Liver (color)

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LiverHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#674C47
sRGBB  (rgb)(103, 76, 71)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(0, 26, 31, 60)
HSV       (h, s, v)(9°, 31%, 40[1]%)
SourceISCC NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
 
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LiverHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#674C47
sRGBB  (rgb)(103, 76, 71)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(0, 26, 31, 60)
HSV       (h, s, v)(9°, 31%, 40[1]%)
SourceISCC NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color traditionally called liver.

The first recorded use of liver as a color name in English was in 1686.[2]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Liver (color sample #36).


Variations of liver[edit]

Liver may also refer to a group of certain types of dark brown color in dogs and horses. Said nomenclature may also refer to the color of the organ.

Liver (dogs)[edit]

A Shih Tzu with the liver genotype and a partial phenotype, Its liver nose confirms the genotype though it only has liver patches on the body.
Liver (Dogs)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#B86D29
sRGBB  (rgb)(184, 109, 41)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(3, 0, 78, 26)
HSV       (h, s, v)(62°, 78%, 74%)
Source1 (NOTE: The source refers to this color as terra cotta and the two are not exactly alike. However, they are very close.)
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
A dog with a liver-like coat, but a black nose. It is therefore either not liver or the liver genotype has only achieved partial phenotype representation

In dogs, it is a mildly yellowish, light brown shade, however not containing as much yellow as Ochre or Bronze, or a darker brown, often called "chocolate" in breeds such as the Labrador Retriever .[3] The term is most commonly used in reference to Shih Tzus[4] and members of the pit bull breed group,[5] but may refer to the color in any breed of dog. The alleles are stylized as "Bb" and "Dd", and the liver gene occurs in recessive "b". Therefore, a dog must have the genotype "bb" to achieve the Liver phenotype.

The "D" gene is a greyish color and "d" is black, so a dog with the genotype "bbDd" or "bbDD" would be a liver color diluted with grey. The "B" gene gives a bluish color, and these dogs will contain no liver coloring at all. Not all liver dogs actually have any liver fur at all. In fact, it is far easier to tell a liver dog from any other phenotype (in the absence of a liver colored coat of fur) by the color of its nose. Liver dogs will have liver-colored noses, no matter what the color of the dog's coat may be. Should the dog have liver fur, then there is a small genetic chance that the nose may be pink.

The pigment that defines these colors is called Eumelanin, and the presence of certain amounts will determine color. The amount of this pigment is in turn determined by the color genotype of the dog. Dogs with less Eumelin will have a coat color known as "Isabella", a sort of washed out brown. Dogs with a very large amount of said pigment will be black, grey, or blue, and it is genetically impossible for a liver dog to have even a single hair of these colors in its coat. Therefore, a liver coat would be any amount of pigment between these two extremes. The coat notwithstanding though, a liver dog may be a dog of any color if it has a liver-colored nose.

A tan color is represented by a brown sub-allele, represented by the postscript "t", attached to any lighter color. This allele will turn any less "intense" color, especially Liver, White, and Isabella, to tan. It is genetically impossible, however, for a dog to be completely white. A white dog will usually have some area on its body that is not completely white, usually the abdomen, paws, hips, or ears. If they do appear completely white as per their phenotype, they will usually have a black or brown nose. Even eye color can determine the presence of another Eumelanin genotype. Entirely white dogs with no other color are usually albinos, and therefore not affected by any color genotype. White dogs may be liver as well if they have liver noses or spots.

Liver may be known by different names in other breeds. These are Red, Brown, and Chocolate. For example, Redtick Coonhounds are actually liver. They contain the liver genotype as well as a recessive red genotype, stylized as "ee", giving them a reddish-brown shade. Furthermore, a dog may also contain the liver phenotype, but not the genotype. For example, a dog which is a very light shade of brown with Isabella undertones may appear to be liver, although it does not contain the proper Eumelin genotype. These dogs may be distinguished from true genetic liver by the color of their noses, which is usually not liver.[6]

Dark liver (horses)[edit]

An example of a dark liver chestnut-colored horse.
Dark Liver (Horses)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#543D37
sRGBB  (rgb)(84, 61, 55)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(0, 27, 35, 67)
HSV       (h, s, v)(12°, 35%, 33%)
Source3 This color is sometines referred to as "Dark Liver Chestnut" or "Red Chestnut", due to the fact that the color is somewhat reddish.
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

In horses, dark liver chestnut is a chocolate-colored chestnut horse. A dark liver chestnut is the same genetically as a regular chestnut, but the shade is a dark brown rather than the reddish or rust color more typical of chestnut. A horse that appears to be a dark liver chestnut but has a light colored mane and tail, sometimes colloquially called a "chocolate palomino," could be a horse manifesting the champagne gene. However, "flaxen" or light-colored manes and tails are also seen in chestnuts.

The darkest of these shades may be confused for black, but this is not the case. These horses are distinguished from other phenotypes by their reddish legs and hooves. The darkest chestnuts, particularly common in the Morgan horse, may be indistinguishable from true black without very careful inspection.[7] The genotypes that determine specific varieties of Chestnut are not known, at least not as those that distinguish Chestnut from Palomino from Black are. It has recently been suggested, however, that these Liver genes may follow a recessive mode of inheritance, and are the same genes that determine Bay or even darker chestnut colored horses.

Most dark shades of chestnut may be mistaken for liver, but are not due to the previously stated reddish undertones. They may also have reddish undertones or patches in other areas of the body, which is why they may also be known as "Red Chestnut". These reddish pigments usually occur in Medium to Medium-Light shades of Liver, and may either be a nearly complete red or only visible on close inspection.[8] Following is a list of liver shades:

As one can see from this list, liver is not actually a specific shade, but a colloquial term describing a range of dark, reddish Chestnut shades. However, the "lightness" of some of these shades is only relative, as they are all very dark.[8]

Liver chestnut (horses)[edit]

Liver Chestnut (Horses)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#987456
sRGBB  (rgb)(152, 116, 86)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(0, 24, 43, 40)
HSV       (h, s, v)(27°, 43%, 60%)
Source2 This is a lighter variant of the liver color in horses, sometimes known as "Chestnut" or "Light liver chestnut".
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
This horse is actually a "Red dun", but its coat color is similar to that of Liver dogs. They may be termed "Liver" by those who are not familiar with horse breeding.

This color is usually a light, slightly yellowish but not noticeably so without close inspection, chestnut variety. It is not technically a variety of liver as it is not dark and is closer to Palomino, but it is often mistakenly termed as such due to its similarity to the liver color in dog breeding. These horses may have white manes, therefore a recessive "star" forehead marking phenotype and a white mane/tail genotype. It is distinguishable from darker shades of Palomino due to its noticeably large brown saturation. It is the purest manifestation of the Chestnut genotype, therefore sometimes termed simply as "Chestnut".[9]

The main difference between these horses, which can range in color from Red dun to Palomino, and true livers is that they are on opposite ends of the Chestnut color spectrum. True Liver horses are dark, nearly black shades of brown, whereas these horses are much lighter. These horses may occasionally be sold as "Light Liver", and this description is not mistaken as they are manifested in the same genotype. However, they are not in the liver phenotype group.

This distinction is important because a horse may contain the liver genotype and no or partial phenotype, therefore making it technically liver while not liver in coat color. In fact, unlike dogs, horses can be completely liver without actually showing any exterior signs of liver coloration. As previously stated though, most horses of this coloration group are not livers, though some may technically be livers genetically.[10]

Liver (organ)[edit]

An image of a healthy sheep's Liver, human livers are much the same color
Liver (organ)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#6C2E1F
sRGBB  (rgb)(108, 46, 31)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(0, 57, 71, 58)
HSV       (h, s, v)(12°, 71%, 42%)
Source4 This is the color of the organ.
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

This is the color of a healthy human liver. It may range from brown to reddish brown, and the color represented in the box to the right is the gross average of these shades. A yellowish or greenish liver may indicate jaundice or a similar condition, a dark brown color may indicate alcohol poisoning, a black color can indicate terminal Emphysema, and white or grayish tones may indicate cancer. It is unknown why the color of dogs and horses came to be known by the term "Liver", as these tones indicate an unhealthy liver.

These healthy tones usually indicate blood flow, which is why livers and other meat turn grayish brown when cooked.[11]

Dark liver (web)[edit]

Liver (web)(#534B4F)

At right is displayed the color dark liver (web).

This is the shade of dark liver that is the unofficial web color called liver that is traditionally used in web site design.

Liver in nature[edit]

Animals

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #674C47 (Liver):
  2. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198; Color Sample of Liver: Page 37 Plate 7 Color Sample H9
  3. ^ N/A. "Flat-Coated Retriever". dogsindepth.com, the online dog encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-01-21. Use of copyrighted material rationale:Not a word of the article was used, merely the example picture which is liver colored, not included in the article either. Therefore, no content from this site was actually used, although it is a source for this particular shade of liver.
  4. ^ "Nikki" and "Sue" as per 1. "Shih Tzu Colors". websiteworks.com. Retrieved 2013-01-21. Use of copyrighted material rationale:Again, not a word or image of the source was actually used, but it does serve to prove this particular point. If no copyrighted content was actually used, then we cannot be sued for copyright violation.
  5. ^ "ROSE". "Red Nose/Liver". game-dog.com. Retrieved 2013-01-21. Use of copyrighted material rationale:Again,no material was actually used.
  6. ^ J. Chappell. "The Liver Gene". doggenetics.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-21. Fair Use Rationale:The site does not appear to have a license or copyright notice of any kind. I have explored the site fully and found nothing.
  7. ^ Henner, J; PA Poncet, L Aebi, C Hagger, G Stranzinger, S Rieder (August 2002). "Horse breeding: genetic tests for the coat colors chestnut, bay and black. Results from a preliminary study in the Swiss Freiberger horse breed". Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 144 (8): 405–412. "The statistical analysis of 1369 offspring from five stallions indicate, that darker shades of basic color phenotypes (dark chestnut, dark bay) follow a recessive mode of inheritance in the Franches-Montagnes horse breed." 
  8. ^ a b Adriana L. Veiga (2011-07-17). "Base Coat Colors". Equinespassion. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  9. ^ "Myrmidon101" (2007-02-15). "How to Distinguish Horse Color by Name". Wikihow. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  10. ^ Dun Central Station (2006-12-16). "Red Dun Colors & Markings". TDM Equine Design LLC. Retrieved 2013-01-21.  Fair Use Rationale:The site could not have simply used the images with nothing but accreditation if they were not Creative Commons/Fair Use, and the site itself does not appear to display copyright information of any kind.[dead link]
  11. ^ Unknown, Various (Spring 2012). "Hepatic Pathology Index". Mercer School of Medicing Internet Pathology Laboratory for Medical Education. Retrieved 2013-01-21. Fair Use Rationale:This is an educational journal