List of weather records

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This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1]

Temperature[edit]

Measuring conditions[edit]

The standard measuring conditions for temperature are in the air, 1.5 meters above the ground, and shielded from direct sunlight (hence the term, x degrees "in the shade").[2] The following lists include all officially confirmed claims measured by those methods.

Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C.[2] A ground temperature of 84 °C has been recorded in Port Sudan, Sudan.[3] A ground temperature of 93.9 °C (201 °F) was recorded in Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 15 July 1972; this may be the highest natural ground surface temperature ever recorded.[4] The theoretical maximum possible ground surface temperature has been estimated to be between 90 and 100 °C for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity.[5]

Satellite measurements of ground temperature taken between 2003 and 2009, taken with the MODIS infrared spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite, found a maximum temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), which was recorded in 2005 in the Lut Desert, Iran. The Lut Desert was also found to have the highest maximum temperature in 5 of the 7 years measured (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2009.) These measurements reflect averages over a large region and so are lower than the maximum point surface temperature.[2]

Satellite measurements of the surface temperature of Antarctica, taken between 1982 and 2013, found a coldest temperature of −93.2 °C (−136 °F) on 10 August 2010, at 81°48′S 59°18′E / 81.8°S 59.3°E / -81.8; 59.3. Although this is not comparable to an air temperature, it is believed that the air temperature at this location would have been lower than the official record lowest air temperature of −89.2 °C.[6][7]

Heat[edit]

Highest temperatures ever recorded[edit]

A world map showing areas with Köppen BWh (hot desert climate). The temperatures in these regions have the potential to exceed 50 °C (122 °F) during the hottest seasons.
Country/RegionTemperatureTown/LocationDateRank
World
North America
 USA
56.7 °C (134 °F)Furnace Creek Ranch (formerly Greenland Ranch), Death Valley, California10 July 1913[8][9][10]1
Africa
 Tunisia
55.0 °C (131 °F)Kebili7 July 1931[11][12]2
Asia
 Kuwait
53.6 °C (128.5 °F)Sulaibya31 July 2012[13][14]3
 Canada45.0 °C (113 °F)Midale, Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan5 July 1937[15]
 Greenland25.9 °C (78.6 °F)Maniitsoq30 July 2013[16]
 Mexico52.0 °C (125.6 °F)San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora6 July 1966[17][18]
 Algeria50.6 °C (123.1 °F)In Salah, Tamanrasset Province12 July 2002[11]
 Cameroon47.7 °C (117.9 °F)Kousseri ?[19]
 Chad47.6 °C (117.7 °F)Faya-Largeau22 June 2010[19]
 Libya50.2 °C (122.4 °F)ZuaraJune 1995[12][20]
 Morocco49.6 °C (121.3 °F)Marrakesh17 July 2012[21]
 Niger48.2 °C (118.8 °F)Bilma23 June 2010[19]
 Nigeria46.4 °C (115.5 °F)Yola3 April 2010[19]
 South Africa50.0 °C (122 °F)Dunbrody, Eastern Cape1918[22]
 Sudan49.7 °C (121.5 °F)Dongola25 June 2010[19]
 Zambia42.4 °C (108.3 °F)Mfuwe, Eastern Province13 October 2010[19]
 Bangladesh45.1 °C (113.2 °F)Rajshahi30 April 1972[23]
 China50.2 °C (122.4 °F)Ayding Lake, Turpan, Xinjiang14 July 2011[24][25]
 India50.6 °C (123 °F)Alwar, Rajasthan10 May 1956[26]
 Iraq53.0 °C (127.4 °F)Ali Air Base, Nasiriyah3 August 2011[27][28]
 Japan41.0 °C (105.8 °F)Shimanto, Kōchi12 August 2013[29]
 Malaysia40.1 °C (104.2 °F)Chuping9 April 1998[30]
 Pakistan53.5 °C (128.3 °F)Mohenjo-daro, Sindh26 May 2010[19][31]4
 Myanmar47.0 °C (116.6 °F)Myinmu12 May 2010[19]
 Philippines42.2 °C (107.96 °F)Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley12 April 1912[32]
 Qatar50.4 °C (122.7 °F)Doha14 July 2010[19]
 Russia42.3 °C (108.1 °F)Belogorsk, Amur Oblast12 July 2010[33]
 Saudi Arabia52.0 °C (125.6 °F)Jeddah22 June 2010[19]
 Singapore36.0 °C (96.8 °F)Singapore26 March 1998[30]
 South Korea40.0 °C (104 °F)Daegu1 August 1942[34]
 Taiwan40.2 °C (104 °F)Taitung County9 May 2004[35]
 Thailand44.5 °C (112.1 °F)Uttaradit27 April 1960[36]
 Turkey48.8 °C (119.8 °F)Mardin14 August 1993[37]
Oceania
 Australia
50.7 °C (123.3 °F)Oodnadatta, South Australia2 January 1960[38][39][40]
 New Zealand42.4 °C (108.3 °F)Rangiora, Canterbury and Jordan, Marlborough (tied)7 February 1973[41]
 Solomon Islands36.1 °C (97 °F)Honiara, Guadalcanal Province1 February 2010[19]
South America
 Argentina
49.1 °C (120.4 °F)Villa de María, Córdoba Province2 January 1920[38][42]
 Bolivia46.7 °C (116.1 °F)Villamontes, Tarija Department29 October 2010*[19]
 Brazil44.7 °C (112.4 °F)Bom Jesus, Piauí21 November 2005[43]
 Colombia42.3 °C (108 °F)Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca Department29 October 2010[19]
 Paraguay45 °C (113 °F)Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department14 November 2009[44]
 Uruguay44 °C (111.2 °F)Paysandú, Paysandú Department20 January 1943[45]
 Venezuela42 °C (107.6 °F)Machiques, Zulia1982[46]
Central America and Caribbean Islands
 Guatemala
45 °C (113 °F)Estanzuela, Zacapa ?[47]
 Dominican Republic43.0 °C (109.4 °F)Mao31 August 1954[48][49]
 Cuba38.8 °C (102 °F)Jucarito (Granma Province)17 April 1999[50]
 Puerto Rico37.2 °C (99 °F)Arecibo25 June 1985[51]
Europe
 Greece
48.0 °C (118.4 °F )Athens, Greece10 July 1977[52]
 Andorra38.5 °C (101.3 °F)Andorra la Vella ?
 Austria40.5 °C (104.9 °F)Bad Deutsch-Altenburg8 August 2013[53]
 Belarus38.9 °C (102 °F)Gomel7 August 2010[19]
 Belgium38.8 °C (102 °F)Uccle27 June 1947
 Bosnia and Herzegovina43.2 °C (111.16 °F)Mostar (Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina)31 July 1900
 Bulgaria45.2 °C (113.3 °F)Sadovo, Plovdiv Province5 August 1916[54]
 Croatia42.8 °C (109 °F)Ploče5 August 1998[55]
 Cyprus46.6 °C (115.9 °F)Lefkoniko1 August 2010[19]
 Czech Republic40.4 °C (104.7 °F)Dobřichovice, Prague-West District20 August 2012[56]
 Denmark36.4 °C (97.5 °F)Holstebro, Midtjylland10 August 1975[57]
 Estonia35.6 °C (96.1 °F)Võru11 August 1992[58]
 Finland37.2 °C (99 °F)Liperi29 July 2010[59]
 France44.1 °C (111.4 °F)Conqueyrac / Saint-Christol-lès-Alès12 August 2003[60]
 Germany40.2 °C (104.4 °F)Gärmersdorf bei Amberg / Karlsruhe / March (Breisgau) / Freiburg27 July 1983 / 9 August 2003 / 13 August 2003 / 27 July 2013[61][62]
 Hungary41.9 °C (107.4 °F)Kiskunhalas20 July 2007[63]
 Iceland30.5 °C (86.9 °F)Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur22 June 1939[64][65]
 Ireland33.3 °C (92 °F)Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny26 June 1887[66]
 Italy47 °C or 48.5 °C (116.6 or 119.3 °F)Foggia, Apulia or Catenanuova, Sicily (Catenanuova's record is disputed)25 June 2007 / 10 August 1999[67][68]
 Latvia37.8 °C (100.03 °F)Ventspils4 August 2014[69]
 Lithuania37.5 °C (99.5 °F)Zarasai, Utena County30 July 1994[70]
 Macedonia45.7 °C(114.26 °F)Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija Municipality24 July 2007[71]
 Malta43.8 °C (110.84 °F)Malta International Airport9 August 1999[72]
 Moldova42.4 °C(108.3 °F)Falesti7 August 2012[21]
 Montenegro44.8 °C (112.6 °F)Podgorica & Danilovgrad16 August 2007 / 8 August 2012[21]
 Netherlands38.6 °C (102 °F)Warnsveld23 August 1944[73]
 Norway35.6 °C (96.1 °F)Nesbyen, Buskerud20 June 1970[74]
 Poland40.2 °C (104.4 °F)Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0 °C.29 July 1921[75]
 Portugal47.4 °C (117.3 °F)Amareleja, Beja1 August 2003[76]
 Romania44.5 °C (112.1 °F)Ion Sion, Brăila County10 August 1951[77]
 Russia (European part only)45.4 °C (113.7 °F)Utta, Kalmykia12 July 2010[78]
 Serbia44.9 °C (112.8 °F)Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje District24 July 2007[79]
 Slovenia40.8 °C (105.4 °F)Cerklje ob Krki8 August 2013[80]
 Spain47.2 °C (116.9 °F)Murcia4 July 1994[81]
 Sweden38.0 °C (100.4 °F)Ultuna, Uppsala County / Målilla, Kalmar County9 July 1933 / 29 June 1947[82]
  Switzerland41.5 °C (106.7 °F)Grono, Moesa District11 August 2003[83]
 Ukraine42.0 °C (107.6 °F)Luhansk12 August 2010[84]
 United Kingdom
 England
38.5 °C (101.3 °F)Faversham, Kent10 August 2003[85]
 Northern Ireland30.8 °C (87.4 °F)Knockarevan, County Fermanagh / Belfast, County Antrim30 June 1976 / 12 July 1983[85]
 Scotland32.9 °C (91.2 °F)Greycrook, Scottish Borders9 August 2003[85]
 Wales35.2 °C (95.4 °F)Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire2 August 1990[85]
Antarctica15 °C (59 °F)Vanda Station, Scott Coast5 January 1974[38]
South Pole−12.3 °C (9.9 °F)Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station25 December 2011[86]
*Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
There are a few reports of temperatures higher than this during phenomena known as heat bursts, including a report of 87 °C (188 °F) in Abadan, Iran in June 1967. These temperatures have never been confirmed, and are not recognized as world records.[87] The former highest official temperature on Earth, held for 90 years by ‘Aziziya, Libya, was de-certified by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) in January 2012 as the record for the world's highest surface temperature (this temperature of 57.8 °C (136 °F), registered on 13 September 1922, is currently considered to have been a recorder's error).[88] Christopher C. Burt, the weather historian writing for Weather Underground who shepherded the Libya reading's 2012 disqualification, believes that the 1913 Death Valley reading is "a myth", and is at least four or five degrees Fahrenheit too high,[10] as do other weather historians Dr. Arnold Court and William Taylor Reid.[89] Burt proposes that the highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth is still at Death Valley, but is instead 53.9 °C (129 °F) recorded five times: 20 July 1960, 18 July 1998, 20 July 2005, 7 July 2007, and 30 June 2013.[90][91]
On 16 January 1889, a temperature of 53 °C (128 °F) was recorded at Cloncurry, Queensland. It was measured with a non-standard thermometer, so it is unknown if this reading was valid or not.[38] The reading is not recognised by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology.[39]

Other high-temperature records[edit]

Cold[edit]

Lowest temperatures ever recorded[edit]

Country/RegionTemperatureTown/LocationDate
World*
Antarctica
−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F)Vostok Station1983-07-21[38][92][94]*
Dome A−82.5 °C (−116.5 °F)Dome A2005–07[95]
South Pole−82.8 °C (−117.0 °F)Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station1982-06-23[96]
Asia
 Russia
−68 °C (−90 °F)Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
1892-02-07
1933-02-06[38]
 Pakistan−24.1 °C (−11.4 °F)Skardu, Gilgit–Baltistan1995-01-07
[97]
 Bangladesh2.8 °C (37.0 °F)Sreemangal1968-?-?
[98]
 China−52.3 °C (−62.1 °F)Mohe County1969-02-13[99]
 India−50 °C (−58 °F)/−33.9 °C (−29.0 °F)Dras, LadakhJanuary ??/1911-03-22[100]
 Iran−36 °C (−32.8 °F)Saqqez1969[101]
 Iraq−17.6 °C (0.4 °F)Mosul, Ninawa Governorate1911-01-24[102]
 Israel−14.2 °C (6.4 °F)Merom Golan2015-01-03
 Japan−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Asahikawa, Hokkaidō1902-01-25[29]
 Malaysia7.8 °C (46.0 °F)Cameron Highlands1978-02-01[30]
   Nepal−45.0 °C (−49.0 °F)Mt. Everest, Sagarmatha1999-05-15[29]
 North Korea−43.6 °C (−46.5 °F)Chunggangjin1933-01-12[103]
 Philippines−2 °C (28 °F)Mount Pulag, Mountain Province1899-01[104]
 Thailand−1.4 °C (29.5 °F)Sakon Nakhon1974-01-02[36]
 Turkey−50.3 °C (−58.5 °F)Ardahan1941-01-14[37]
North America
 Greenland
−66.1 °C (−87.0 °F)North Ice1954-01-09[38]
 Canada−63 °C (−81 °F)Snag, Yukon1947-02-03[38][92]
 Mexico−29 °C (−20.2 °F)Los Lamentos, Chihuahua1962-01-11[105][106]
 United States
 Alaska
−62 °C (−80 °F)Prospect Creek, Alaska1971-01-23[107]
United States Contiguous United States−57 °C (−70 °F)Rogers Pass, Montana1954-01-20[108]
Europe
 Russia (European part only)
−58.1 °C (−72.6 °F)Ust' Shchugor1978-12-31[52]
 Albania−27.5 °C (−17.5 °F)Voskopojë1967-01-27
 Austria−52.6 °C (−62.9 °F)Grünloch doline1932-02-19[109]
 Belarus−42.2 °C (−44.0 °F)Slavnom, Vitsebsk Voblast1940-01-17[110]
 Belgium−30.1 °C (−22.2 °F)Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort1940-01-20[111]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina−42 °C (−44 °F)Veliko Polje on the Igman plateau1963-01-24[citation needed]
 Bulgaria−38.3 °C (−37 °F)Tran1947-01-25[54]
 Croatia−35.5 °C (−31.5 °F)CakovecČakovec1929-02-03[55]
 Czech Republic−42.2  °C (−44.0 °F)Litvínovice1929-02-11[56]
 Denmark−31.2  °C (−24.2 °F)Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region1982-01-08[57]
 Estonia−43.5 °C (−46.0 °F)Jõgeva, Jõgeva County1940-01-17[58]
 Finland−51.5 °C (−60.7 °F)Kittilä, Lapland1999-01-28[112]
 France−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Mouthe, Doubs1985-01-17[113]
 Germany−45.9 °C (−50.6 °F)Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria2001-12-24[114]
 Greece−27.8 °C (−18.0 °F)Ptolemaida1967-01-27[115]
 Hungary−35.0 °C (−31.0 °F)Görömbölytapolca1940-02-16[63]
 Iceland−37.9 °C (−36.2 °F)Grímsstaðir1918-01-21[64]
 Ireland−19.1 °C (−2.4 °F)Markree Castle, County Sligo1881-01-16[66]
 Italy−49.6 °C (−57.2 °F)Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino2013-02-10[116]
 Latvia−43.2 °C (−45.8 °F)Daugavpils1956-02-08[69]
 Lithuania−42.9 °C (−45.2 °F)Utena, Utena County1956-02-01[70]
 Macedonia−31.5 °C (−24.7 °F)Berovo, Berovo Municipality1954-01-27[117]
 Malta1.4 °C (34.5 °F)Malta International Airport1981-01-29[72]
 Netherlands−27.4 °C (−17.3 °F)Winterswijk1942-01-27[73]
 Norway−51.4 °C (−60.5 °F)Karasjok, Finnmark1886-01-01[74]
 Poland−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship1940-01-11[75]
 Portugal−16.0 °C (3.2 °F)Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
1945-01-16 and 1954-02-05[118]
 Romania−38.5 °C (−37.3 °F)Bod, Braşov County1942-01-25[77]
 Serbia−39.5 °C (−39.1 °F)Karajukica Bunari, Zlatibor District1985-01-13[79]
 Slovakia−41.0 °C (−41.8 °F)Vígľaš-Pstruša1929-02-11[119]
 Slovenia−34.5 °C (−30.1 °F)Babno Polje1956-02-15 / 1956-02-16 / 1968-01-13[notes 1][120]
 Spain−32.0 °C (−25.6 °F)Lago Estangento, Lleida1956-02-02[81]
 Sweden−53.0 °C (−63.4 °F)Malgovik, Västerbotten County1941-12-13[82]
  Switzerland−41.8 °C (−43.2 °F)La Brévine1987-01-12[83]
 Ukraine−41.9 °C (−43.4 °F)Luhansk1935-02-08[121]
 United Kingdom
 Scotland
−27.2 °C (−17.0 °F)Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
1895-02-11 and 1982-01-10
1995-12-30[85]
 England−26.1 °C (−15.0 °F)Newport, Shropshire, West Midlands1982-01-10[85]
 Northern Ireland−18.7 °C (−1.7 °F)Castlederg, County Tyrone2010-12-24[122]
 Wales−23.3 °C (−9.9 °F)Rhayader, Powys1940-01-21[85]
South America
 Argentina
−39 °C (−38 °F)Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan1972-07-17[123][124]
 Bolivia−25.7 °C (−14.3 °F)Uyuni, Potosí Department1946-08-04[125]
 Brazil−14 °C (7 °F)Caçador, Santa Catarina1952-06[126][127]
 Chile−37 °C (−35 °F)Coyhaique Alto, Aisén2002-06-21[128]
 Paraguay−7.5 °C (18.5 °F)Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department2000-07-13[129]
 Peru−25.2 °C (−13.4 °F)Mazo Cruz, Puno Region1966-06-30[130]
 Uruguay−11 °C (12 °F)Melo, Cerro Largo Department1967-06-14[45]
 Venezuela−11 °C (12 °F)Sierra La Culata, Mérida[131]
Africa
 Morocco
−24 °C (−11 °F)Ifrane1935-02-11[38]
 Algeria−20 °C (−4 °F)Batna, Batna Province1945-01-04[132]
 Lesotho−20.4 °C (−4.7 °F)Letseng-la-Draai (Letseng-la-Terae), Mokhotlong District1967-06-12[132]
 South Africa−20.1 °C (−4.2 °F)Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape2013-08-23[133]
Oceania
 New Zealand
−25.6 °C (−14.1 °F)Ranfurly, Central Otago1903-07-18[134]
 Australia−23 °C (−9.4 °F)Charlotte Pass, New South Wales1994-06-29[135]
Central America and Caribbean Islands
 Guatemala
−11.5 °C (11.3 °F)Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango ?[47]
 Dominican Republic−7 °C (19.4 °F)Valle Nuevo, Constanza1983-01-17[136]
 Cuba0.6 °C (33.1 °F)Bainoa, Mayabeque Province1996-02-18[137]
 Puerto Rico4.4 °C (40 °F)Adjuntas
Aibonito
Corozal
1989-12-28[138]
1906-02-26[138]
1945-01-19[138]
*This temperature is considered the lowest ever officially recorded in Antarctica and in the World, as it was perceived by ground-positioned thermometers in 1983. Satellite analyses made in 10 August 2010 pointed to a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) near Dome F in Queen Maud Land, but this record is not officially listed because it was measured by remote sensing methods that are not totally consistent, unlike the 1983 temperature. See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details.

Other low-temperature records[edit]

Precipitation[edit]

Rain[edit]

Snow[edit]

Wind speed[edit]

Tornadoes[edit]

Main article: Tornado records
The Tri-State Tornado holds many records, including the longest known tornado track, fastest speed for a significant tornado, and the deadliest tornado outside of Bangladesh.

Deadliest in history[edit]

Outbreaks[edit]

Tropical cyclones[edit]

Most intense (by minimum surface air pressure)[edit]

Other severe weather[edit]

A picture of the Aurora, Nebraska hailstone, measured at 47.6 cm (18.75 in) in circumference

Hail[edit]

Lightning[edit]

Other categories[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Meteorological Organization: Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c p. 855-857, Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth, David J. Mildrexler, Maosheng Zhao, and Steven W. Running, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, July 2011, pp. 855-860, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3067.1.
  3. ^ Table 9.2, p. 158, Dryland Climatology, Sharon E. Nicholson, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 1139500244.
  4. ^ A possible world record maximum natural ground surface temperature, Paul Kubecka, Weather, 56, #7 (July 2001), Weather, pp. 218-221, doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.2001.tb06577.x.
  5. ^ Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures, J. R. Garratt, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 31, #9 (September 1992), pp. 1096–1105, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1992)031<1096:EMLST>2.0.CO;2.
  6. ^ Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite, Jonathan Amos, BBC News, 9 December 2013.
  7. ^ The Coldest Place on Earth: -90°C and below from Landsat 8 and other satellite thermal sensors, Ted Scambos, Allen Pope, Garrett Campbell, and Terry Haran, American Geophysical Union fall meeting, 9 December 2013.
  8. ^ "NCDC Global measured extremes". Retrieved 6 November 2007. 
  9. ^ World: Highest Temperature World Meteorological Organization Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  10. ^ a b "Doubts Cloud Death Valley's 100-year Heat Record". Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Hottest air temperatures reported on Earth Weather Underground. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  12. ^ a b Khalid Ibrahim El Fadli, Randall S. Cerveny, Christopher C. Burt, Philip Eden, David Parker, Manola Brunet, Thomas C. Peterson, Gianpaolo Mordacchini, Vinicio Pelino, Pierre Bessemoulin, José Luis Stella, Fatima Driouech, M.M Abdel wahab, Matthew B. Pace (2012). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  13. ^ Masters, Jeff (2012-01-15). "2012: Earth's 10th warmest year on record, and warmest with a La Niña - New country and territory hottest temperature records set in 2012". Weather Underground, Jeff Masters. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
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External links[edit]