List of weather records

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This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1]

Temperature

The standard measuring conditions for temperature are two meters above the ground, and shielded from direct sunlight (hence the term, x degrees "in the shade"). These lists include all officially confirmed claims measured by those methods.The satellites take what is called "land skin temperature," which tells the amount of heating of a certain parcel of ground from the sun, the atmosphere and other heat sources.[2]After seven years of collecting infrared data (which indicates temperature) from the Landsat satellites, it has been found that the hottest place on earth in five of those years was actually the Lut Desert in Iran.[2]The single highest land skin temperature recorded in any year of the study was found in the Lut Desert in 2005 and measured 159.3 F (70.7 C). Lut had the highest surface temperature in 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2009 as well.[2]


Heat

Highest temperatures ever recorded

A world map showing areas with Köppen BWh (hot desert climate). The temperature in these regions has potential to exceed 50 ºC (122 °F) during hottest seasons.
Country/RegionTemperatureTown/LocationDate
World
North America
 USA
56.7 °C (134 °F)Furnace Creek Ranch (formerly Greenland Ranch), Death Valley, California10 July 1913[3][4][5]
 Canada45.0 °C (113 °F)Midale, Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan05 July 1937[6]
 Greenland25.9 °C (78.6 °F)Maniitsoq30 July 2013[7]
 Mexico52.0 °C (125.6 °F)San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora06 July 1966[8][9]
Africa
 Tunisia
55.0 °C (131 °F)Kebili07 July 1931[10][11]
 Algeria50.6 °C (123.1 °F)In Salah, Tamanrasset Province12 July 2002[10]
 Cameroon47.7 °C (117.9 °F)Kousseri ?[12]
 Chad47.6 °C (117.7 °F)Faya-Largeau2010-06-22[12]
 Libya50.2 °C (122.4 °F)Zuara1995-06[11][13]
 Morocco49.6 °C (121.3 °F)Marrakech2012-07-17[14]
 Niger48.2 °C (118.8 °F)Bilma2010-06-23[12]
 Nigeria46.4 °C (115.5 °F)Yola2010-04-03[12]
 South Africa50.0 °C (122 °F)Dunbrody, Eastern Cape1918[15]
 Sudan49.7 °C (121.5 °F)Dongola2010-06-25[12]
 Zambia42.4 °C (108.3 °F)Mfuwe, Eastern Province2010-10-13[12]
Asia
 Kuwait
53.6 °C (128.5 °F)Sulaibya2012-07-31[16][17]
 Bangladesh45.1 °C (113.2 °F)Rajshahi1972-04-30[18]
 China49.7 °C (121.5 °F)Ayding Lake, Turpan, Xinjiang2008-08-03[12]
 India50.6 °C (123 °F)Alwar, Rajasthan1956-05-10[19]
 Iraq53.0 °C (127.4 °F)Ali Air Base, Nasiriyah2011-08-03[20][21]
 Japan41.0 °C (105.8 °F)Shimanto, Kōchi2013-08-12[22]
 Malaysia40.1 °C (104.2 °F)Chuping1998-04-09[23]
 Pakistan53.5 °C (128.3 °F)Mohenjo-daro, Sindh2010-05-26[12][24]
 Myanmar47.0 °C (116.6 °F)Myinmu2010-05-12[12]
 Philippines42.2 °C (107.96 °F)Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley1912-04-12[25]
 Qatar50.4 °C (122.7 °F)Doha2010-07-14[12]
 Russia42.3 °C (108.1 °F)Belogorsk, Amur Oblast2010-07-12[26]
 Saudi Arabia52.0 °C (125.6 °F)Jeddah2010-06-22[12]
 Singapore36.0 °C (96.8 °F)Singapore1998-03-26[23]
 South Korea40.0 °C (104 °F)Daegu1942-08-01[27]
 Taiwan40.2 °C (104 °F)Taitung County2004-05-09[28]
 Thailand44.5 °C (112.1 °F)Uttaradit1960-04-27[29]
 Turkey48.8 °C (119.8 °F)Mardin1993-08-14[30]
Oceania
 Australia
50.7 °C (123.3 °F)Oodnadatta, South Australia1960-01-02[31][32][33]
 New Zealand42.4 °C (108.3 °F)Rangiora, Canterbury and Jordan, Marlborough (tied)1973-02-07[34]
 Solomon Islands36.1 °C (97 °F)Honiara, Guadalcanal Province2010-02-01[12]
South America
 Argentina
49.1 °C (120.4 °F)Villa de María, Córdoba Province1920-01-02[31][35]
 Bolivia46.7 °C (116.1 °F)Villamontes, Tarija Department2010-10-29*[12]
 Brazil44.7 °C (112.4 °F)Bom Jesus, Piauí2005-11-21[36]
 Colombia42.3 °C (108 °F)Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca Department2010-10-29[12]
 Paraguay45 °C (113 °F)Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department2009-11-14[37]
 Uruguay44 °C (111.2 °F)Paysandú, Paysandú Department1943-01-20[38]
Central America and Caribbean Islands
 Guatemala
45 °C (113 °F)Estanzuela, Zacapa ?[39]
 Dominican Republic43.0 °C (109.4 °F)Mao1954-08-31[40][41]
 Cuba38.8 °C (102 °F)Jucarito (Granma Province)1999-04-17[42]
 Puerto Rico37.2 °C (99 °F)Arecibo1985-06-25[43]
Europe
 Greece
48.0 °C (118.4 °F )Athens, Greece1977-07-10[44]
 Andorra38.5 °C (101.3 °F)Andorra la Vella ?
 Austria40.5 °C (104.9 °F)Bad Deutsch-Altenburg2013-08-08[45]
 Belarus38.9 °C (102 °F)Gomel2010-08-07[12]
 Belgium38.8 °C (102 °F)Uccle1947-06-27
 Bosnia and Herzegovina43.2 °C (111.16 °F)Mostar (Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina)1900-07-31
 Bulgaria45.2 °C (113.3 °F)Sadovo, Plovdiv Province1916-08-05[46]
 Croatia42.8 °C (109 °F)Ploče1998-08-05[47]
 Cyprus46.6 °C (115.9 °F)Lefkoniko2010-08-01[12]
 Czech Republic40.4 °C (104.7 °F)Dobřichovice, Prague-West District2012-08-20[48]
 Denmark36.4 °C (97.5 °F)Holstebro, Midtjylland1975-08-10[49]
 Estonia35.6 °C (96.1 °F)Võru1992-08-11[50]
 Finland37.2 °C (99 °F)Liperi2010-07-29[51]
 France44.1 °C (111.4 °F)Conqueyrac / Saint-Christol-lès-Alès2003-08-12[52]
 Germany40.2 °C (104.4 °F)Gärmersdorf bei Amberg / Karlsruhe / March (Breisgau) / Freiburg1983-07-27 / 2003-08-09 / 2003-08-13 / 2013-07-27[53][54]
 Hungary41.9 °C (107.4 °F)Kiskunhalas2007-07-20[55]
 Iceland30.5 °C (86.9 °F)Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur1939-06-22[56][57]
 Ireland33.3 °C (92 °F)Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny1887-06-26[58]
 Italy47 °C or 48.5 °C (116.6 or 119.3 °F)Foggia, Apulia or Catenanuova, Sicily (Catenanuova's record is disputed)2007-06-25 and 1999-08-10[59] [60]
 Latvia37.8 °C (100.03 °F)Ventspils2014-08-04[61]
 Lithuania37.5 °C (99.5 °F)Zarasai, Utena County1994-07-30[62]
 Macedonia45.7 °C(114.26 °F)Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija Municipality2007-07-24[63]
 Malta43.8 °C (110.84 °F)Malta International Airport1999-08-09[64]
 Moldova42.4 °C(108.3 °F)Falesti2012-08-07[14]
 Montenegro44.8 °C (112.6 °F)Podgorica & Danilovgrad2007-08-16 & 2012-08-08[14]
 Netherlands38.6 °C (102 °F)Warnsveld1944-08-23[65]
 Norway35.6 °C (96.1 °F)Nesbyen, Buskerud1970-06-20[66]
 Poland40.2 °C (104.4 °F)Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0°C.1921-07-29[67]
 Portugal47.4 °C (117.3 °F)Amareleja, Beja2003-08-01[68]
 Romania44.5 °C (112.1 °F)Ion Sion, Brăila County1951-08-10[69]
 Russia (European part only)45.4 °C (113.7 °F)Utta, Kalmykia2010-07-12[70]
 Serbia44.9 °C (112.8 °F)Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje District2007-07-24[71]
 Slovenia40.8 °C (105.4 °F)Cerklje ob Krki2013-08-08[72]
 Spain47.2 °C (116.9 °F)Murcia1994-07-04[73]
 Sweden38.0 °C (100.4 °F)Ultuna, Uppsala County / Målilla, Kalmar County1933-07-09 / 1947-06-29[74]
  Switzerland41.5 °C (106.7 °F)Grono, Moesa District2003-08-11[75]
 Ukraine42.0 °C (107.6 °F)Luhansk2010-08-12[76]
 United Kingdom
 England
38.5 °C (101.3 °F)Faversham, Kent2003-08-10[77]
 Northern Ireland30.8 °C (87.4 °F)Knockarevan, County Fermanagh / Belfast, County Antrim1976-06-30 / 1983-07-12[77]
 Scotland32.9 °C (91.2 °F)Greycrook, Scottish Borders2003-08-09[77]
 Wales35.2 °C (95.4 °F)Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire1990-08-02[77]
Antarctica15 °C (59 °F)Vanda Station, Scott Coast1974-01-05[31]
South Pole−12.3 °C (9.9 °F)Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station2011-12-25[78]
*Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
There are a few reports of temperatures higher than this during phenomena known as heat bursts, including a report of 87 °C (188 °F) in Abadan, Iran in June 1967. These temperatures have never been confirmed, and are not recognized as world records.[79] The former highest official temperature on Earth, held for 90 years by ‘Aziziya, Libya, was de-certified by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) in January 2012 as the record for the world's highest surface temperature (this temperature of 57.8 °C (136 °F), registered on September 13, 1922, is currently considered to have been a recorder's error).[80] Christopher C. Burt, the weather historian writing for Weather Underground who shepherded the Libya reading's 2012 disqualification, believes that the 1913 Death Valley reading is "a myth", and is at least four or five degrees Fahrenheit too high,[5] as do other weather historians Dr. Arnold Court and William Taylor Reid.[81] Burt proposes that the highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth is still at Death Valley, but is instead 53.9 °C (129 °F) recorded five times: 20 July 1960, 18 July 1998, 20 July 2005, 7 July 2007, and 30 June 2013.[82][83]
On 16 January 1889, a temperature of 53 °C (128 °F) was recorded at Cloncurry, Queensland. It was measured with a non-standard thermometer, so it is unknown if this reading was valid or not.[31] The reading is not recognised by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology.[32]

Other high-temperature records

Cold

Lowest temperatures ever recorded

Country/RegionTemperatureTown/LocationDate
World*
Antarctica
−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F)Vostok Station1983-07-21[31][84][86]*
Dome A−82.5 °C (−116.5 °F)Dome A2005–07[87]
South Pole−82.8 °C (−117.0 °F)Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station[88]
Asia
 Russia
−68 °C (−90 °F)Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
1892-02-07
1933-02-06[31]
 Bangladesh2.8 °C (37.0 °F)Sreemangal1968-?-?
[89]
 China−52.3 °C (−62.1 °F)Mohe County1969-02-13[90]
 India−50 °C (−58 °F)/−33.9 °C (−29.0 °F)Dras, LadakhJanuary ??/1911-03-22[91]
 Iran−36 °C (−32.8 °F)Saqqez1969[92]
 Iraq−17.6 °C (0.4 °F)Mosul, Ninawa Governorate1911-01-24[93]
 Israel−13.7 °C (7.3 °F)Beit Netofa Valley1950-02-07[94]
 Japan−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Asahikawa, Hokkaidō1902-01-25[22]
 Malaysia7.8 °C (46.0 °F)Cameron Highlands1978-02-01[23]
   Nepal−45.0 °C (−49.0 °F)Mt. Everest, Sagarmatha1999-05-15[22]
 North Korea−43.6 °C (−46.5 °F)Chunggangjin1933-01-12[95]
 Philippines2 °C (36 °F)Mount Pulag, Mountain Province2011-01[96]
 Thailand−1.4 °C (29.5 °F)Sakon Nakhon1974-01-02[29]
 Turkey−46.4 °C (−51.5 °F)Van1990-01-09[30]
North America
 Greenland
−66.1 °C (−87.0 °F)North Ice1954-01-09[31]
 Canada−63 °C (−81 °F)Snag, Yukon1947-02-03[31][84]
 Mexico−29 °C (−20.2 °F)Los Lamentos, Chihuahua1962-01-11[97][98]
 United States
 Alaska
−62 °C (−80 °F)Prospect Creek, Alaska1971-01-23[99]
United States Contiguous United States−57 °C (−70 °F)Rogers Pass, Montana1954-01-20[100]
Europe
 Russia (European part only)
−58.1 °C (−72.6 °F)Ust' Shchugor1978-12-31[44]
 Albania−27.5 °C (−17.5 °F)Voskopojë1967-01-27
 Austria−52.6 °C (−62.9 °F)Grünloch doline1932-02-19[101]
 Belarus−42.2 °C (−44.0 °F)Slavnom, Vitsebsk Voblast1940-01-17[102]
 Belgium−30.1 °C (−22.2 °F)Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort1940-01-20[103]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina−42 °C (−44 °F)Veliko Polje on the Igman plateau1963-01-24[citation needed]
 Bulgaria−38.3 °C (−37 °F)Tran1947-01-25[46]
 Croatia−35.5 °C (−31.5 °F)CakovecČakovec1929-02-03[47]
 Czech Republic−42.2  °C (−44.0 °F)Litvínovice1929-02-11[48]
 Denmark−31.2  °C (−24.2 °F)Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region1982-01-08[49]
 Estonia−43.5 °C (−46.0 °F)Jõgeva, Jõgeva County1940-01-17[50]
 Finland−51.5 °C (−60.7 °F)Kittilä, Lapland1999-01-28[104]
 France−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Mouthe, Doubs1985-01-17[105]
 Germany−45.9 °C (−50.6 °F)Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria2001-12-24[106]
 Greece−27.8 °C (−18.0 °F)Ptolemaida1967-01-27[107]
 Hungary−35.0 °C (−31.0 °F)Görömbölytapolca1940-02-16[55]
 Iceland−37.9 °C (−36.2 °F)Grímsstaðir1918-01-21[56]
 Ireland−19.1 °C (−2.4 °F)Markree Castle, County Sligo1881-01-16[58]
 Italy−49.6 °C (−57.2 °F)Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino2013-02-10[108]
 Latvia−43.2 °C (−45.8 °F)Daugavpils1956-02-08[61]
 Lithuania−42.9 °C (−45.2 °F)Utena, Utena County1956-02-01[62]
 Macedonia−31.5 °C (−24.7 °F)Berovo, Berovo Municipality1954-01-27[109]
 Malta1.4 °C (34.5 °F)Malta International Airport1981-01-29[64]
 Netherlands−27.4 °C (−17.3 °F)Winterswijk1942-01-27[65]
 Norway−51.4 °C (−60.5 °F)Karasjok, Finnmark1886-01-01[66]
 Poland−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship1940-01-11[67]
 Portugal−16.0 °C (3.2 °F)Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
1945-01-16 and 1954-02-05[110]
 Romania−38.5 °C (−37.3 °F)Bod, Braşov County1942-01-25[69]
 Serbia−39.5 °C (−39.1 °F)Karajukica Bunari, Zlatibor District1985-01-13[71]
 Slovakia−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Vígľaš-Pstruša1929-02-11[111]
 Slovenia−34.5 °C (−30.1 °F)Babno Polje1956-02-15 / 1956-02-16 / 1968-01-13[notes 1][112]
 Spain−32.0 °C (−25.6 °F)Lago Estangento, Lleida1956-02-02[73]
 Sweden−53.0 °C (−63.4 °F)Malgovik, Västerbotten County1941-12-13[74]
  Switzerland−41.8 °C (−43.2 °F)La Brévine1987-01-12[75]
 Ukraine−41.9 °C (−43.4 °F)Luhansk1935-02-08[113]
 United Kingdom
 Scotland
−27.2 °C (−17.0 °F)Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
1895-02-11 and 1982-01-10
1995-12-30[77]
 England−26.1 °C (−15.0 °F)Newport, Shropshire, West Midlands1982-01-10[77]
 Northern Ireland−18.7 °C (−1.7 °F)Castlederg, County Tyrone2010-12-24[114]
 Wales−23.3 °C (−9.9 °F)Rhayader, Powys1940-01-21[77]
South America
 Argentina
−39 °C (−38 °F)Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan1972-07-17[115][116]
 Bolivia−25.7 °C (−14.3 °F)Uyuni, Potosí Department1946-08-04[117]
 Brazil−14 °C (7 °F)Caçador, Santa Catarina1952-06[118][119]
 Chile−37 °C (−35 °F)Coyhaique Alto, Aisén2002-06-21[120]
 Paraguay−7.5 °C (18.5 °F)Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department2000-07-13[121]
 Peru−25.2 °C (−13.4 °F)Mazo Cruz, Puno Region1966-06-30[122]
 Uruguay−11 °C (12 °F)Melo, Cerro Largo Department1967-06-14[38]
Africa
 Morocco
−24 °C (−11 °F)Ifrane1935-02-11[31]
 Algeria−20 °C (−4 °F)Batna, Batna Province1945-01-04[123]
 Lesotho−20.4 °C (−4.7 °F)Letseng-la-Draai (Letseng-la-Terae), Mokhotlong District1967-06-12[123]
 South Africa−20.1 °C (−4.2 °F)Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape2013-08-23[124]
Oceania
 New Zealand
−25.6 °C (−14.1 °F)Ranfurly, Central Otago1903-07-18[125]
 Australia−23 °C (−9.4 °F)Charlotte Pass, New South Wales1994-06-29[126]
Central America and Caribbean Islands
 Guatemala
−11.5 °C (11.3 °F)Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango ?[39]
 Dominican Republic−3.5 °C (25.7 °F)Valle Nuevo, Constanza1959-03-02[127]
 Cuba0.6 °C (33.1 °F)Bainoa, Mayabeque Province1996-02-18[128]
 Puerto Rico4.4 °C (40 °F)Adjuntas
Aibonito
Corozal
1989-12-28[129]
1906-02-26[129]
1945-01-19[129]
*This temperature is considered the lowest ever officially recorded in Antarctica and in the World, as it was perceived by ground-positioned thermometers in 1983. However, there were satellite-made analyisis realized in August 10, 2010 that pointed a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) near Dome F in Queen Maud Land. This record is not officially listed because it was measured by remote sensing methods that are not totally consistent, unlike the 1983 temperature. See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details.

Other low-temperature records

Precipitation

Rain

Snow

Wind speed

Tornadoes

Main article: Tornado records
The Tri-State Tornado holds many records, including the longest known tornado track, fastest speed for a significant tornado, and the deadliest tornado outside of Bangladesh.

Deadliest in history

Outbreaks

Tropical cyclones

Most intense (by minimum surface air pressure)

Other severe weather

A picture of the Aurora, Nebraska hailstone, measured at 47.6 cm (18.75 in) in circumference

Hail

Lightning

Other categories

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).

References

  1. ^ "World Meteorological Organization: Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c OurAmazingPlanet Staff (April 16, 2012). "Where's the Hottest Place on Earth?". LiveScience. Purch. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "NCDC Global measured extremes". Retrieved 6 November 2007. 
  4. ^ World: Highest Temperature World Meteorological Organization Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Doubts Cloud Death Valley's 100-year Heat Record". Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Private Tutor". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  7. ^ By, Forecast. "Greenland soars to its highest temperature ever recorded, almost 80 degrees F.". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  8. ^ "PROYECTO BASES DE DATOS CLIMATOLÓGICOS" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteológico Nacional. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  9. ^ "Máximas temperaturas registradas en San Luis Río Colorado" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteológico Nacional. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Hottest air temperatures reported on Earth Weather Underground. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  11. ^ a b Khalid Ibrahim El Fadli, Randall S. Cerveny, Christopher C. Burt, Philip Eden, David Parker, Manola Brunet, Thomas C. Peterson, Gianpaolo Mordacchini, Vinicio Pelino, Pierre Bessemoulin, José Luis Stella, Fatima Driouech, M.M Abdel wahab, Matthew B. Pace (2012). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Masters, Jeff (7 August 2010). "Bolivia ties its all-time heat record". Weather Underground. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  13. ^ "QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE WORLD’S HOTTEST TEMPERATURE ON RECORD: 136.4°F (58°C) AT AL AZIZIA, LIBYA SEPTEMBER 13, 1922". Weather Underground. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c Masters, Jeff. "2012: Earth's 10th warmest year on record, and warmest with a La Niña". Weather Underground. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  15. ^ "Details of the temperature, rainfall and wind extremes recorded in SA". South African Weather Service. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  16. ^ Masters, Jeff (2012-01-15). "2012: Earth's 10th warmest year on record, and warmest with a La Niña - New country and territory hottest temperature records set in 2012". Weather Underground, Jeff Masters. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  17. ^ Burt, Christopher (2010-10-22). "2012: Hottest air temperatures reported on Earth". Weather Underground, Jeff Masters. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  18. ^ "Bangladesh records highest temperature 42.2 degree Celsius in last 14 years". Asian Tribune. 2009-04-27. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  19. ^ India Meteorological Department. "Ever recorded Maximum temperature, Minimum temperature upto 2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  20. ^ "Temperature history for Tallil, Iraq". Weather Underground. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  21. ^ Burt, Christopher C. "August 2011 Global Weather Extremes Summary". Weather Underground. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
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