, July 1, 1985), "Lizabeth Scott," Movie Stars of the 40s, p. 192. Paramount public relations originally tried to promote the story that Scott was a post-debutante, who had a banker father.
  27. ^ a b c Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 470
  28. ^ a b Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 96
  29. ^ a b Gene Hansaker (Tuesday, February 26, 1946), In Hollywood, Ironwood Daily Globe (Ironwood, Michigan), p. 7
  30. ^ Barbara Acker (Applause Books, February 1, 2000), The Vocal Vision: Views on Voice, pp. 177–178. In Anglophone areas of the world other than the US, Mid-Atlantic has no upper-class connotation, a perception that occurs only with some Americans. A synthetic blend of US and British accents created in the 1920s, it has no historic connection to native upper-class or upper-middle class accents in either the US or Britain.
  31. ^ Kathryn LaBouff (Oxford University Press, USA, December 21, 2007), Singing and Communicating in English: A Singer's Guide to English Diction, pp. 241–242
  32. ^ Robert Macneil, William Cran (Mariner Books, reprint edition, November 14, 2005), Do You Speak American?, p. 51
  33. ^ [14] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Lizabeth Scott," Female Celebrity Smoking List. Like most actresses of her generation, Scott was a smoker, which may have contributed to the depth of her voice. "In December of 1995 Lizabeth quit smoking. She cites her self-discipline as being a key factor in her life success and ceased her habit cold-turkey. She encourages all to follow her lead although she admits, 'not a day goes by when I don't have that urge to smoke.'"
  34. ^ Bob Thomas (Wednesday, November 17, 1948), "Ford, Lupino Do Turn-About Query," "The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, Florida), p. 11
  35. ^ a b Howard C. Heyn (Sunday, November 28, 1948), "Lush, Sultry and Single," "The Salt Lake Tribune" (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 75
  36. ^ a b c d James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 519
  37. ^ a b Karen Burroughs Hannsberry (McFarland & Company, 1998), Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film, p. 445
  38. ^ Anonymous (Tuesday, July 31, 1934), "Little Flower Notes," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 8
  39. ^ Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 465
  40. ^ Anonymous (Saturday, June 3, 1933), "Marywood Seminary Pupils Give Recital," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 6. This school burnt down in 1971.
  41. ^ Janice H. McElroy (Pennsylvania Division, American Association of University Women, June 1, 1983), Our Hidden Heritage: Pennsylvania Women in History, p. 380
  42. ^ [15] Joseph Myers (January 26, 2012; accessed April 27, 2014), University of the Arts lauds Mae Desmond: A new musical will address the life of a Queen Village theatrical legend
  43. ^ Anonymous (Thursday, May 18, 1939), "News and Comment Of Stage and Screen," Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts), p. 11. Paramount Pretties states that Scott was working for Mae Desmond at "Lake Ariel, New York," rather than Lake Ariel's actual location in Pennsylvania.
  44. ^ a b c d Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 466
  45. ^ Kathryn Leigh Scott (Gallery Books, September 27, 2011), The Bunny Years: The Surprising Inside Story of the Playboy Clubs: The Women Who Worked as Bunnies, and Where They Are Now, p. 12
  46. ^ a b c [16] Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed April 27, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 2 of 8
  47. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 96–97
  48. ^ a b David Ragan (Prentice Hall, July 1, 1985), "Lizabeth Scott," Movie Stars of the 40s, p. 192
  49. ^ Ray Peacock (Friday, May 22, 1942), "Vaudeville's Back But Sh-h-h! It's Only Been Hiding," The Evening Review (East Liverpool, Ohio), p. 19
  50. ^ Anonymous (Friday, May 16, 1941), "'Hellzapoppin' In Chicago," The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor, Michigan), p. 7
  51. ^ Erskine Johnson (Wednesday, January 10, 1945), In Hollywood, The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 12
  52. ^ Anonymous (Sunday, August 26, 1945), "Nickname Sticks: Lizabeth Succumbs To Hollywood Fad," The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 41
  53. ^ James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 520. This Shubert Organization theater is listed elsewhere as defunct and/or demolished.
  54. ^ Erskine Johnson (Friday, January 12, 1945), "That's California 'Dew,'" In Hollywood, Ironwood Daily Globe (Ironwood, Michigan), p. 10
  55. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 97
  56. ^ Louis Sobol (Sunday, January 22, 1950), "Ballyhoo That Backfired!" Idaho State Journal (Pocatello, Idaho), p. 30
  57. ^ [17] Earl Wilson (1947, accessed April 27, 2014), "Big City Doesn't Do Much For Handicapped Veterans," It Happened Last Night, New York Evening Post (New York City, New York)
  58. ^ Victor Gunson (Sunday, December 1, 1946), "Treason? Film Actress Lizabeth Scott Thinks N.Y. Glamorous, Not Hollywood," The Raleigh Register (Beckley, West Virginia), p. 13
  59. ^ a b Joel Lobenthal (It Books, October 26, 2004), Tallulah!: The Life and times of a Leading Lady, p. 347
  60. ^ [18] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Michael Myerberg, Broadway Heretic," New York City April 1946
  61. ^ Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 471
  62. ^ Tallulah Bankhead (University Press of Mississippi, July 7, 2004), Tallulah: My Autobiography, p. 250. Bankhead on Myerberg: "In naming Michael Myerberg to produce The Skin of Our Teeth, Wilder flouted all professional canons. Myerberg was an erratic, tactless man, lean as Cassius, who had been fiddling around the theater for a dozen years with little success." Scott is not mentioned in Bankhead's autobiography.
  63. ^ [19] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Michael Myerberg, Broadway Heretic," New York City April 1946
  64. ^ Sam Stagg (St. Martin's Press, 1st edition, March 18, 2000), All About "All About Eve," pp. 319–335. The text cites Martina Lawrence, a secretary to Elizabeth Bergner, who fired Lawrence for still disputed reasons. Lawrence's husband was overseas during WW2, leaving Lawrence to support herself in New York City during the war years. Lawrence claimed that Mary Orr falsely attributed the origin of The Wisdom of Eve to her relationship to Bergner, which was one of employee to employer and in no way resembled the Orr story.
  65. ^ Mary Orr, "The Wisdom of Eve," Cosmopolitan, May 1946, pp. 72–75, 191–95
  66. ^ Bruce Kirle (Southern Illinois University Press; 1st edition, October 24, 2005), Unfinished Show Business: Broadway Musicals as Works-in-process, p. 191
  67. ^ [20] AFI (accessed April 27, 2014), All About Eve, Catalog of Feature Films
  68. ^ Sam Stagg (St. Martin's Press, March 18, 2000), All About "All About Eve," p. 224
  69. ^ Dorothy Kilgallen (Thursday, June 24, 1943), "The $64 Questions," The Voice Of Broadway, Times Herald (Olean, New York), p. 13
  70. ^ Thornton Wilder (Samuel French, first acting edition, January 1, 1944), The Skin of Our Teeth, p. 5
  71. ^ George Jean Nathan (Ulan Press, reprint of 1943 edition, October 28, 2012), The Theatre Book of the Year, 1942–1943, p. 132
  72. ^ [21] IBDb (accessed April 27, 2014), "Elizabeth Scott," IBDb
  73. ^ Tallulah Bankhead (University Press of Mississippi, July 7, 2004), Tallulah: My Autobiography, pp. 258–259
  74. ^ David Bret (Robson Books, September 1998), Tallulah Bankhead: A Scandalous Life, p. 174
  75. ^ Eric Braun (Reynolds & Hearn, 2nd edition, May 1, 2007), Frightening the Horses: Gay Icons of the Cinema, p. 1927
  76. ^ a b Karen Burroughs Hannsberry (McFarland & Company, 1998), Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film, p. 446
  77. ^ Laura Wagner (McFarland & Company, September 2004), Killer Tomatoes: Fifteen Tough Film Dames, p. 66
  78. ^ Anonymous (September 18, 1943), "Out-of-Town Opening," The Billboard (New York City, New York), p. 25. Billed as Gloria Hallward, Grahame was the second leading lady in Star Dust, opening in an "out-of-town" try-out. Her understudy was another future femme fatale, Marie Windsor.
  79. ^ Anonymous (Sunday, August 15, 1943), "Myerberg 'Snatches' Gladys George Under Hollywood's Nose," The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), p. 31. George took over as Sabina on Monday, August 16, 1943.
  80. ^ Anonymous (Tuesday, August 31, 1943), "The 'Skin of Our Teeth' Stars Out of Cast," New York Post (New York City, New York), p. 20
  81. ^ Eileen Creelman (Tuesday, June 26, 1945), "Lizabeth Scott, of the Tawny Hair and Deep Voice, Talks of 'You Came Along,'" Picture Plays and Players, The New York Sun (New York City, New York), p. 13
  82. ^ Earl Wilson (Saturday, June 10, 1972), "A Couple Of Strangers Helped Cloris' Career," That's Earl For Today," Cafe Circuit: It Happened Last Night, The Terre Haute Star (Terre Haute, Indiana), p. 4. In 1946 Joe Russell and Irving Hoffman had another collaborative success with Cloris Leachman.
  83. ^ Arthur Gelb (Putnam Adult, 1st edition, October 13, 2003), City Room, p. 90. Joe Russell and Irving Hoffman lived in the same New York City apartment building, together with other press agents, where everyone would compare notes over poker games.
  84. ^ Ken Bloom (Routledge, 2nd edition, November 11, 2003), Broadway: Its History, People, and Places: an Encyclopedia, pp. 249–250
  85. ^ Lauren Bacall (Knopf, December 12, 1978), By Myself, pp. 70–72
  86. ^ Earl Wilson (Tuesday, December 17, 1968), "That's Earl For Today," The Evening Standard (Uniontown, Pennsylvania), p. 2
  87. ^ Louis Sobol (Crown Publishers, January 1, 1968), The Longest Street: A Memoir, p. 392. According to Sobol, Hoffman arranged for Hal Wallis to be at the Stork Club.
  88. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 97–98
  89. ^ Maud M. Miller (Winchester Publications, 1948), Winchester's Screen Encyclopedia, p. 170
  90. ^ 1944 Walter Thornton Model Agency calendar, Lizabeth Scott Model of the month
  91. ^ [22] Anonymous (May 16, 1990; accessed April 27, 2014), " Walter Thornton, Agent for Models, Dies of Stroke at 88," The New York Times (New York City, New York)
  92. ^ Howard Greenberger (St. Martin's Press, 1978) "Bogey's Baby," p. 88
  93. ^ Lauren Bacall (It Books, October 31, 2006), By Myself and Then Some, pp. 78–81. Previous to Scott, Feldman made a similar invitation to Bacall to come to California, all expenses paid.
  94. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 99
  95. ^ Ernest Havemann (April 17, 1950), "Packages of Stars: Agent Charles Feldman gambles on bundles of actors, directors, scripts," Life (New York City, New York), p. 107
  96. ^ Harlan Lebo (Touchstone, 1st edition, October 1, 1992), Casablanca: Behind the Scenes, p. 194. Though Jack Warner was not involved in making of Casablanca, studio heads were expected to accept awards if no one else was available. But it was common knowledge in the industry that the film was Wallis' personal project. Wallis would spend the rest of his life going back-and-forth in denial that Warner had tricked him. Near the end of his life, Wallis finally conceded to the general consensus of film historians that he was deliberately humiliated by Warner.
  97. ^ James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 520. Waiting period given is two months.
  98. ^ Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 467. Waiting period given is five weeks.
  99. ^ a b J. D. Spiro (Sunday, September 11, 1949), "Lizabeth Is So Different," The Milwaukee Journal (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), p. 3
  100. ^ Paul F. Boller, Ronald L. Davis (Ballantine Books, Aug 12, 1988), Hollywood Anecdotes, p. 133
  101. ^ Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 469
  102. ^ a b c Hedda Hopper (Sunday, October 7, 1951), "She Lives For Her Job," The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 124
  103. ^ Eric Braun (Reynolds & Hearn, 2nd edition, May 1, 2007), Frightening the Horses: Gay Icons of the Cinema, p. 1928
  104. ^ [23] BFI (accessed April 27, 2014), Scott, Elizabeth. BFI Film & TV Database
  105. ^ David Ehrenstein (University of California Press, May 18, 1999), "Desert Fury, Mon Amour," Film Quarterly: Forty Years, a Selection, p. 481. Elizabeth Louise Scott is sometimes confused with Lizabeth Virginia Scott due to the similar name and appearance. The British actress is also confused with Elizabeth Jean Scott (1906–2001), the mother of director Ridley Scott.
  106. ^ [24] Anonymous (Oct 19, 2001; accessed April 27, 2014), "Museum founder dies, 85," Daily Post (Liverpool, England)
  107. ^ Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 467
  108. ^ a b Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 99–100
  109. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 64–84
  110. ^ Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 468. Waiting period given is six months.
  111. ^ a b James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 521
  112. ^ [25] AFI (accessed April 27, 2014), To Have and Have Not, Catalog of Feature Films
  113. ^ Barry Monush (Applause, April 1, 2003), Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Vol. 1: From the Silent Era to 1965, p. 74
  114. ^ American Film Institute (University of California Press, 3 Volume Set edition, August 12, 1999), "Love Letters," The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1941-1950, Volume 1, p. 1425
  115. ^ American Film Institute (University of California Press, 3 Volume Set edition, August 12, 1999), "The Affairs of Susan," The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1941-1950, Volume 1, p. 36
  116. ^ [26] AFI (accessed April 27, 2014), You Came Along, Catalog of Feature Films
  117. ^ a b Bob Thomas (Friday, March 16, 1945), "Hollywood—It Takes A Spark To Make A Star," Big Spring Weekly Herald (Big Spring, Texas), p. 14
  118. ^ Gita Bumpass (Sunday, November 25, 1945), "Three First-Run Pictures Offered on Abilene Screen," Abilene Reporter-News (Abilene, Texas), p. 12
  119. ^ Rebel Hope (Sunday, May 11, 1947), On Film Fare, Abilene Reporter-News (Abilene, Texas), p. 88
  120. ^ Barry Monush (Applause, April 1, 2003), Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Vol. 1: From the Silent Era to 1965, pp. 669–670
  121. ^ Tom Milne, John Pym (Penguin Books, 2007), Time Out Film Guide, Volume 15, p. 275
  122. ^ Pauline Kael (Henry Holt and Company, May 15, 1991), 5001 Nights at the Movies, p. 179
  123. ^ Erskine Johnson (Friday, November 23, 1945), Hollywood, Rhinelander Daily News (Rhinelander, Wisconsin), p. 4
  124. ^ a b [27] Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed April 27, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 4 of 8
  125. ^ [28] AFI (accessed April 27, 2014), You Came Along, Catalog of Feature Films
  126. ^ Dorothy Kilgallen (Monday, October 1, 1945), "You Meet Such Interesting People—" The Voice of Broadway, The News-Herald (Franklin, Pennsylvania), p. 4
  127. ^ [29] Anonymous (September 10, 1945; accessed April 27, 2014), "Inside Paramount," Life (New York City, New York), p. 11
  128. ^ Louella O. Parsons (Tuesday, June 5, 1945), "Marie McDonald Will Star In Getting Gertie's Garter," The Modesto Bee And News-Herald (Modesto, California), p. 3. McDonald disliked her moniker, though acknowledging that no actress would be known as "The Brain" in Hollywood.
  129. ^ Ben Lepkin (Saturday, March 25, 1944), I Like The Movies, The Winnipeg Tribune (Winnipeg Canada), p. 13
  130. ^ Francis Sill Wickware (May 7, 1945), "Lauren Bacall," Life, (New York City, New York), p. 101
  131. ^ James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 519. Scott's height is variously given by other sources as 5'4" and 5'7".
  132. ^ Francis Sill Wickware (May 7, 1945), "Lauren Bacall," Life, (New York City, New York), p. 101. In comparison, Lauren Bacall's statistics are given as a 34" bust, 23" waist, with a height just under 5'7", which are close to Scott's.
  133. ^ Aline Mosby (Tuesday, February 12, 1957), "Lizabeth Scott Back In Hollywood Blossoming As Singer, Couturiere," The Daily Republican (Monongahela, Pennsylvania), p. 4. Scott sang for the first and only time in her film career in You Came Along (1945), with Helen Forrest and a chorus.
  134. ^ Robert Miklitsch (Rutgers University Press, February 1, 2011), Siren City: Sound and Source Music in Classic American Noir, p. 219. Trudy Stevens dubbed Scott's singing in Dead Reckoning (1946), I Walk Alone (1947) and Dark City (1950).
  135. ^ Alice Pardoe West (Sunday, July 2, 1950), Behind the Scenes, Ogden Standard-Examiner (Ogden, Utah), p. 7B
  136. ^ John Todd (Friday, May 3, 1946), In Hollywood, Tipton Tribune (Tipton, Indiana), p. 2
  137. ^ Bob Thomas (Wednesday, February 6, 1946), "Billy Rose Regards Life Story as 'Deal,'" The Times (San Mateo, California), p. 8
  138. ^ Jimmie Fidler (Monday, April 29, 1946), In Hollywood, Pottstown Mercury (Pottstown, Pennsylvania), p. 4
  139. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 103, 130. Lauren Bacall talked Hallis Wallis into hiring Douglas for his debut role. Bacall and Douglas used to date as teenagers in New York City.
  140. ^ [30] The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, Catalog of Feature Films
  141. ^ Jimmie Fidler (Sunday, July 14, 1946), Jimmie Fidler In Hollywood, Joplin Globe (Joplin, Missouri), p. 28
  142. ^ Eddie Muller (Titan, 1998), Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir, pp. 64–66
  143. ^ Alan Casty (McFarland & Company, March 25, 2013), Robert Rossen: The Films and Politics of a Blacklisted Idealist, p. 154. Screenwriter Robert Rossen was a member of the Communist Party USA till he left sometime during 1946–47.
  144. ^ John Sbardellati (Cornell University Press, 1st edition, May 1, 2012) J. Edgar Hoover Goes to the Movies: The FBI and the Origins of Hollywood's Cold War, p. 98
  145. ^ [31] AFI (accessed April 27, 2014), The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, Catalog of Feature Films
  146. ^ Bruce Downes (February 1946), "Halsman at Work," Popular Photography, p. 26. Halsman apparently spared Scott from jumping in the air during the shoot.
  147. ^ Bruce Downes (February 1946), "Halsman at Work," Popular Photography, pp. 58, 158
  148. ^ Marian Janssen (University of Missouri, December 31, 2010), Not at All What One Is Used To: The Life and Times of Isabella Gardner, pp. 63, 66
  149. ^ [32] Ron Seymour (accessed April 27, 2014), The Maurice Seymour Gallery
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  152. ^ Hedda Hopper (Saturday, June 15, 1946), Hedda Hopper's Looking at Hollywood, Harrisburg Telegraph (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) p. 21
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  161. ^ John Kobal (Berkley, reissue edition, December 1, 1983), Rita Hayworth, p. 161
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  170. ^ Christine M. Sapienza, Bari Hoffman-Ruddy (Plural Publishing, Dec 1, 2008), Voice Disorders, p. 99. Bacall later suffered from Bogart-Bacall Syndrome.
  171. ^ Ann Sperber (It Books, reissue edition, November 29, 2011), Bogart, p. 245
  172. ^ Bettina Sheppard (Adams Media, October 17, 2008), The Everything Singing Book with CD: From mastering breathing techniques to performing live—all you need to hit the right notes, p. 103
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  174. ^ Dick Kleiner (Monday, July 17, 1995), "Sinise was nominated for 'Gump,'" The Kokomo Tribune (Kokomo, Indiana), p. 7
  175. ^ Bettelou Peterson (January 14, 1992), "Where's Lizabeth Scott?" Deseret News
  176. ^ a b Karen Burroughs Hannsberry (McFarland & Company, 1998), Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film, p. 454
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  178. ^ Daniela Turudich (Streamline Press, 2nd edition, May 1, 2012), 1940s Hairstyles, pp. 46–47
  179. ^ Matthew Bernstein (University of Minnesota Press, January 31, 2000), Walter Wanger, Hollywood Independent, p. 190. Producer Walter Wanger cast Yvonne de Carlo for Salome, Where She Danced (1945) due to her supposed resemblance to Hedy Lamarr and Joan Bennett, though de Carlo is usually compared to Gene Tierney in facial appearance.
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  182. ^ Alan K. Rode (McFarland & Company, reprint edition, August 14, 2012), Charles McGraw: Biography of a Film Noir Tough Guy, p. 116. "... (Lloyd) Nolan's secretary (was) smoky-voiced Virginia Leith ... who remains one of the interesting 'what-ifs' from 1950s Hollywood. The actress was briefly placed under contract by Warners shortly before the studios dumped most of their contracted players in the lates 1950s. Leith resembled a brunette Lizabeth Scott that might have lived down the block in the suburbs and been mooned over by, say, Tony (Dow)."
  183. ^ Tom Weaver (McFarland & Company, February 25, 2010), "Rosemarie Bowe on The Golden Mistress," A Sci-Fi Swarm and Horror Horde: Interviews with 62 Filmmakers, pp. 153–154
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  199. ^ Herbert Cohn (Thursday, October 30, 1947), "'Desert Fury' at Brooklyn Paramount With Lizabeth Scott, Hodiak, Corey," The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), p. 13. The 1947 review describes Edith Head's 1920–30s retro designs as "remarkable out of style."
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  205. ^ Nancy Nelson (Applause, August 1, 2012), Evenings With Cary Grant: Recollections in His Own Words and by Those Who Knew Him Best, p. 166. According to varying accounts, Drake deliberately failed the screen test to get out of her contract with either her agent or Paramount.
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  219. ^ Nick Redfern (Gallery Books, February 20, 2007), "Lucille Ball," Celebrity Secrets: Official Government Files on the Rich and Famous, p. 218–219
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  222. ^ Reynold Humphries (Edinburgh University Press, March 31, 2010), Hollywood's Blacklists: A Political and Cultural History, p. 82. Though Cromwell was never named as a communist, Adolphe Menjou implied to the HUAC that Cromwell spoke like a communist.
  223. ^ Joe Russo, Larry Landsman, Edward Gross, (St. Martin's Griffin, 1st edition, August 11, 2001), Planet of the Apes Revisited: The Role of the Chicago Underworld in the Shaping of Modern America, pp. 50–51
  224. ^ Peter Stanfield, Frank Krutnik, Brian Neve, Steve Neale, eds (Rutgers University Press, December 15, 2007), "Un-American" Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era, p. 189
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  226. ^ a b c Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 468
  227. ^ Robert Porfirio, Alain Silver, James Ursini (Limelight Editions, August 1, 2004), Film Noir Reader 3: Interviews with Filmmakers of the Classic Noir Period, p. 19
  228. ^ Mark Bould (Wallflower Press, December 7, 2005), Film Noir: From Berlin to Sin City, p. 61
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  233. ^ Stefan Kanfe (2007), Ball of Fire: The Tumultuous Life and Comic Art of Lucille Ball, pp. 85, 112. Before the shooting of Seven Days' Leave, Mature wanted Rita Hayworth as leading lady and when denied, took out his frustration on Ball.
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  250. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 123–124
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  254. ^ Louella O. Parsons (Friday, January 28, 1949), "Robert Donat Agrees To Come To US, Gets Top Role In Broadway Show," The Fresno Bee The Republican (Fresno, California), p. 9
  255. ^ Allan R. Ellenberger (McFarland & Company, October 2000), Ramon Novarro: A Biography of the Silent Film Idol, 1899–1968; With a Filmography, p. 157
  256. ^ William Hare (Mcfarland & Company, August 2003), Early Film Noir: Greed, Lust and Murder Hollywood Style, pp. 101–102
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  258. ^ Lee Server (St. Martin's Press, 1st edition, March 20, 2001), Robert Mitchum: "Baby I Don't Care," pp. 183–184
  259. ^ Dorothy Kilgallen (Thursday, February 24, 1949), Voice Of Broadway: Broadway Bulletin Board, The Record-Argus (Greenville, Pennsylvania), p. 9
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  261. ^ Liz Sonneborn (Facts on File, November 2001), A to Z of American Women in the Performing Arts, pp. 6–7
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  267. ^ James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount pretties, p. 525
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  282. ^ Peter Firchow (LIT Verlag, March 27, 2009), "Huxley And Isherwood: The California Years," Aldous Huxley Annual, p. 6. Firchow describes the cult as "Isis."
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  349. ^ Karen Burroughs Hannsberry (McFarland & Company, 1998), Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film, p. 450
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  356. ^ Ken Burke, Dan Griffin (Chicago Review Press, August 1, 2006), The Blue Moon Boys: The Story of Elvis Presley's Band, p. 100
  357. ^ Richard Schickel (Thomas Dunne Books, 1st edition, December 12, 2006), Bogie: A Celebration of the Life and Films of Humphrey Bogart, p. 122. Despite Bogart's oft public praise of Scott, Schickel alleges that "(Bogart) was resentful when obliged to perform with an inferior Bacall-look-alike, Lizabeth Scott in Dead Reckoning."
  358. ^ Noel F. Busch (July 24, 1939), "America's Oomph Girl," Life (New York City, New York), p. 66. Though Louis B. Mayer of MGM originally signed on Lamarr, MGM did nothing with Lamarr till after her success in United Artists' Algiers.
  359. ^ Matthew Bernstein (University of Minnesota Press, January 31, 2000), Walter Wanger, Hollywood Independent, p. 190
  360. ^ Jeffrey Meyers (Fromm International, 1999), Bogart: a life in Hollywood, p. 340
  361. ^ Robert Heide, John Gilman (Doubleday, May 20, 1986), Starstruck: The Wonderful World of Movie Memorabilia, p. 204
  362. ^ Jeanine Basinger (Vintage, January 6, 2009), The Star Machine, p. 290
  363. ^ [83] Tom Vallance (Saturday 28 August 1999; accessed April 27, 2014), "Obituary: Nancy Guild," The Independent. As a 20th Century Fox contractee, Guild's direct predecessor was Gene Tierney—who herself descended from a line of 20th Century Fox actresses that began with Theda Bara in William Fox's A Fool There Was (1915)—rather than Scott or Lauren Bacall as various film historians have suggested.
  364. ^ Noel F. Busch (July 24, 1939), "America's Oomph Girl," Life (New York City, New York), p. 66. In 1938 Wanger, working then at United Artists, discovered Lamarr at MGM and borrowed her for Algiers. He made over Lamarr into an Americanized femme fatale-type. After Lamarr returned to MGM, Wanger found a replacement in a blonde Joan Bennett and made her into a duplicate of the brunette Lamarr.
  365. ^ Matthew Bernstein (University of Minnesota Press, January 31, 2000), Walter Wanger, Hollywood Independent, p. 146
  366. ^ Debbie Wells (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, April 28, 2011), 1940's Style Guide, pp. 40–42
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  368. ^ Sylvie Aubenas, Xavier Demange (Chronicle Books, April 5, 2007), Elegance: The Seeberger Brothers and the Birth of Fashion Photography, p. 44. The authors place the long-hair look of the WW2 years—as well as the grand hats, platform shoes and short dresses typical of the period—back to 1937.
  369. ^ Ray Hagen, Laura Wagner, (Mcfarland & Company, September 2004), Killer Tomatoes: Fifteen Tough Film Dames, pp. 172, 197. When Marlene Dietrich first appeared in the US, it was assumed by some critics that she was a copy of Greta Garbo.
  370. ^ Anonymous (Southern Methodist University Press, 1950), Southwest Review Volumes 35-36 (Dallas, Texas), p. 215. During the first half of the 20th century, a common critical view of the silent era femme fatales was that they were only a caricature, with a reprieve during the naturalistic '30s, but that the '40s was a return to the bad old days of Theda Bara and Musidora: "The femme fatale became a more recognizable woman in Greta Garbo and her double, Marlene Dietrich. She lingers in Hedy Lamarr and has been made ridiculous again by such synthetic sirens as Lauren Bacall and Lizabeth Scott."
  371. ^ Theresa St. Romain (Mcfarland & Company, reprint edition, March 16, 2012), Margarita Fischer: A Biography of the Silent Film Star, pp. 40, 66–67. Margarita Fischer in The Vampire (1910) preceded Theda Bara's femme fatale in A Fool There Was (1915), though Bara popularized the archetype. The Vampire derived from Rudyard Kipling's poem of the same name.
  372. ^ Moritz Föllmer (Cambridge University Press, February 25, 2013), Individuality and Modernity in Berlin: Self and Society from Weimar to the Wall, pp. 57–58
  373. ^ [85] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Female Celebrity Smoking List—Garbo." Garbo was a heavy smoker.
  374. ^ [86] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Female Celebrity Smoking List—Dietrich." Dietrich was a heavy smoker.
  375. ^ Noel F. Busch (July 24, 1939), "America's Oomph Girl," Life (New York City, New York), p. 66. Typical of the 1930–50s period, Ann Sheridan would consume 30 cigarettes a day.
  376. ^ [87] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Female Celebrity Smoking List—Tierney." Gene Tierney took up smoking due to her squeaky voice in The Return of Frank James (1940).
  377. ^ Jeanine Basinger (Vintage, January 6, 2009), The Star Machine, p. 290. According to Basinger, the true proof that an actor was a star was that studios, including the one's own, would create lookalikes. Margaret O'Brien is quoted as saying how MGM created lookalikes for every star and how the studio used them to keep the stars in line.
  378. ^ [88] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Female Celebrity Smoking List—Lauren Bacall." Bacall was a heavy smoker and had several smoking scenes in her first film.
  379. ^ a b Bruce Crowther (Columbus Books, 1988), Film Noir: Reflections in a Dark Mirror, p. 123
  380. ^ Foster Hirsch (Da Capo Press, 2nd edition, November 25, 2008), The Dark Side of the Screen: Film Noir, p. 224. Paula Haller of Desert Fury is eager to join her mother's underworld activities, despite Fritzi wanting a normal life for her daughter.
  381. ^ Mark Bould (Wallflower Press, December 7, 2005), Film Noir: From Berlin to Sin City, p. 61. Bould is one of the few film historians that recognizes that Scott's Mona Stevens of Pitfall is not a true femme fatale.
  382. ^ Aaron Sultanik (Associated University Press, June 1986), Film: A Modern Art, pp. 272–273
  383. ^ Paula Rabinowitz (Columbia University Press, July 15, 2002), Black & White & Noir: America's Pulp Modernism, pp. 95–96
  384. ^ R. J. Reynolds (November 30, 1953), Camel advertisement, Life, (New York City, New York), back cover
  385. ^ [89] Anonymous (accessed April 27, 2014), "Lizabeth Scott." Scott has smoked in ten of her films.
  386. ^ David Ehrenstein (University of California Press, May 18, 1999), "Desert Fury, Mon Amour," Film Quarterly: Forty Years, a Selection, pp. 483
  387. ^ Melanie Bell (I. B. Tauris, February 2, 2010), Femininity in the Frame: Women and 1950s British Popular Cinema, pp. 30–33. Bell cites Scott's gowns and high-heeled shoes in Stolen Face (1952).
  388. ^ Herbert Cohn (Thursday, October 30, 1947), "'Desert Fury' at Brooklyn Paramount With Lizabeth Scott, Hodiak, Corey," The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), p. 13
  389. ^ Eddie Muller commentary, The Racket, Warner Home Video, 2006
  390. ^ Andrew Spicer (Scarecrow Press, March 19, 2010), Historical Dictionary of Film Noir, p. 273
  391. ^ John Reid (Lulu.com, November 19, 2004), "Desert Fury," Popular Pictures of the Hollywood 1940s, pp. 34–35
  392. ^ Karen Hollinge (Routledge, April 21, 2006), The Actress: Hollywood Acting and the Female Star, pp. 9–10. "(Cynthia) Baron characterizes studio acting as an eclectic mix of pragmatic acting strategies and guidelines that centered around three major concerns: the actor's adjustment from stage to screen, the development of "silent thinking" as a way to help formulate appropriate reactions during shooting, and the building of a character through careful script analysis, extensive preparation, and dispassionate execution. She proposes that (s)tudio actors developed their craft, not by using a single method, but rather by drawing on a complex integration of techniques taken from silent films, theater, dance, modeling, vaudeville, and the theories of Constantin Stanislavski." Baron's list reads like a resume of Scott's.
  393. ^ Dick McCrone (Friday, January 23, 1948), HomeTown Fan Fare, The Evening News (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), p. 11
  394. ^ Terence Pettigrew (Proteus, 1981), Bogart: A Definitive Study of His Film Career, p. 86
  395. ^ Brian W. Fairbanks (Lulu.com, October 28, 2005), The Late Show—Writings on Film, p. 136
  396. ^ John DiLeo (Limelight Editions, August 1, 2004), 100 Great Film Performances You Should Remember—But Probably Don't, p. 165
  397. ^ Jay Jorgensen (Running Press, 1st edition, October 5, 2010), Edith Head: The Fifty-year Career of Hollywood's Greatest Costume Designer, p. 126
  398. ^ Dan Callahan (University Press of Mississippi, February 3, 2012), Barbara Stanwyck: The Miracle Woman, p. 152
  399. ^ Frank Krutnik (Routledge, August 24, 1991), In a Lonely Street: Film Noir, Genre, Masculinity, p. 257
  400. ^ David J. Hogan (Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, April 15, 2013), Film Noir FAQ: All That's Left to Know About Hollywood's Golden Age of Dames, Detectives, and Danger, p. 100
  401. ^ Jerome Charyn (NYU Press, August 1, 1996), Movieland: Hollywood and the Great American Dream Culture, p. 137
  402. ^ Jerome Charyn (NYU Press, August 1, 1996), Movieland: Hollywood and the Great American Dream Culture, p. 135
  403. ^ David J. Hogan (Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, April 15, 2013), Film Noir FAQ: All That's Left to Know About Hollywood's Golden Age of Dames, Detectives, and Danger
  404. ^ Foster Hirsch (Da Capo Press, 2nd edition, November 25, 2008), The Dark Side of the Screen: Film Noir, pp. 221–222
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  408. ^ a b UP (Saturday, January 4, 1958), "Former Confidential Editor Kills Wife, Self," Tucson Daily Citizen (Tucson, Arizona) p. 1
  409. ^ Anonymous, (September 1955), table of contents, Confidential, (New York City, New York), p. 4
  410. ^ Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 49
  411. ^ Carlton Jackson (Madison Books, April 14, 1993), Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel, p. 49. In Jackson's account, Rushmore quit the Daily Worker in protest, rather than being fired.
  412. ^ David M. Oshinsky (Oxford University Press, USA, September 29, 2005), A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy, p. 252
  413. ^ Earl Wilson (Monday, January 13, 1958), "Gleason Losing 70 Pounds; 'At's What The Man Said," It Happened Last Night, The Terre Haute Star (Terre Haute, Indiana), p. 4
  414. ^ Anonymous (November 11, 1946), "Should a Mother Continue to Model?" Life (New York City, New York), p. 1. Ad for Ipana Tooth Paste.
  415. ^ R. Fred Houts (R.F. Houts, 1991), Seventeen generations of Lawrences: Being primarily a genealogical record of the family and descendants of Oliver and Patty Ann (Wait) Lawrence, p. 200
  416. ^ R. Fred Houts (R.F. Houts, 1991), Seventeen generations of Lawrences: Being primarily a genealogical record of the family and descendants of Oliver and Patty Ann (Wait) Lawrence, p. 141
  417. ^ Earl Wilson (Monday, January 13, 1958), "Gleason Losing 70 Pounds; 'At's What The Man Said," It Happened Last Night, The Terre Haute Star (Terre Haute, Indiana), p. 4
  418. ^ Earl Wilson (Monday, January 13, 1958), "Gleason Losing 70 Pounds; 'At's What The Man Said," It Happened Last Night, The Terre Haute Star (Terre Haute, Indiana), p. 4. Ruth Rushmore's lawyer would later maintain that the Mexican divorce was invalid and that Howard Rushmore was a bigamist.
  419. ^ Larry Ceplair (University of Illinois Press, July 17, 2003), The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930–60, pp. xiii–xiv
  420. ^ Diana West (St. Martin's Press, May 28, 2013), American Betrayal: The Secret Assault on Our Nation's Character, pp. 88–89. Before the Cold War, communists working in the film industry on their own initiative (without directives from Moscow) would censor screenplays hostile to the Soviet Union.
  421. ^ Peter C. Rollins (Columbia University Press, March 24, 2004), The Columbia Companion to American History on Film, pp. 29–31
  422. ^ Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 53
  423. ^ David M. Oshinsky (Oxford University Press, USA, September 29, 2005), A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy, p. 318
  424. ^ Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 36
  425. ^ Neal Gabler (April 2003), "The Scandalmonger: Confidential's Reign of Terror," Vanity Fair (New York City, New York), p. 197
  426. ^ a b Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 98
  427. ^ Kenneth Anger (Straight Arrow Books, reprint edition, November 15, 1981), Hollywood Babylon: The Legendary Underground Classic of Hollywood's Darkest and Best Kept Secrets, p. 377
  428. ^ [93] Trulia (accessed April 27, 2014), "8142 Laurel View Dr Los Angeles, CA 90069 (Hollywood Hills)." Rushmore described the four-bedroom, two-story stucco residence, built in 1926, as a "swanky, four-story house."
  429. ^ AP (Saturday, October 2, 1954), "Juvenile, 3 Others Nabbed in Vice Raid," The San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California), p. 2
  430. ^ Cord Coslor (Lulu Press, 1st edition, November 1, 2004), The Ultimate Celebrity Address & Phone Book: Autograph Collecting & Media Guide, p. 30
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  435. ^ [97] Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company (May 1956, accessed April 27, 2014), Los Angeles Street Address Directory, p. 598
  436. ^ The Office of the State Fire Marshal, California (1948), Approved List. Flame-Retardant Application Concerns, Fabrics, Materials and Chemicals, p. 4
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  438. ^ Peter Bogdanovich (Ballantine Books, reprint edition, October 25, 2005), Who the Hell's in It: Conversations with Hollywood's Legendary Actors, p. 130
  439. ^ Matt Williams, (September 1955), "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book," Confidential (New York City, New York), p. 50
  440. ^ [99] Sidney Skolsky (Saturday January 19, 1946; accessed April 27, 2014), "Hollywood Tintype: Hollywood's Newest Threat," Post Weekly Picture Magazine, New York Post (New York City, New York), p. 1. Rushmore's article possibly cites the New York Post version of Skolsky's article. Abridged and sentences altered, it contains an extra sentence: "She is a chain smoker and she uses a male cologne."
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  442. ^ a b Matt Williams (September 1955), "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book," Confidential (New York City, New York), pp. 32–33
  443. ^ Matt Williams (September 1955), "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book," Confidential (New York City, New York), p. 50
  444. ^ Shirelle Phelps (Gale, Nov 21, 1997), Contemporary Black Biography: Profiles from the International Black Community, Volume 16, p. 118. After the war, Marlene Dietrich moved her old club "Le Silhouette" to a new location in Paris and renamed it "Le Carroll's."
  445. ^ Robert L. Griere (Saturday, August 3, 1963), "Eat in Paris And Swoon With Delight," The Pittsburgh Courier (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), p. 13
  446. ^ Serge Guilbaut (Museu Dart Contemporani de Barcelona, March 15, 2008), Be-Bomb: The Transatlantic War of Images and All That Jazz. 1946–1956, p. 116
  447. ^ Anonymous (Gray's Inn Press, 1963), Transport Salaried Staff Journal, Volumes 60-61, p. 18
  448. ^ Brian N. Morton (Olivia & Hill Press, 1st edition, May 1984), Americans in Paris, p. 71
  449. ^ Neal Gabler (April 2003), "The Scandalmonger: Confidential's Reign of Terror," Vanity Fair (New York City, New York), p. 200
  450. ^ Kenneth Anger (Straight Arrow Books, reprint edition, November 15, 1981), Hollywood Babylon: The Legendary Underground Classic of Hollywood's Darkest and Best Kept Secrets, p. 377
  451. ^ James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 530
  452. ^ Anonymous, (September 1955), Confidential, (New York City, New York), p. 4. On the table of contents, the article had the longer title of "Why Was Lizabeth Scott's Name In The Call Girls' Call Book?"
  453. ^ [101] AFI (accessed April 27, 2014), The Weapon, AFI Catalog of Films
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  455. ^ Neal Gabler (April 2003), "The Scandalmonger: Confidential's Reign of Terror," Vanity Fair (New York City, New York), p. 202
  456. ^ Sam Kashner, Jennifer MacNair (W. W. Norton & Company, May 17, 2003), The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties, pp. 40–41
  457. ^ INS (Wednesday, August 7, 1957), "Lawyer Opens Trial Of Two Magazines," Anderson Daily Bulletin (Anderson, Indiana), p. 3
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  459. ^ Bob Houser, (Saturday, August 10, 1957), "Actress 'Offered to Have Affair' to Get Hot Story: Tells Role of Cabot's Ex-Wife," Independent (Long Beach, California), pp. 1–2
  460. ^ Dorothy Kilgallen (Thursday, August 22, 1957), On Broadway, The Daily Reporter (Dover, Ohio), p. 6
  461. ^ Eddie Muller (Titan, 1998), Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir, p. 96
  462. ^ Sam Kashner, Jennifer MacNair (W. W. Norton & Company, May 17, 2003), The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties, p. 59
  463. ^ Lillian Faderman, Stuart Timmons (2006), Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians, p. 69
  464. ^ Bonnie Zimmerman, ed. (Routledge, December 1, 1999), Encyclopedia of Lesbian Histories and Cultures, p. 374
  465. ^ Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 109–110
  466. ^ Erskine Johnson (Tuesday, February 24, 1953), Hollywood, Panama City News-Herald (Panama City, Florida), p. 2
  467. ^ Erskine Johnson (Thursday, November 17, 1955), "Lanza Sings Two Hours In Next Film, "Serenade," Erskine In Hollywood, The Gastonia Gazette (Gastonia, North Carolina), p. 25
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  469. ^ Steven H. Scheuer (April 29, 1958), "Jane Powell Tells Of First Picture," TV Keynotes, The Troy Record (Troy, New York), p. 27
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  471. ^ Alanna Nash (Chicago Review Press, September 1, 2004), The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley, pp. 151–152
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  475. ^ Lizabeth Scott, Henri René (Vik, 1957), Lizabeth: Lizabeth Scott with Henri René and His Orchestra. Notes by Earl Wilson.
  476. ^ Edith Head (1959), The Dress Doctor, p. 108
  477. ^ Steven H. Scheuer (April 29, 1958), "Jane Powell Tells Of First Picture," TV Keynotes, The Troy Record (Troy, New York), p. 27
  478. ^ 20th Century Fox Studios (March 21, 1960), Adventures in Paradise: Season 1, Episode 23, The Amazon
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  492. ^ Shirley MacLaine (Bantam, 1st edition, October 1, 1991), Dance While You Can, p. 31
  493. ^ John Meredyth Lucas (Mcfarland & Company, May 2004), Eighty Odd Years in Hollywood: Memoir of a Career in Film and Television, p. 163
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  495. ^ a b Robert Porfirio (2002), "Lizabeth Scott," Film Noir Reader 3: Interviews with Filmmakers of the Classic Noir Period, p. 197
  496. ^ Erskine Johnson (Friday, December 9, 1949), In Hollywood, The Dixon Telegraph (Dixon, Illinois), p. 4
  497. ^ Hal B. Wallis, Charles Higham (Macmillan, September 1, 1980), Starmaker: the autobiography of Hal B. Wallis, pp. 115–116
  498. ^ Charles Higham (University of Wisconsin Press, 1st edition, October 27, 2009), In and Out of Hollywood: A Biographer's Memoir, p. 214
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  502. ^ Dorothy Kilgallen (Friday, July 17, 1953), "Jottings in Pencil," Voice Of Broadway, The Record-Argus (Greenville, Pennsylvania), p. 11
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  505. ^ Kate Buford (Da Capo Press, May 22, 2001), Burt Lancaster: An American Life, p. 6
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