List of volcanoes in Indonesia

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A brown volcano in the center with white smoke emanating from its peak, a cloudy sky fading from blue at the top through yellow in the middle to red at the horizon, and brown mountains in the foreground.
Mahameru (Semeru) above Mount Bromo, East Java

The geography of Indonesia is dominated by volcanoes that are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian plate and the Indo-Australian plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883,[1] Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 years before present which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter,[2] and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815.[3]

Volcanoes in Indonesia are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. The 150 entries in the list below are grouped into six geographical regions, four of which belong to the volcanoes of the Sunda Arc trench system. The remaining two groups are volcanoes of Halmahera, including its surrounding volcanic islands, and volcanoes of Sulawesi and the Sangihe Islands. The latter group is in one volcanic arc together with the Philippine volcanoes.

The most active volcanoes are Kelut and Merapi on Java island which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelut has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI),[4] while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times.[5] The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has named Merapi as a Decade Volcano since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity.

In 2012, Indonesia has 127 active volcanoes with about 5 million people have activities around it. Since December 26, 2004 when big earthquake and tsunami occurred, all of volcanoes eruption pattern changed, such as dormant Mount Sinabung with last eruption in 1600s, but suddenly active in 2010.[6]

The word for Mount in Indonesian and many regional languages of the country (such as Javanese) is Gunung. Thus, Mount Merapi for example, is sometimes referred as Gunung Merapi.

Contents

Scope

A chart with the heading "Major Volcanoes of Indonesia (with eruptions since 1900 A.D.)". Depicted below the heading is an overhead view of a cluster of islands.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia

There is no single standard definition for a volcano. It can be defined from individual vents, volcanic edificies or volcanic fields. Interior of ancient volcanoes may have been eroded, creating a new subsurface magma chamber as a separate volcano. Many contemporary active volcanoes rise as young parasitic cones from flank vents or at a central crater. Some volcanic cones are grouped into one volcano name, for instance, the Tengger caldera complex, although individual vents are named by local people. The status of a volcano, either active or dormant, cannot be defined precisely. An indication of a volcano is determined by either its historical records, radiocarbon dating, or geothermal activities.

The primary source of the list below is taken from the "Volcanoes of the World" book, compiled by two volcanologists Tom Simkin and Lee Siebert,[a] in which active volcanoes in the past 10,000 years (Holocene) are listed.[7] Particularly for Indonesia, Simkin and Siebert used a catalogue of active volcanoes from the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior publication series.[b] The Simkin and Siebert list is the most complete list of volcanoes in Indonesia, but the accuracy of the record varies from one region to another in terms of contemporary activities and fatalities in recent eruptions. Complementary sources for the latest volcanic data are taken from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, a governmental institution which is responsible for volcanic activities and geological hazard mitigation in Indonesia,[8] and some academic resources.

Geographical groups

Sumatra

Drawing of an overhead view of an elongated island stretching from the top left corner to the bottom right corner and labelled with names of locations.
Map showing the location of volcanoes and geological fault lines of Sumatra

The geography of Sumatra is dominated by a mountain range called Bukit Barisan (lit: "a row of hills"). The mountain range spans nearly 1,700 km (1,100 mi) from the north to the south of the island, and it was formed by movement of the Australian tectonic plate.[9] The plate moves with a convergence rate of 5.5 cm/year which has created major earthquakes on the western side of Sumatra including the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.[10][11] The tectonic movement has been responsible not only for earthquakes, but also for the formulation of magma chambers beneath the island.[9]

Only one of the 35 active volcanos, Weh, is separated from the Sumatran mainland. The separation was caused by a large eruption that filled the lowland between Weh and the rest of the mainland with sea water in the Pleistocene epoch. The largest volcano of Sumatra is the supervolcano Toba within the 100 km (62 mi) × 30 km (19 mi) Lake Toba, which was created after a caldera collapse (est. in 74,000 Before Present).[2] The eruption is estimated to have been at level eight on the VEI scale, the largest possible for a volcanic eruption. The highest peak of the mountain range is Mount Kerinci with an elevation of 3,800 m (12,467 ft).

NameShapeElevationLast eruption (VEI)Geolocation
Wehstratovolcano7002617000000000000617 metres (2,024 ft)--2578000-01-012588000 BCPleistocene5°49′N 95°17′E / 5.82°N 95.28°E / 5.82; 95.28
Seulawah Agamstratovolcano70031810000000000001,810 metres (5,940 ft)01839-01-011839 (2)5°26′53″N 95°39′29″E / 5.448°N 95.658°E / 5.448; 95.658
Peuet Saguecomplex volcano70032801000000000002,801 metres (9,190 ft)02000-12-2525 December 2000 (2)4°54′50″N 96°19′44″E / 4.914°N 96.329°E / 4.914; 96.329
Geureudongstratovolcano70032885000000000002,885 metres (9,465 ft)01937-01-0119374°48′47″N 96°49′12″E / 4.813°N 96.82°E / 4.813; 96.82
Kembarshield volcano70032245000000000002,245 metres (7,365 ft)--2578000-01-012588000 BCPleistocene3°51′00″N 97°39′50″E / 3.850°N 97.664°E / 3.850; 97.664
Sibayakstratovolcano70032212000000000002,212 metres (7,257 ft)01881-01-0118813°14′N 98°31′E / 3.23°N 98.52°E / 3.23; 98.52
Sinabungstratovolcano70032460000000000002,460 metres (8,070 ft)02010-09-077 September 20103°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392
Tobasupervolcano70032157000000000002,157 metres (7,077 ft)72000 BC2°35′N 98°50′E / 2.58°N 98.83°E / 2.58; 98.83
Helatoba-Tarutungfumarole field70031100000000000001,100 metres (3,600 ft)--2578000-01-012588000 BCPleistocene2°02′N 98°56′E / 2.03°N 98.93°E / 2.03; 98.93
Imununknown70031505000000000001,505 metres (4,938 ft)unknown2°09′29″N 98°55′48″E / 2.158°N 98.93°E / 2.158; 98.93
Sibualbualistratovolcano70031819000000000001,819 metres (5,968 ft)unknown1°33′22″N 99°15′18″E / 1.556°N 99.255°E / 1.556; 99.255
Lubukrayastratovolcano70031862000000000001,862 metres (6,109 ft)unknown1°28′41″N 99°12′32″E / 1.478°N 99.209°E / 1.478; 99.209
Sorikmarapistratovolcano70032145000000000002,145 metres (7,037 ft)01986-01-011986 (1)0°41′10″N 99°32′20″E / 0.686°N 99.539°E / 0.686; 99.539
Talakmaucomplex volcano70032919000000000002,919 metres (9,577 ft)unknown0°04′44″N 99°58′48″E / 0.079°N 99.98°E / 0.079; 99.98
Sarik-Gajahvolcanic coneunknownunknown0°00′29″N 100°12′00″E / 0.008°N 100.20°E / 0.008; 100.20
Marapicomplex volcano70032891000000000002,891 metres (9,485 ft)02004-08-055 August 2004 (2)0°22′52″S 100°28′23″E / 0.381°S 100.473°E / -0.381; 100.473
Tandikatstratovolcano70032438000000000002,438 metres (7,999 ft)01924-01-011924 (1)0°25′59″S 100°19′01″E / 0.433°S 100.317°E / -0.433; 100.317
Talangstratovolcano70032597000000000002,597 metres (8,520 ft)02005-04-1212 April 2005 (2)0°58′41″S 100°40′44″E / 0.978°S 100.679°E / -0.978; 100.679
Kerincistratovolcano70033800000000000003,800 metres (12,500 ft)02004-06-2222 June 2004 (2)1°41′49″S 101°15′50″E / 1.697°S 101.264°E / -1.697; 101.264
Hutapanjangstratovolcano70032021000000000002,021 metres (6,631 ft)unknown2°20′S 101°36′E / 2.33°S 101.60°E / -2.33; 101.60
Sumbingstratovolcano70032507000000000002,507 metres (8,225 ft)01921-05-2323 May 1921 (2)2°24′50″S 101°43′41″E / 2.414°S 101.728°E / -2.414; 101.728
Kunyitstratovolcano70032151000000000002,151 metres (7,057 ft)unknown2°35′31″S 101°37′48″E / 2.592°S 101.63°E / -2.592; 101.63
Pendanunknownunknownunknown2°49′S 102°01′E / 2.82°S 102.02°E / -2.82; 102.02
Belirang-Beriticompound70031958000000000001,958 metres (6,424 ft)unknown2°49′S 102°11′E / 2.82°S 102.18°E / -2.82; 102.18
Bukit Daunstratovolcano70032467000000000002,467 metres (8,094 ft)unknown3°23′S 102°22′E / 3.38°S 102.37°E / -3.38; 102.37
Kabastratovolcano70031952000000000001,952 metres (6,404 ft)02000-08-2222 August 2000 (1)3°31′S 102°37′E / 3.52°S 102.62°E / -3.52; 102.62
Dempostratovolcano70033173000000000003,173 metres (10,410 ft)01994-10-01 October 1994 (1)4°02′S 103°08′E / 4.03°S 103.13°E / -4.03; 103.13
Patahunknown70032817000000000002,817 metres (9,242 ft)unknown4°16′S 103°18′E / 4.27°S 103.30°E / -4.27; 103.30
Bukit Lumut Balaistratovolcano70032055000000000002,055 metres (6,742 ft)unknown4°14′S 103°37′E / 4.23°S 103.62°E / -4.23; 103.62
Besarstratovolcano70031899000000000001,899 metres (6,230 ft)01940-04-01 April 1940 (1)4°26′S 103°40′E / 4.43°S 103.67°E / -4.43; 103.67
Ranaucaldera70031881000000000001,881 metres (6,171 ft)unknown4°50′S 103°55′E / 4.83°S 103.92°E / -4.83; 103.92
Sekincau Belirangcaldera70031719000000000001,719 metres (5,640 ft)unknown5°07′S 104°19′E / 5.12°S 104.32°E / -5.12; 104.32
Suohcaldera70031000000000000001,000 metres (3,300 ft)01933-07-1010 July 1933 (4)5°15′S 104°16′E / 5.25°S 104.27°E / -5.25; 104.27
Hulubelucaldera70031040000000000001,040 metres (3,410 ft)01836-01-0118365°21′S 104°36′E / 5.35°S 104.60°E / -5.35; 104.60
Rajabasastratovolcano70031281000000000001,281 metres (4,203 ft)01798-01-0117985°46′48″S 105°37′30″E / 5.78°S 105.625°E / -5.78; 105.625
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
An overhead view of a land formation that is brightly coloured with patches of pink, blue, green, white, and black in irregular configurations.
Landsat image of Lake Toba  
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
Mount Kerinci, the highest mountain on Sumatra  
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[12]

Sunda Strait and Java

The Sunda Strait separates the islands of Sumatra and Java with the volcanic island Krakatau lying between them. Krakatau erupted violently in 1883, destroying two-thirds of the island and leaving a large caldera under the sea. This cataclysmic explosion was heard as far away as the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius (approx. 4,800 kilometres (3,000 mi) away).[1] A new parasitic cone, called Anak Krakatau (or the child of Krakatau), rose from the sea at the center of the caldera in 1930.[13] The other Krakatau islets from the 1883 eruptions are known as Sertung, Panjang and Rakata.

Java is a relatively small island compared to Sumatra, but it has a higher concentration of active volcanoes. There are 45 active volcanoes on the island excluding 20 small craters and cones in the Dieng volcanic complex and the young cones in the Tengger caldera complex. Some volcanoes are grouped together in the list below because of their close location. Mount Merapi, Semeru and Kelud are the most active volcanoes in Java. Mount Semeru has been continuously erupting since 1967.[14] Mount Merapi has been named as one of the Decade Volcanoes since 1995.[15] Ijen has a unique colorful caldera lake which is an extremely acidic natural reservoir (pH<0.3).[16] There are sulfur mining activities at Ijen, where miners collect highly concentrated sulfur rocks by hand.

NameShapeElevationLast eruption (VEI)Geolocation
Krakataucaldera7002813000000000000813 metres (2,667 ft)02011-01-1111 January 2011 ( )6°06′07″S 105°25′23″E / 6.102°S 105.423°E / -6.102; 105.423
Pulosaristratovolcano70031346000000000001,346 metres (4,416 ft)unknown6°20′31″S 105°58′30″E / 6.342°S 105.975°E / -6.342; 105.975
Karangstratovolcano70031778000000000001,778 metres (5,833 ft)unknown6°16′12″S 106°02′31″E / 6.27°S 106.042°E / -6.27; 106.042
Kiaraberes-Gagakstratovolcano70031511000000000001,511 metres (4,957 ft)01939-04-066 April 1939 (1)6°44′S 106°39′E / 6.73°S 106.65°E / -6.73; 106.65
Perbaktistratovolcano70031699000000000001,699 metres (5,574 ft)unknown6°45′S 106°41′E / 6.75°S 106.68°E / -6.75; 106.68
Salakstratovolcano70032211000000000002,211 metres (7,254 ft)01938-01-3131 January 1938 (2)6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73
Gedestratovolcano70032958000000000002,958 metres (9,705 ft)01957-03-1313 March 1957 (2)6°47′S 106°59′E / 6.78°S 106.98°E / -6.78; 106.98
Patuhastratovolcano70032434000000000002,434 metres (7,986 ft)unknown7°09′36″S 107°24′00″E / 7.160°S 107.40°E / -7.160; 107.40
Wayang-Windulava dome70032182000000000002,182 metres (7,159 ft)unknown7°12′29″S 107°37′48″E / 7.208°S 107.63°E / -7.208; 107.63
Malabarstratovolcano70032343000000000002,343 metres (7,687 ft)unknown7°08′S 107°39′E / 7.13°S 107.65°E / -7.13; 107.65
Tangkuban Perahustratovolcano70032084000000000002,084 metres (6,837 ft)01983-09-1414 September 1983 (1)6°46′S 107°36′E / 6.77°S 107.60°E / -6.77; 107.60
Papandayanstratovolcano70032665000000000002,665 metres (8,743 ft)02002-11-1111 November 2002 (2)7°19′S 107°44′E / 7.32°S 107.73°E / -7.32; 107.73
Kendangstratovolcano70032608000000000002,608 metres (8,556 ft)unknown7°14′S 107°43′E / 7.23°S 107.72°E / -7.23; 107.72
Kamojangstratovolcano70031730000000000001,730 metres (5,680 ft)--2578000-01-012588000 BCPleistocene7°07′30″S 107°48′00″E / 7.125°S 107.80°E / -7.125; 107.80
Gunturcomplex volcano70032249000000000002,249 metres (7,379 ft)01847-10-1616 October 1847 (2)7°08′35″S 107°50′24″E / 7.143°S 107.840°E / -7.143; 107.840
Tampomasstratovolcano70031684000000000001,684 metres (5,525 ft)unknown6°46′S 107°57′E / 6.77°S 107.95°E / -6.77; 107.95
Galunggungstratovolcano70032168000000000002,168 metres (7,113 ft)01984-01-099 January 1984 (1)7°15′00″S 108°03′29″E / 7.25°S 108.058°E / -7.25; 108.058
Talagabodasstratovolcano70032201000000000002,201 metres (7,221 ft)unknown7°12′29″S 108°04′12″E / 7.208°S 108.07°E / -7.208; 108.07
Karahafumarole70031155000000000001,155 metres (3,789 ft)unknown7°07′S 108°05′E / 7.12°S 108.08°E / -7.12; 108.08
Ceremestratovolcano70033078000000000003,078 metres (10,098 ft)01951-01-0119516°53′31″S 108°24′00″E / 6.892°S 108.40°E / -6.892; 108.40
Slametstratovolcano70033432000000000003,432 metres (11,260 ft)01999-05-011 May 1999 (1)7°14′31″S 109°12′29″E / 7.242°S 109.208°E / -7.242; 109.208
Diengcomplex volcano70032565000000000002,565 metres (8,415 ft)01996-12-3131 December 1996 (1)7°12′S 109°55′E / 7.20°S 109.92°E / -7.20; 109.92
Sundorostratovolcano70033136000000000003,136 metres (10,289 ft)01971-10-2929 October 1971 (2)7°18′00″S 109°59′31″E / 7.30°S 109.992°E / -7.30; 109.992
Sumbingstratovolcano70033371000000000003,371 metres (11,060 ft)01730-01-011730 (1)7°23′02″S 110°04′12″E / 7.384°S 110.070°E / -7.384; 110.070
Ungaranstratovolcano70032050000000000002,050 metres (6,730 ft)unknown7°11′S 110°20′E / 7.18°S 110.33°E / -7.18; 110.33
Telomoyostratovolcano70031894000000000001,894 metres (6,214 ft)unknown7°22′S 110°24′E / 7.37°S 110.40°E / -7.37; 110.40
Merbabustratovolcano70033145000000000003,145 metres (10,318 ft)01797-01-011797 (2)7°27′S 110°26′E / 7.45°S 110.43°E / -7.45; 110.43
Merapistratovolcano70032968000000000002,968 metres (9,738 ft)02010-10-2626 October 2010[17]7°32′31″S 110°26′31″E / 7.542°S 110.442°E / -7.542; 110.442
Muriastratovolcano70031625000000000001,625 metres (5,331 ft)-9840-01-01160 BC ± 30 years6°37′S 110°53′E / 6.62°S 110.88°E / -6.62; 110.88
Lawustratovolcano70033265000000000003,265 metres (10,712 ft)01885-11-2828 November 1885 (1)7°37′30″S 111°11′31″E / 7.625°S 111.192°E / -7.625; 111.192
Wilisstratovolcano70032563000000000002,563 metres (8,409 ft)unknown7°48′29″S 111°45′29″E / 7.808°S 111.758°E / -7.808; 111.758
Keludstratovolcano70031731000000000001,731 metres (5,679 ft)01990-02-1010 February 1990 (4)7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308
Kawi-Butakstratovolcano70032651000000000002,651 metres (8,698 ft)unknown7°55′S 112°27′E / 7.92°S 112.45°E / -7.92; 112.45
Arjuno-Welirangstratovolcano70033339000000000003,339 metres (10,955 ft)01952-08-1515 August 1952 (0)7°43′30″S 112°34′48″E / 7.725°S 112.58°E / -7.725; 112.58
Penanggunganstratovolcano70031653000000000001,653 metres (5,423 ft)unknown7°37′S 112°38′E / 7.62°S 112.63°E / -7.62; 112.63
Malang Plainmaar7002680000000000000680 metres (2,230 ft)unknown8°01′S 112°41′E / 8.02°S 112.68°E / -8.02; 112.68
Semerustratovolcano70033676000000000003,676 metres (12,060 ft)01967-01-011967–2006 continuing (3)8°06′29″S 112°55′12″E / 8.108°S 112.92°E / -8.108; 112.92
Tenggerstratovolcano70032329000000000002,329 metres (7,641 ft)02004-06-088 June 2004 (2)7°56′31″S 112°57′00″E / 7.942°S 112.95°E / -7.942; 112.95
Lamonganstratovolcano70031651000000000001,651 metres (5,417 ft)01898-02-055 February 1898 (2)7°58′44″S 113°20′31″E / 7.979°S 113.342°E / -7.979; 113.342
Luruscomplex volcano7002539000000000000539 metres (1,768 ft)unknown7°44′S 113°35′E / 7.73°S 113.58°E / -7.73; 113.58
Iyang-Argapuracomplex volcano70033088000000000003,088 metres (10,131 ft)unknown7°58′S 113°34′E / 7.97°S 113.57°E / -7.97; 113.57
Raungstratovolcano70033332000000000003,332 metres (10,932 ft)02002-06-022 June 2002 (2)8°07′30″S 114°02′31″E / 8.125°S 114.042°E / -8.125; 114.042
Ijenstratovolcano70032799000000000002,799 metres (9,183 ft)01999-06-2828 June 1999 (1)8°03′29″S 114°14′31″E / 8.058°S 114.242°E / -8.058; 114.242
Baluranstratovolcano70031247000000000001,247 metres (4,091 ft)unknown7°51′S 114°22′E / 7.85°S 114.37°E / -7.85; 114.37

Note: Height of Krakatau is of Rakata, not of the active Anak Krakatau

An aerial photograph of an irregularly shaped, dark grey island with green foliage on the right and bottom, all surrounded by blue water.
Satellite image of Anak Krakatau with fresh lava flows  
A photograph depicting a white sky at the top, a grey land configuration in the middle, and a body of water swirling around at the bottom.
Tangkuban Perahu, taken from above  
A photograph depicting lightning striking a volcano that is in the process of erupting bright yellow lava into the air, all surrounded by a red haze.
Lightning striking during the 1982 Galunggung eruption  
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a dark grey volcano in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
Mount Merapi, the most active volcano in Indonesia  
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a light grey lake in the middle, and dark grey rocks surrounding the lake.
The turquoise colored sulfuric acid lake on the Ijen caldera  
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[18][19]

Lesser Sunda Islands

The Lesser Sunda Islands is a small archipelago which, from west to east, consists of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and the Timor islands; all are located at the edge of the Australian continental shelf. Volcanoes in the area are formed because of oceanic crusts and the movement of the shelf itself.[20] Some volcanoes completely form an island, for instance, the Sangeang Api island. Mount Tambora, on Sumbawa island, erupted on 5 April 1815, with a scale 7 on the VEI and is considered the most violent eruption in recorded history.[3]

NameShapeElevationLast eruption (VEI)Geolocation
Merbuktba70031386000000000001,386 metres (4,547 ft)unknown-
Bratancaldera70032276000000000002,276 metres (7,467 ft)unknown8°17′S 115°08′E / 8.28°S 115.13°E / -8.28; 115.13
Baturcaldera70031717000000000001,717 metres (5,633 ft)01999-03-1515 March 1999 (1)8°14′31″S 115°22′30″E / 8.242°S 115.375°E / -8.242; 115.375
Agungstratovolcano70033142000000000003,142 metres (10,308 ft)01963-02-1818 February 1963 (5)8°20′31″S 115°30′29″E / 8.342°S 115.508°E / -8.342; 115.508
Rinjanistratovolcano70033726000000000003,726 metres (12,224 ft)02004-10-011 October 2004 (2)8°25′S 116°28′E / 8.42°S 116.47°E / -8.42; 116.47
Tamborastratovolcano70032722000000000002,722 metres (8,930 ft)01967-01-011967 ± 20 years (0)8°15′S 118°00′E / 8.25°S 118.00°E / -8.25; 118.00
Sangeang Apicomplex volcano70031949000000000001,949 metres (6,394 ft)01985-07-3030 July 1985 (3)8°12′S 119°04′E / 8.20°S 119.07°E / -8.20; 119.07
Wai Sanocaldera7002903000000000000903 metres (2,963 ft)unknown8°43′S 120°01′E / 8.72°S 120.02°E / -8.72; 120.02
Poco Leokunknown70031675000000000001,675 metres (5,495 ft)unknown8°41′S 120°29′E / 8.68°S 120.48°E / -8.68; 120.48
Ranakahlava dome70032100000000000002,100 metres (6,900 ft)01991-03-01 March 1991 (1)8°37′S 120°31′E / 8.62°S 120.52°E / -8.62; 120.52
Inieriestratovolcano70032245000000000002,245 metres (7,365 ft)-1950-01-018050 BC8°52′30″S 120°57′00″E / 8.875°S 120.95°E / -8.875; 120.95
Inielikacomplex volcano70031559000000000001,559 metres (5,115 ft)02001-01-1111 January 2001 (2)8°44′S 120°59′E / 8.73°S 120.98°E / -8.73; 120.98
Ebulobostratovolcano70032124000000000002,124 metres (6,969 ft)01969-02-2727 February 1969 (2)8°49′S 121°11′E / 8.82°S 121.18°E / -8.82; 121.18
Iyastratovolcano7002637000000000000637 metres (2,090 ft)01969-01-2727 January 1969 (3)8°53′49″S 121°38′42″E / 8.897°S 121.645°E / -8.897; 121.645
Sukariacaldera70031500000000000001,500 metres (4,900 ft)unknown8°47′31″S 121°46′12″E / 8.792°S 121.77°E / -8.792; 121.77
Ndete Napufumarole7002750000000000000750 metres (2,460 ft)unknown8°43′S 121°47′E / 8.72°S 121.78°E / -8.72; 121.78
Kelimutucomplex volcano70031639000000000001,639 metres (5,377 ft)01968-06-033 June 1968 (1)8°46′S 121°49′E / 8.77°S 121.82°E / -8.77; 121.82
Paluwehstratovolcano7002875000000000000875 metres (2,871 ft)01985-02-033 February 1985 (1)8°19′12″S 121°42′29″E / 8.32°S 121.708°E / -8.32; 121.708
Egonstratovolcano70031703000000000001,703 metres (5,587 ft)02005-02-066 February 2005 (1)8°40′S 122°27′E / 8.67°S 122.45°E / -8.67; 122.45
Ilimudastratovolcano70031100000000000001,100 metres (3,600 ft)unknown8°28′41″S 122°40′16″E / 8.478°S 122.671°E / -8.478; 122.671
Lewotobistratovolcano70031703000000000001,703 metres (5,587 ft)02003-05-3030 May 2003 (2)8°32′31″S 122°46′30″E / 8.542°S 122.775°E / -8.542; 122.775
Lerobolengcomplex volcano70031117000000000001,117 metres (3,665 ft)02003-06-2626 June 2003 (3)8°21′29″S 122°50′31″E / 8.358°S 122.842°E / -8.358; 122.842
Riang Kotangfumarole7002200000000000000200 metres (660 ft)unknown8°18′00″S 122°53′31″E / 8.30°S 122.892°E / -8.30; 122.892
Ilibolengstratovolcano70031659000000000001,659 metres (5,443 ft)01993-06-01 June 1993 (1)8°20′31″S 123°15′29″E / 8.342°S 123.258°E / -8.342; 123.258
Lewotolostratovolcano70031423000000000001,423 metres (4,669 ft)01951-12-1515 December 1951 (2)8°16′19″S 123°30′18″E / 8.272°S 123.505°E / -8.272; 123.505
Ililabalekanstratovolcano70031018000000000001,018 metres (3,340 ft)unknown8°33′S 123°23′E / 8.55°S 123.38°E / -8.55; 123.38
Iliwerungcomplex volcano70031018000000000001,018 metres (3,340 ft)01999-05-2222 May 1999 (0)8°32′S 123°34′E / 8.53°S 123.57°E / -8.53; 123.57
Batu Tarastratovolcano7002748000000000000748 metres (2,454 ft)01847-01-011847 (2)7°47′31″S 123°34′44″E / 7.792°S 123.579°E / -7.792; 123.579
Sirungcomplex volcano7002862000000000000862 metres (2,828 ft)01970-01-011970 (2)8°30′29″S 124°07′48″E / 8.508°S 124.13°E / -8.508; 124.13
Yerseysubmarine2996620000000000000−3,800 metres (−12,467 ft)unknown7°32′S 123°57′E / 7.53°S 123.95°E / -7.53; 123.95
A photograph depicting a white bolt of lightning with a purple aura striking a volcano as it erupts yellow lava with a red aura and black smoke.
Eruption of Rinjani in 1984
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, a blue body of water below that, and a rocky terrain in the foreground.
One of three different colored lakes of Kelimutu
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[21]

Banda Sea

The Banda Sea in the south of the Molucca archipelago includes a small group of islands. Three major tectonic plates beneath the sea, Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian plates, have been converging since the Mesozoic epoch.[22] Volcanoes in the Banda Sea are mainly islands, but some are submarine volcanoes.

NameShapeElevationLast eruption (VEI)Geolocation
Emperor of Chinasubmarine2996715000000000000−2,850 metres (−9,350 ft)unknown6°37′S 124°13′E / 6.62°S 124.22°E / -6.62; 124.22
Nieuwerkerksubmarine2996771500000000000−2,285 metres (−7,497 ft)unknown6°36′00″S 124°40′30″E / 6.60°S 124.675°E / -6.60; 124.675
Gunungapi Wetarstratovolcano7002282000000000000282 metres (925 ft)01699-01-011699 (3)6°38′31″S 126°39′00″E / 6.642°S 126.65°E / -6.642; 126.65
Wurlalistratovolcano7002868000000000000868 metres (2,848 ft)01892-06-033 June 1892 (2)7°07′30″S 128°40′30″E / 7.125°S 128.675°E / -7.125; 128.675
Teonstratovolcano7002655000000000000655 metres (2,149 ft)01904-06-033 June 1904 (2)6°55′12″S 129°07′30″E / 6.92°S 129.125°E / -6.92; 129.125
Nilastratovolcano7002781000000000000781 metres (2,562 ft)01968-05-077 May 1968 (1)6°44′S 129°30′E / 6.73°S 129.50°E / -6.73; 129.50
Seruastratovolcano7002641000000000000641 metres (2,103 ft)01921-09-1818 September 1921 (2)6°18′S 130°00′E / 6.30°S 130.00°E / -6.30; 130.00
Manukstratovolcano7002282000000000000282 metres (925 ft)unknown5°31′48″S 130°17′31″E / 5.53°S 130.292°E / -5.53; 130.292
Banda Apicaldera7002640000000000000640 metres (2,100 ft)01988-05-099 May 1988 (3)4°31′30″S 129°52′16″E / 4.525°S 129.871°E / -4.525; 129.871
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[23]

Sulawesi and Sangihe Islands

Four peninsulas dominate the shape of Sulawesi island (formerly known as Celebes). The central part is high mountaineous area, but mostly non-volcanic. Active volcanoes are found in the northern peninsula and continuously stretches to the north to Sangihe Islands. The Sangihe Islands marks the border with Philippines.

NameShapeElevationLast eruption (VEI)Geolocation
Colostratovolcano7002507000000000000507 metres (1,663 ft)01983-07-1818 July 1983 (4)0°10′12″S 121°36′29″E / 0.17°S 121.608°E / -0.17; 121.608
Ambangcomplex volcano70031795000000000001,795 metres (5,889 ft)01845-01-011845 ± 5 years0°45′N 124°25′E / 0.75°N 124.42°E / 0.75; 124.42
Soputanstratovolcano70031784000000000001,784 metres (5,853 ft)02007-10-24October 24, 200724–30 October 20071°06′29″N 124°43′48″E / 1.108°N 124.73°E / 1.108; 124.73
Sempucaldera70031549000000000001,549 metres (5,082 ft)unknown1°07′48″N 124°45′29″E / 1.13°N 124.758°E / 1.13; 124.758
Tondanocaldera70031202000000000001,202 metres (3,944 ft)unknown1°14′N 124°50′E / 1.23°N 124.83°E / 1.23; 124.83
Lokon-Empungstratovolcano70031580000000000001,580 metres (5,180 ft)02011-07-1515 July 20111°21′29″N 124°47′31″E / 1.358°N 124.792°E / 1.358; 124.792
Mahawustratovolcano70031324000000000001,324 metres (4,344 ft)01977-11-1616 November 1977 (0)1°21′29″N 124°51′29″E / 1.358°N 124.858°E / 1.358; 124.858
Klabatstratovolcano70031995000000000001,995 metres (6,545 ft)unknown1°28′N 125°02′E / 1.47°N 125.03°E / 1.47; 125.03
Tongkokostratovolcano70031149000000000001,149 metres (3,770 ft)01880-01-011880 (1)1°31′N 125°12′E / 1.52°N 125.20°E / 1.52; 125.20
Ruangstratovolcano7002725000000000000725 metres (2,379 ft)02002-09-2525 September 2002 (4)2°18′N 125°22′E / 2.30°N 125.37°E / 2.30; 125.37
Karangetangstratovolcano70031784000000000001,784 metres (5,853 ft)02007-08-01 August 20072°47′N 125°24′E / 2.78°N 125.40°E / 2.78; 125.40
Banua Wuhusubmarine2999500000000000000−5 metres (−16 ft)01919-07-1818 July 1919 (3)3°08′17″N 125°29′28″E / 3.138°N 125.491°E / 3.138; 125.491
Awustratovolcano70031320000000000001,320 metres (4,330 ft)02004-06-022 June 2004 (2)3°40′N 125°30′E / 3.67°N 125.50°E / 3.67; 125.50
Submarine 1922submarine2996500000000000000−5,000 metres (−16,404 ft)unknown3°58′N 125°10′E / 3.97°N 125.17°E / 3.97; 125.17
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[24][25]

Halmahera

Halmahera island in the north of Molucca archipelago has been formed by the movement of three tectonic plates resulting in two intersecting mountain ranges, which form four rocky peninsulas separated by three deep bays. A volcanic arc stretches from north to south in the west side of Halmahera, some of which are volcanic islands, for instance, Gamalama and Tidore. Gamalama's island name is Ternate and it has been the center for spice trading since the Portuguese Empire opened a fort in 1512. Due to its location as the center for spice trading during the Age of Discovery, historical records of volcanic eruptions in Halmahera have been available as far back as the early 16th century.

NameShapeElevationLast eruption (VEI)Geolocation
Tarakanpyroclastic cone7002318000000000000318 metres (1,043 ft)unknown1°50′N 127°50′E / 1.83°N 127.83°E / 1.83; 127.83
Dukonocomplex volcano70031335000000000001,335 metres (4,380 ft)01933-08-1313 August 1933 (3)1°41′N 127°53′E / 1.68°N 127.88°E / 1.68; 127.88
Tobaruunknown70031035000000000001,035 metres (3,396 ft)unknown1°38′N 127°40′E / 1.63°N 127.67°E / 1.63; 127.67
Ibustratovolcano70031325000000000001,325 metres (4,347 ft)02005-05-01 May 2005 (0)1°29′17″N 127°37′48″E / 1.488°N 127.63°E / 1.488; 127.63
Gamkonorastratovolcano70031635000000000001,635 metres (5,364 ft)02007-07-099 July 2007 (?)1°23′N 127°32′E / 1.38°N 127.53°E / 1.38; 127.53
Todoko-Ranucaldera7002979000000000000979 metres (3,212 ft)unknown1°15′N 127°28′E / 1.25°N 127.47°E / 1.25; 127.47
Jailolostratovolcano70031130000000000001,130 metres (3,710 ft)unknown1°05′N 127°25′E / 1.08°N 127.42°E / 1.08; 127.42
Hiristratovolcano7002630000000000000630 metres (2,070 ft)unknown0°54′N 127°19′E / 0.90°N 127.32°E / 0.90; 127.32
Gamalamastratovolcano70031715000000000001,715 metres (5,627 ft)02003-07-3131 July 2003 (2)0°48′N 127°20′E / 0.80°N 127.33°E / 0.80; 127.33
Tidorestratovolcano70031730000000000001,730 metres (5,680 ft)unknown0°39′29″N 127°24′00″E / 0.658°N 127.40°E / 0.658; 127.40
Marestratovolcano7002308000000000000308 metres (1,010 ft)unknown0°34′N 127°24′E / 0.57°N 127.40°E / 0.57; 127.40
Motistratovolcano7002950000000000000950 metres (3,120 ft)unknown0°27′N 127°24′E / 0.45°N 127.40°E / 0.45; 127.40
Makianstratovolcano70031357000000000001,357 metres (4,452 ft)01988-07-2929 July 1988 (3)0°19′N 127°24′E / 0.32°N 127.40°E / 0.32; 127.40
Tigalalustratovolcano7002422000000000000422 metres (1,385 ft)unknown0°04′N 127°25′E / 0.07°N 127.42°E / 0.07; 127.42
Amasingstratovolcano70031030000000000001,030 metres (3,380 ft)unknown0°32′S 127°29′E / 0.53°S 127.48°E / -0.53; 127.48
Bibinoistratovolcano7002900000000000000900 metres (3,000 ft)unknown0°46′S 127°43′E / 0.77°S 127.72°E / -0.77; 127.72
A drawing of a volcano erupting orange lava and black smoke into the air with a body of water in the foreground and ships sailing in it.
Depiction of Gamalama erupting in the early 1700s with a Portuguese fort shown
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[26]

Major eruptions

Below is a list of selected major eruptions of volcanoes in Indonesia, sorted chronologically by the starting date of the eruption. Only eruptions with scale 3 or above on VEI are given with known sources and fatalities, except if smaller scale eruptions resulted some fatalities.

Eruption dateVolcanoCessation dateVEICharacteristicsTsunamiTephra volumeFatalitySources
02010-11-033 November 2010Merapi02010-11-088 November 20104cv,pf,ld,lmnoN/A138[5]
01990-02-1010 February 1990Kelut01990-03-01 March 19904cv,cl,pf,ph,ld,lmno0.13 km³35[27]
01983-07-1818 July 1983Colo01983-12-01 December 19834cv,pf,phnoN/A0[27]
01982-04-055 April 1982Galunggung01983-01-088 January 19834cv,pf,lf,lmno0.37 km³ +68[28][29]
01972-10-066 October 1972Merapi01985-03-01 March 19852cv,pf,lf,ld,lmno0.021 km³29[5]
01966-04-2626 April 1966Kelut01966-04-2727 April 19664cv,cl,pf,lmno0.089 km³212[27]
01963-03-1717 March 1963Agung01964-01-2727 January 19645cv,pf,lf,lmno1 km³1,148[30]
01951-08-3131 August 1951Kelut01951-08-3131 August 19514cv,cl,pf,lmno0.2 km³7[27]
01930-11-2525 November 1930Merapi01931-09-01 September 19313cv,rf,pf,lf,ld,lmno0.0017 km³1,369[5]
01919-05-1919 May 1919Kelut01919-05-2020 May 19194cv,cl,pf,lmno0.19 km³5,110[27]
01892-06-077 June 1892Awu01892-06-1212 June 18923cv,pf,lmyesN/A1,532[31]
01883-08-2626 August 1883Krakatau01884-02-01 February 18846cv,se,pf,fa,lm,cc15–42 m5–8.5 km³36,600[1][30][32]
01872-04-1515 April 1872Merapi01872-04-2121 April 18724cv,pfno0.33 km³200[5]
01856-03-022 March 1856Awu01856-03-1717 March 18563cv,pf,lmyes0.51±0.50 km³2,806[31]
01822-10-088 October 1822Galunggung01822-12-01 December 18225cv,pf,ld,lmno1 km³ +4,011[27]
01815-04-1010 April 1815Mount Tambora01815-07-1515 July 18157cv,pf,cc1–2 m160 km³71,000+[3][33]
01812-08-066 August 1812Awu01812-08-088 August 18124cv,pf,lmno0.55±0.50 km³963[31]
01772-08-1212 August 1772Papandayan01772-08-1212 August 17723cv,phnoN/A2,957[34]
01672-08-044 August 1672Merapi01672-01-011672unknown3cv,pf,lmnoN/A3,000[5]
01586-01-011586Kelut01586-01-011586unknown5cf,cl,lmno1 km³ +10,000[27]
--64000-01-0174000 BC≈ 74,000 BPToba--64000-01-0174000 BCunknown8pf,lf,cclikely2,800 km³near extinction of
human population
[2]
Fatality numbers are mostly taken from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,[8] and Tanguy et al. (1998).[35]
Notes: cv=central vent eruption, pf=pyroclastic flows, lf=lava flows, lm=lahar mudflows, cl=crater lake eruption, ph=phreatic eruption, ld=lava dome extrusion, cc=caldera collapse, se=submarine eruption, fa=fumarole activity, rf=radial fissure eruption.

See also

References

General references

  1. ^ a M. Neumann van Padang (1951). "Indonesia". Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields (1 ed.). Rome: IAVCEI. pp. 1–271.
  2. ^ a Tom Simkin and Lee Siebert (1994). Volcanoes of the World: A Regional Directory, Gazetteer, and Chronology of Volcanism During the Last 10,000 Years (2nd ed.). Geoscience Press. ISBN 0-945005-12-1.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Winchester, Simon (2003). Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-621285-5.
  2. ^ a b c Oppenheimer, C. (2002). "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?". Quaternary Science Reviews 21 (14–15): 1593–1609. Bibcode 2002QSRv...21.1593O. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00154-8.
  3. ^ a b c Stothers, Richard B. (1984). "The Great Tambora Eruption in 1815 and Its Aftermath". Science 224 (4654): 1191–1198. Bibcode 1984Sci...224.1191S. doi:10.1126/science.224.4654.1191. PMID 17819476.
  4. ^ "Kelut Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-28=&volpage=erupt. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Merapi Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-25=&volpage=erupt. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  6. ^ "Indonesia Miliki 127 Gunung Api Aktif". May 2, 2012. http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/node/186891.
  7. ^ "Summary Data Criteria". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/globallists.cfm?listpage=summdesc. Retrieved 2006-12-31.
  8. ^ a b "Centre of Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation". Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. Archived from the original on 2006-12-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20061216081307/http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/. Retrieved 2006-12-31.
  9. ^ a b Simoes, M., Avouac, J.P., Cattin, R., Henry, P. (2004). "The Sumatra subduction zone: A case for a locked fault zone extending into the mantle" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research 109: B10402. Bibcode 2004JGRB..10910402S. doi:10.1029/2003JB002958. http://tectonics.caltech.edu/publications/pdf/simoes_JGR2004.pdf.
  10. ^ Subarya, C., Chlieh, M., Prawirodirdjo, L., Avouac, J.P., Bock, Y., Sieh, K., Meltzner, A., Natawidjaja, D.H., McCaffrey, R. (2006). "Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake" (PDF). Nature 440 (7080): 46–51. Bibcode 2006Natur.440...46S. doi:10.1038/nature04522. PMID 16511486. http://tectonics.caltech.edu/publications/pdf/Subarya_Nature2006.pdf.
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  13. ^ Whittaker, R. J.; Bush, M. B. (1993). "Anak Krakatau and old Krakatau: a reply". GeoJournal 29 (4): 417–420. doi:10.1007/BF00807545.
  14. ^ "Semeru Weekly Reports". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-30=&volpage=weekly. Retrieved 2006-12-07.
  15. ^ International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (1995). "Decade Volcano Update". Bulletin of Volcanology 57 (1): 82–83. Bibcode 1995BVol...57...76.. doi:10.1007/BF00298711.
  16. ^ Ansje Löhr, Thom Bogaard, Alex Heikens, Martin Hendriks, Sri Sumarti, Manfred van Bergen, Kees C.A.M. van Gestel, Nico van Straalen, Pieter Vroonand, and Budi Widianarko (2005). "Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acid Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia". Environmental Science and Pollution Research 12 (2): 89–95. doi:10.1065/espr2004.09.118.
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  18. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Krakatau". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=0602. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
  19. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Java". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=0603. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
  20. ^ H. A. Brouwer (July 1939). "Exploration in the Lesser Sunda Islands". The Geographical Journal (Blackwell Publishing) 94 (1): 1–10. doi:10.2307/1788584. JSTOR 1788584.
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  22. ^ Christian Honthaasa, Jean-Pierre Réhaulta, René C. Maurya, Hervé Bellona, Christophe Hémonda, Jacques-André Maloda, Jean-Jacques Cornéeb, Michel Villeneuveb, Joseph Cottena, Safri Burhanuddinc, Hervé Guilloud and Nicolas Arnaud (1998). "A Neogene back-arc origin for the Banda Sea basins: geochemical and geochronological constraints from the Banda ridges (East Indonesia)". Tectonophysics 298 (4): 297–317. Bibcode 1998Tectp.298..297H. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(98)00190-5. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/00401951/1998/00000298/00000004/art00190.
  23. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Banda Sea". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=0605. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
  24. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Sulawesi". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=0606. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
  25. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Sangihe Islands". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=0607. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
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  30. ^ a b Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self (1982). "Historic eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963), their stratospheric aerosols, and climatic impact". Quaternary Research 18 (2): 127–143. Bibcode 1982QuRes..18..127R. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(82)90065-5.
  31. ^ a b c "Awu's Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0607-04=&volpage=erupt. Retrieved 2006-12-31.
  32. ^ B.H. Choi, E. Pelinovsky, K.O. Kim and J.S. Lee (2003). "Simulation of the trans-oceanic tsunami propagation due to the 1883 Krakatau volcanic eruption" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 3 (5): 321–332. doi:10.5194/nhess-3-321-2003. http://iri.ldeo.columbia.edu/~lareef/tsunami/nhs-3-321.pdf.
  33. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.
  34. ^ "The Deadliest Eruptions". Volcano World. Department of Geosciences at Oregon State University. http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/education/facts/deadly_volcs.html. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  35. ^ J.-C. Tanguy, Ch. Ribière, A. Scarth and W.S. Tjetjep (1998). "Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database". Bulletin of Volcanology 60 (2): 137–144. Bibcode 1998BVol...60..137T. doi:10.1007/s004450050222. http://www.springerlink.com/content/8bn1re4crce6yr8r/.

External links