List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

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This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.

Wars, armed conflicts, and genocides[edit]

These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.

The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures. Some of the accounts below may include ancillary causes of death such as malnutrition and disease, which may or may not have been intentionally inflicted.

EventLocationFromToDuration (years)Notes, See also
40,000,000[1]85,000,000[2]World War IIWorldwide193919456 years and 1 dayWorld War II casualties and Second Sino-Japanese War[3] (this estimate includes worldwide Holocaust and concentration camps deaths)
36,000,000[4]40,000,000[5]Three KingdomsChina18428096End of the Han dynasty
30,000,000[6]40,000,000[7]Mongol conquestsEurasia12061368163Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire
25,000,000[8]25,000,000Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming dynastyChina1616166247Qing dynasty
20,000,000[9]100,000,000[10][11][12][13][14]Taiping RebellionChina1851186414Dungan revolt
World War IWorldwide191419184 years, 3 months, 1 weekWorld War I casualties
Upper estimate includes worldwide Spanish flu deaths.
15,000,000[17]20,000,000[17]Conquests of Timur-e-LangWest Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia1369140537Timurid dynasty
13,000,000[7]36,000,000[18]An Lushan RebellionChina7557639Medieval warfare
8,000,000[19]8,000,000Chinese Civil WarChina1927194922List of civil wars
[citation needed]
9,000,000[20]Russian Civil WarRussia191719215Russian Revolution, List of civil wars
HolocaustEurope194119454The low estimate is the minimum number of Jewish deaths, to which some authors limit the definition of "The Holocaust." The upper estimate includes all racially and politically motivated German killing policies during the war, as well as both indirect and direct deaths.
[citation needed]
7,000,000[25]Napoleonic WarsEurope, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean1803181513Napoleonic Wars casualties
3,000,00011,500,000[26]Thirty Years' WarHoly Roman Empire1618164831Religious war, Start of European political wars
3,000,000[27]7,000,000[27]Yellow Turban RebellionChina18420522Part of Three Kingdoms War
2,500,000[28]5,400,000[29]Second Congo WarDemocratic Republic of the Congo199820036First Congo War
2,582,000[30][31][32]8,000,000[33]Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933)Ukrainian SSR (and other areas of southern USSR, western Siberia)193219331Targeted famine and forced relocation of Soviet ethnic groups, especially landed Ukrainian peasants, by Stalin Regime.
2,300,000[34]3,300,000[35]Hundred Years' WarWestern Europe13371453107Edwardian War (1337-1360), Caroline War (1369-1389), Lancastrian War (1415–53)
European colonization of the AmericasAmericas14921900408Colonization, disease, ethnic cleansing and war.
2,000,0004,000,000[38]French Wars of ReligionFrance1562159837Religious war
Shaka's conquestsSouthern Africa1816182813Ndwandwe–Zulu War
1,500,000[40]2,000,000[40]War in AfghanistanAfghanistan1979200022Soviet-Afghan War, Taliban Era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M).
1,000,0003,000,000Nigerian Civil WarNigeria196619704Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.
1,000,000[41]3,000,000[41]Cambodian GenocideCambodia197519794War casualties, famine, health system collapse, executions and ethnic cleansing during the Khmer Rouge regime.
1,000,000[42]3,000,000[43]CrusadesHoly Land, Europe10951291197Christian military excursions against the Muslim Conquests.
1,000,000[44]2,000,000Second Sudanese Civil WarSudan1983200523First Sudanese Civil War
900,0001,000,000Gallic WarsFrance58 BC50 BC9Roman Empire
800,0001,000,000Du Wenxiu RebellionChina1856187318
800,000[45]3,000,000[46]Vietnam WarSoutheast Asia1955197521Cold War and First Indochina War
670,000[47]850,000[48]American Civil WarUnited States of America186118654Estimates include civilian deaths
600,000[40]2,000,000[40]Soviet War in AfghanistanAfghanistan198019889Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.
500,000[49]3,000,000[50]Expulsion of Germans after World War IIEurope194519505Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.
500,000[51]2,000,000[51]Mexican RevolutionMexico, United States1911192010Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.
500,000[52][53]2,000,000[citation needed]Iran–Iraq WarIran, Iraq198019889Includes the Al-Anfal Campaign and the Invasion of Kuwait.
500,000[54]1,000,000[54]Rwandan genocideRwanda199419941Part of the Rwandan Civil War.
500,0001,000,000Spanish Civil WarSpain193619394
400,000[55]500,000[56]Circassian GenocideCircassia186418673Deaths during the ethnic cleansing of Circassia by the Russian Empire in the aftermath of the Russo–Circassian War (1763–1864).
400,000[57]4,500,000[57]Korean WarKorean Peninsula195019534Categorized as part of the Cold War.
300,000[58]1,500,000[59]Armenian GenocideAnatolia191519238Called the First Genocide of the 20th century and officially recognized by 21 countries as such, though modern Turkey disputes the use of this term and some associated claims.
300,000[60]1,200,000[61]Paraguayan WarSouth America186418707Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
300,000[62]400,000[62]DelugePolish-Lithuanian Commonwealth165516606The Second Northern War, including subsequent campaigns by the same powers through the 1650s, and skirmishes between Catholic and Protestant partisans.
272,000[63]1,260,009[63][64][65]War on TerrorGreater Middle East2001201312Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.
200,000[66]1,000,000[66]Greek genocideAnatolia191519238The use of the term "genocide" is disputed by modern Turkey.
97,207[67][68][69]200,000[70]Bosnian WarBosnia199219953During the Bosnian War, at least 97,207 people were killed.
75,000[71][72]130,000[71][72]Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent ArmyVolhyn and Eastern Galicia194319441Killings conducted by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians.
200,000[73]3,000,000[73]1971 Bangladesh genocideEast Pakistan (now Bangladesh)197119711Killings by the Pakistani Armed Forces in East Pakistan leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; widely regarded as a genocide against the Bengali people.

Deadly prisons and camps[edit]

DeathsNameRun byLocationDateNotes, References
800,000–1,500,000Auschwitz-BirkenauNazi GermanyOświęcim, Poland1940–1945[74][75]
700,000–1,000,000TreblinkaNazi GermanyTreblinka, Poland1942–1943[76][77]
480,000–600,000BełżecNazi GermanyBełżec, Poland1942–1943[78][79][80]
130,000–500,000Kolyma GulagSoviet UnionKolyma, Soviet Union1932–1954[81]
82,600-100,000JasenovacNDH UstašeCroatia1941–1945[82][83][84]
12,790–75,000Stara GradiškaNDH UstašeCroatia1941–1945primarily for women and children[85][86]
17,000Tuol SlengDemocratic KampucheaPhnom Penh, Cambodia1975–1979[87]
13,171Camp SumterConfederate States of AmericaAndersonville, Georgia, USA1864–1865[88]
12,000Crveni KrstNazi regime, GestapoNiš, Serbia1941[89]
2,963Elmira PrisonUnited States of AmericaElmira, New York, USA1864–1865[90]
>1,800KrugersdorpUnited KingdomKrugersdorp, Transvaal Republicc. 1900–1902Second Boer War, primarily for women and children[91]


Main articles: Famine and List of famines

Note: Some of these famines were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies or actions of the ruling regime.

Lowest estimateHighest estimateEventLocationFromToNotes
15,000,000[92]55,000,000[93]Great Chinese FaminePeople's Republic of China19581962During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death.[94] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[95]
9,000,00013,000,000Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79China18761879ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
5,500,0006,000,000Great Famine of 1876–78British India18761878ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
5,000,000[96]10,000,000[96]Russian famine of 1921Soviet Russia19211922See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka
3,000,0004,000,000Bengal famine of 1943British India19431943The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports[97]

However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.[98]

2,400,000[99]2,400,000Japanese occupation of the Dutch East IndiesIndonesia19441945An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.[99]
2,000,0003,000,000Indian famine of 1896–97, Indian famine of 1899–1900British India18961900ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
800,000[100]950,000[101]Cambodian GenocideCambodia19751979An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine from the Cambodian Communist government, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
750,000[102][103]1,500,000[104]Great Irish Famine[105]Ireland18461849Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[106][107]
400,000[108]2,000,000[109]Vietnamese Famine of 1945Vietnam19441945The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[109]
400,000[110]1,000,000[111]1983–85 famine in EthiopiaEthiopia19831985The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.[110]
70,000[112]70,000Sudan famineSudan19981998The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[113]

Floods and landslides[edit]

Note: These are floods and landslides that have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

RankDeath tollEventLocationDate
1.2,500,000–3,700,000[114]1931 China floodsChina1931
2.900,000–2,000,0001887 Yellow River (Huang He) floodChina1887
3.500,000–700,0001938 Yellow River (Huang He) floodChina1938
4.26,000[115]-230,000[116]The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina.ChinaAugust 1975
5.145,0001935 Yangtze river floodChina1935
6.more than 100,000St. Felix's Flood, storm surgeNetherlands1530
7.100,000Hanoi and Red River Delta floodNorth Vietnam1971
8.100,0001911 Yangtze river floodChina1911
9.50,000–80,000St. Lucia's flood, storm surgeNetherlands, England1287
10.10,000–50,000Vargas Tragedy, landslideVenezuela1999
11.2,400North Sea flood, storm surgeNetherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium31 January 1953
12.2,209Johnstown FloodPennsylvania31 May 1889

Human sacrifice and ritual suicide[edit]

This section lists deaths from the systematic practice of human sacrifice or suicide. For notable individual episodes, see Human sacrifice and mass suicide.

Lowest estimateHighest estimateDescriptionGroupLocationFromToNotes
300,000[citation needed]1,500,000[citation needed]Human sacrifice in Aztec cultureAztecsMexico14th century1521Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly[117]
13,000[118]13,100Human sacrificeShang dynastyChinaBC1300BC1050Last 250 years of rule
7,941[119]7,941Ritual suicidesSatiBengal, British India18151828
3,9123,912Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note [120]Imperial Japanese air forcesPacific theatre19441945
913913Jonestown murder-suicide[121]Followers of The Peoples Temple cultJonestownNovember 18, 1978November 19, 1978
967967Mass suicide motivated religious and political.Judean rebelsMasadaSpring 73

Other deadly events[edit]

Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, and other events listed above, as a portion of the total.

49,000,00078,000,000Mao Zedong era 1949–1976People's Republic of China19491976Millions of people died as a result of Mao Zedong's reforms,[122] with most of these deaths due to the Great Chinese Famine caused by mismanagement of agricultural resources during the Great Leap Forward. Millions more died as a result of human rights abuses. The total includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
8,000,00061,000,000Soviet crimes 1917–1953Soviet Republics (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe, Mongolia19171953War, forced collectivization, and poor central planning in the Soviet Republics and Soviet Union led to enormous famines in 1921, 1932–33, and 1946–47. Mass murders were also perpetrated by the Communist leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until the death of Joseph Stalin). This includes terrors unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and 'enemies of The Revolution',[123] deaths in Gulags,[124] forced resettlement,[125] Holodomor,[126] Dekulakization,[127] Great Purge,[128] National operations of the NKVD.[129] See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
5,000,000[130]22,000,000[131]Crimes during Congo Free State 1885–1908Now the Democratic Republic of the Congo18851908Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[132] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[133]
175,000[134]576,000[135]Sanctions against IraqIraq19901998Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council caused excess deaths of young children.
100,0002,000,000Indonesian killings of 1965–1966Indonesia19651966Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.[136]
100,000[137][138]250,000[139][140]War in the VendéeFrance17931796Described as genocide by some historians[138] but this claim has been widely discounted.[141] See also French Revolution.
100,000[142]120,000Manila MassacreManila, Philippines19451945During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.
90,800202,600Indonesian occupation of East TimorEast Timor19741999Civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness.[143]
50,00080,000[144]Operation CondorSouth America19751983A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States
50,00060,000[145][146][147]Warsaw UprisingOccupied Poland5 August 194412 August 1944Systematic killing of Polish civilian population (mostly children and women regardless of age (the latter usually raped before death)) in district Wola and Ochota committed by the German Army during Warsaw Uprising[148]
40,000[149]350,000[150]Nanking MassacreNanking, China19371938The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.
15,00015,000[151]First Sack of ThessalonicaByzantine Empire904904The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.
10,000[152][153]100,000[154][155]Great Fire of Smyrnaİzmir, TurkeySeptember 9, 1922September 24, 1922Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.
9,000[156]30,000[157]Dirty WarArgentina19761983At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).

See also[edit]

Other lists organized by death toll[edit]

Other lists with similar topics[edit]

Topics dealing with similar themes[edit]


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  29. ^ "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study"Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
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  33. ^ – "The famine of 1932–33", Encyclopædia Britannica. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself."
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  38. ^ "Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)". Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  39. ^ "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
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  51. ^ a b Buchenau, Jürgen (2005). Mexico otherwise: modern Mexico in the eyes of foreign observers. UNM Press. p. 285. ISBN 0-8263-2313-8. 
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  54. ^ a b See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of 10 Tutsis were killed.
  55. ^ Paul Goble Circassians demand Russian apology for 19th century genocide, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty 15 July 2005, Volume 8, Number 23
  56. ^ Charles King: "The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus", Oxford University Press, 2008. Page 96.
  57. ^ a b Rummel, R.J., Statistics Of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, Statistics of Democide, 1997.
  58. ^ Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
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  61. ^ Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
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  88. ^ The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
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  92. ^ Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2. 
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  97. ^ Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
  98. ^ Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill's secret war in India by Susannah York
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  100. ^ Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
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  103. ^ Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
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  106. ^ Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1. 
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  108. ^ Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate". Population and Development Review (December 1995).
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  113. ^ Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
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  115. ^ Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0. 
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  117. ^ "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice", by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
  118. ^ National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
  119. ^ Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
  120. ^ This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
  121. ^ The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
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  123. ^ Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
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  126. ^ С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
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  129. ^ Vadim Rogovin "The Party of the Executed"
  130. ^ Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1. 
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  134. ^ Crossette, Barbara. "Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports=1999". 
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  136. ^ Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550. 
  137. ^ Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
  138. ^ a b Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
  139. ^ Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
  140. ^ Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
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  142. ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". 
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  144. ^ "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
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  149. ^ Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi; Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2008). The Naking Atrocity: 1937–38. Berghahn Books. p. 362. ISBN 1-84545-180-5. 
  150. ^ Iris Chang (1997). The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7867-2760-5. 
  151. ^ Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 572. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2. 
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  153. ^ Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
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