List of volcanoes in Iceland

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Some volcanoes of Iceland
Grímsvötn
Eyjafjallajökull
Hekla
Hengill
Krýsuvík
Katla
Laki
Öræfajökull
Surtsey
Askja
Eldfell
Krafla
Langjökull
Hofsjökull
Snæfellsjökull
Ljósufjöll
Þeistareykjabunga
Bárðarbunga

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Iceland. Iceland has about 130 volcanic mountains, of which 18 have erupted since the settlement of Iceland, circa 900 CE.

List 89[edit]

NameElevation (m)Elevation (ft)CoordinatesLast eruptionVEINotes
Askja1516497465°02′N 16°45′W / 65.03°N 16.75°W / 65.03; -16.75 (Askja)19615
Bárðarbunga2005651564°38′N 17°34′W / 64.64°N 17.56°W / 64.64; -17.56 (Bárðarbunga)1903
Brennisteinsfjöll626205463°55′N 21°50′W / 63.92°N 21.83°W / 63.92; -21.83 (Brennisteinsfjöll)1341 (± 1 year)2
Eldfell27991563°26′N 20°15′W / 63.43°N 20.25°W / 63.43; -20.25 (Eldfell)19733Vestmannaeyjar island of Heimaey
Eldgjáca 800ca 262564°14′N 18°22′W / 64.24°N 18.37°W / 64.24; -18.37 (Eldgjá)9346This volcano is a vent of Katla
Esjufjöll1760577464°16′N 16°39′W / 64.27°N 16.65°W / 64.27; -16.65 (Esjufjöll)1927
Eyjafjallajökull1666546663°38′N 19°37′W / 63.63°N 19.62°W / 63.63; -19.62 (Eyjafjallajökull)20104
Fremrinámur939308165°26′N 16°39′W / 65.43°N 16.65°W / 65.43; -16.65 (Fremrinámur)800 BC (± 300 years)
Grensdalur497163164°01′N 21°10′W / 64.02°N 21.17°W / 64.02; -21.17 (Grensdalur)dormantActive during Pleistocene
Grímsnes21470264°02′N 20°52′W / 64.03°N 20.87°W / 64.03; -20.87 (Grímsnes)~3500 BC3
Grímsvötn1725565964°25′N 17°20′W / 64.42°N 17.33°W / 64.42; -17.33 (Grímsvötn)20114
Hekla1491489263°59′N 19°42′W / 63.98°N 19.70°W / 63.98; -19.70 (Hekla)20003
Hengill803263464°11′N 21°20′W / 64.18°N 21.33°W / 64.18; -21.33 (Hengill)90 AD (± 100 years)2
Herðubreið1682551865°11′N 16°20′W / 65.18°N 16.34°W / 65.18; -16.34 (Herðubreið)DormantActive during Pleistocene
Hofsjökull1782584664°51′N 19°32′W / 64.85°N 19.53°W / 64.85; -19.53 (Hofsjökull)DormantActive during Holocene
Hrómundartindur540177264°04′N 21°12′W / 64.07°N 21.20°W / 64.07; -21.20 (Hrómundartindur)10000 BP
Hverfjall420137865°22′N 16°32′W / 65.36°N 16.53°W / 65.36; -16.53 (Hverfjall)~500 BCpart of Krafla fissure system
Hveravellir1360446264°45′N 19°59′W / 64.75°N 19.98°W / 64.75; -19.98 (Hveravellir)950 AD ± 50 years6central volcano of eastern Langjökull system
Jólnir70*230*63°18′N 20°38′W / 63.30°N 20.63°W / 63.30; -20.63 (Jólnir)1966This vent of Surtsey has since

eroded to below sea level

Katla1512496163°38′N 19°03′W / 63.63°N 19.05°W / 63.63; -19.05 (Katla)19185
Kerlingarfjöll1488488264°38′N 19°19′W / 64.63°N 19.32°W / 64.63; -19.32 (Kerlingarfjöll)dormantActive during Holocene
Kolbeinsey Ridge51666°40′N 18°30′W / 66.67°N 18.50°W / 66.67; -18.50 (Kolbeinsey)1755 [1]
Kollóttadyngja1177382565°13′N 16°33′W / 65.22°N 16.55°W / 65.22; -16.55 (Kollóttadyngja)unknown
Krafla650213365°44′N 16°47′W / 65.73°N 16.78°W / 65.73; -16.78 (Krafla)19844
Krýsuvík379124363°56′N 22°06′W / 63.93°N 22.10°W / 63.93; -22.10 (Krýsuvík)probably ~13402
Krakatindur30098463°33′N 19°18′W / 63.55°N 19.30°W / 63.55; -19.30 (Krakatindur)unknown
Kverkfjöll1920629964°39′N 16°43′W / 64.65°N 16.72°W / 64.65; -16.72 (Kverkfjöll)19681
Laki1725560664°04′N 18°13′W / 64.06°N 18.22°W / 64.06; -18.22 (Laki)1783-846part of Grímsvötn fissure system
Loki-Fögrufjöll1570515164°29′N 17°48′W / 64.48°N 17.80°W / 64.48; -17.80 (Fögrufjöll)1910
Ljósufjöll988324164°52′N 22°14′W / 64.87°N 22.23°W / 64.87; -22.23 (Ljósufjöll)960 AD (± 10 years)3
Lýsuhóll540+1772+64°52′N 23°15′W / 64.87°N 23.25°W / 64.87; -23.25 (Lýsuhóll)dormantActive during Holocene
Öræfajökull2119695264°00′N 16°39′W / 64.00°N 16.65°W / 64.00; -16.65 (Öræfajökull)17275
Prestahnúkur1386450464°36′N 20°36′W / 64.60°N 20.60°W / 64.60; -20.60 (Prestahnúkur)7550 BC (± 500 years)central volcano of western Langjökull system
Reykjanes23075563°53′N 22°30′W / 63.88°N 22.50°W / 63.88; -22.50 (Reykjanes)1879
Reykjaneshryggur-80-26263°40′N 23°20′W / 63.67°N 23.33°W / 63.67; -23.33 (Reykjaneshryggur)1970(?)
Snæfellsjökull1448475164°48′N 23°47′W / 64.80°N 23.78°W / 64.80; -23.78 (Snæfellsjökull)200 AD (± 150 years)2
Surtsey17457163°18′N 20°37′W / 63.30°N 20.62°W / 63.30; -20.62 (Surtsey)1963Westman Islands

Vestmannaeyjar island

Theistareykjarbunga564185065°53′N 16°50′W / 65.88°N 16.83°W / 65.88; -16.83 (Theistareykjarbunga)750 BC (± 100 years)
Thordarhyrna64°07′N 17°00′W / 64.12°N 17.0°W / 64.12; -17.0 (Thordarhyrna)19104
Thórólfsfell574188363°43′N 19°40′W / 63.72°N 19.67°W / 63.72; -19.67 (Thórólfsfell)unknown
Tindfjallajökull1463480063°47′N 19°34′W / 63.78°N 19.57°W / 63.78; -19.57 (Tindfjallajökull)dormantActive during Holocene
Torfajökull1259413163°55′N 19°10′W / 63.92°N 19.17°W / 63.92; -19.17 (Torfajökull)14773
Tungnafellsjökull1535503664°44′N 17°55′W / 64.73°N 17.92°W / 64.73; -17.92 (Tungnafellsjökull)dormantActive during Holocene
Vatnafjöll1235405263°55′N 19°40′W / 63.92°N 19.67°W / 63.92; -19.67 (Vatnafjöll)750 AD (± 1000 years)

Volcanic zones and systems[edit]

Volcanism in Iceland

Iceland has four volcanic zones: Reykjanes (Reykjanes Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge South of Iceland), West and North Volcanic Zones (RVZ, WVZ, NVZ) and the East Volcanic Zone (EVZ), (Westman Islands). The Mid-Iceland Belt (MIB) connects them across central Iceland. There are two intraplate belts too (Öræfajökull (ÖVB) and Snæfellsnes (SVB)). [2][3] North of Iceland the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is called Kolbeinsey Ridge.

The central volcanoes (Iceland's East Volcanic Zone (EVZ)), Vonarskarð and Hágöngur belong to the same volcanic system, this also applies to Bárðarbunga and Hamarinn, and Grímsvötn and Þórðarhyrna.[4] It is proposed that the line Grímsvötn volcano, Mid-Iceland Belt (MIB) to Snæfellsnes volcanic belt shows the movement of the North American Plate over the Iceland hotspot.[5]

Volcanic ZoneVolcanic SystemName of central volcano
of the volcanic system
1RVZReykjanes/SvartsengiGunnuhver
2RVZKrýsuvíkTrölladyngja (Reykjanesskagi)
3RVZBrennisteinsfjöllvoid
4WVZHengillHengill
5WVZHrómundartindurHrómundartindur
6WVZGrensdalurvoid
7WVZGrímsnesSeyðishólar
8WVZGeysirLaugarfjall
9WVZWestern LangjökullPrestahnúkur
10WVZEastern LangjökullHveravellir
11MIBHofsjökullHofsjökull
12MIBKerlingarfjöllSnækollur
13MIBTungnafellsjökullTungnafellsjökull/Hágöngur
14EVZVestmannaeyjar
(Westman Islands)
void
15EVZEyjafjallajökullEyjafjallajökull
16EVZKatlaKatla
17EVZTindfjallajökullTindfjallajökull
18EVZHekla-VatnafjöllHekla
19EVZTorfajökullTorfajökull
20EVZBárðarbunga-VeiðivötnBárðarbunga/Hamarinn
21EVZGrímsvötnGrímsvötn/Thórdarhyrna
#EVZ(Central volcanoes, as well)(Vonarskard/Hágöngur)[4]
22NVZKverkfjöllAustari Kverkfjöll
23NVZAskjaAskja
24NVZFremrinámurvoid
25NVZKraflaKrafla
26NVZÞeistareykirÞeistareykjabunga
27ÖVBÖræfajökullÖræfajökull
28ÖVBEsjufjöllSnæhetta
29ÖVBSnæfellSnæfell
30SVBLjósufjöllvoid
31SVBLýsuskarðHelgrindur
32SVBSnæfellsjökullSnæfellsjökull

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.volcanolive.com/kolbeinsey.html
  2. ^ T. Thordarson and G. Larsen (January 2007). "Volcanism in Iceland in historical time: Volcano types, eruption styles and eruptive history". Journal of Geodynamics 43 (1): 118–152. Bibcode:2007JGeo...43..118T. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.005. 
  3. ^ Jóhannesson, H.; Sæmundsson, K. (1998). Geologic Map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Bedrock Geology. Icelandic Institute of Natural History and Iceland Geodetic Survey, Reykjavík. 
  4. ^ a b Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thórdís Högnadóttir (January 2007). "Volcanic systems and calderas in the Vatnajökull region, central Iceland: Constraints on crustal structure from gravity data". Journal of Geodynamics 43 (1): 153–169. Bibcode:2007JGeo...43..153G. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.015. 
  5. ^ W. Jason Morgan and Jason Phipps Morgan. Plate velocities in hotspot reference frame: electronic supplement. p. 111. Retrieved 2010-04-23.