List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz

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This is a list of victims and survivors of Auschwitz concentration camp. This list represents only a portion of the 1.1 million victims and some survivors of the Auschwitz death camp and is not intended to be viewed as a complete accounting.

Male
Female

Victims[edit]

NameDate of birthDate of deathAgeNationalityFaithNotability
Alt, HeinzHeinz Alt[1]1922January 6, 194522 or 23 yearsGermanJewishComposer. Deported from Theresienstadt concentration camp to the camp on September 28, 1944.
Andreas Pius, Count Andreas Pius Cyrill of Zoltowski-RomanusCount Andreas Pius Cyrill of Zoltowski-Romanus Andreas Pius1881 or 1882September 4, 194159PolishNoble
Barlicki, NorbertNorbert BarlickiJune 6, 1880September 27, 194161 years, 113 daysPolishLawyer, Publicist, Politician
Bernard of Łubieński, CountCount Bernard of ŁubieńskiFebruary 23, 1894October 10, 194147 years, 229 daysPolishNoble. Was a member of the Polish Ministry of Commerce and Industrial Affairs before war broke out. Belonged to the first group of people to organise the underground fight.
Blum, RenéRené Blum[2]March 13, 1878April 30, 194365 years, 48 daysFrenchJewishChoreographer, founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra; brother of Léon Blum. Transferred to the camp on September 23, 1942.
Brady, HanaHana Brady[3]May 16, 1931October 23, 194413 years, 160 daysCzechJewishArrived at the camp on October 23, 1944, and was gassed immediately.
Brumlik, RudolfRudolf BrumlikMay 14, 1944CzechBusinessman from Prague
Brumlik, HermioneHermione BrumlikMay 14, 1944CzechWife of Rudolf – no records can be found of their son Otto Brumlik
Czech, BronisławBronisław CzechJuly 25, 1908June 4, 194435PolishSkier – 24 times Polish champion, and participant of Winter Olympics of 1928, 1932 and 1936; soldier of Armia Krajowa
Deutsch, LeaLea Deutsch[4][5]March 18, 1927May 194316CroatianChristian (Catholic)Child actress. Born Jewish, converted to Roman Catholicism with her family on June 1941 as an attempt by her father to save the family from certain death, but still considered Jewish by Nazi racial laws. Died in the cattle wagon routed to Auschwitz.
Fondane, BenjaminBenjamin Fondane[6]November 14, 1898October 2, 194445 years, 323 daysFrench-RomanianJewishPoet, critic, existentialist philosopher and author
Fondane, LinaLina FondaneFrench-RomanianJewishSister of Benjamin Fondane.
Freiberger, Miroslav ŠalomMiroslav Šalom Freiberger[7][8]1903 or 1904c. May 3, 194339 or 40CroatianJewishHead Rabbi of Jewish Municipality of Zagreb, catechist, translator, writer and spiritual leader, educated in law and theology science. On last transport of Jews from Croatia. Killed at camp entrance when he protested against the inhumane procedure that was implemented against the members of his community.
Gerron, KurtKurt GerronMay 11, 1897November 15, 194447 years, 188 daysGermanJewishActor and film director; was either persuaded or coerced[9] by the Nazis to make a propaganda film showing how humane the conditions were at Theresienstadt concentration camp. After filming finished, he was deported on the final transport ever to Auschwitz, on November 15, 1944, and was gassed immediately.
Gerson, DoraDora Gerson[10]March 23, 1899February 14, 194343 years, 328 daysGermanJewishcabaret singer and silent-film actress.
Schwarz, MommieMommie SchwarzJuly 28, 1876November 19, 194266 years, 114 daysDutchJewishPainter-killed with his wife
Gertner, AlaAla Gertner[11][12]March 12, 1912January 5, 194532 years, 299 daysPolishJewishSmuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Robota, RozaRoza Robota[11][13]1921January 5, 194543 yearsPolishJewishSmuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Wajcblum, EstusiaEstusia Wajcblum[11][13]January 5, 1945Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Safirsztajn, ReginaRegina Safirsztajn[11][13]January 5, 1945Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Haas, PavelPavel Haas[14]June 21, 1899October 17, 194445 years, 118 daysCzechJewishcomposer. After arrival at the camp, Josef Mengele was about to send Karel Ančerl to the gas chamber, but weakened Haas, who stood next to him, began to cough and the death sentence was therefore chosen for him instead.
Hirschmann, IvanaIvana Hirschmann[15][16]May 5, 1866May 8, 194377CroatJewishCroatian first female professor of gymnastics
Krása, HansHans KrásaNovember 30, 1899October 17, 194444 years, 322 daysCzechJewishcomposer; helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Ullmann, ViktorViktor UllmannJanuary 1, 1898October 18, 194446 years, 291 daysAustrianJewishComposer, conductor, pianist, teacher, music critic, active in Prague. Deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp on September 8, 1942, where he helped to organize cultural life. Transferred to Auschwitz on October 16, 1944.
Schächter, RafaelRafael SchächterMay 25, 1905January 194539 yearsCzechJewishComposer, pianist and conductor. Helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp. Died on the death march.
Hillesum, EttyEtty HillesumJanuary 15, 1914November 30, 194329 years, 319 daysDutchJewishdiarist and writer
Jahn, LilliLilli JahnMarch 5, 1900c. June 19, 194444 years, 106 daysGermanJewishdoctor who gained international fame posthumously following the publication of her letters to her five children which she wrote during her imprisonment in the labor camp Breitenau
Janson, Paul-EmilePaul-Emile JansonMay 30, 1872March 3, 194471 years, 278 daysBelgian30th Prime Minister of Belgium in 1937–1938
Jonas, ReginaRegina JonasAugust 3, 1902December 12, 194442 years, 131 daysGermanJewishfirst ordained female rabbi in Germany, rabbi at Neue Synagoge in Berlin, killed two months after entering the camp.
Katzenelson, ItzhakItzhak KatzenelsonJuly 1, 1886May 1, 194457 years, 305 daysPolishJewishteacher, poet, dramatist; his son Zvi Katzenelson was on the same transport and was killed the same day as Itzhak.
Kien, PeterPeter KienJanuary 1, 1919c. October 16, 194425 years, 289 daysCzechJewishartist, poet and librettist active in Theresienstadt concentration camp (Terezin), died from infectious disease soon after arrival to Auschwitz on October 16. Wife and parents were on same transport and were killed.
Kofman, BereckBereck KofmanOctober 10, 1900194342FrenchJewishHasidic orthodox rabbi, deported to Auschwitz from Drancy internment camp on Convoy No. 12 on July 29, 1942. According to survivor, he was at the camp for one year before his murder by a Kapo on a Shabbat because he refused to work. He was beaten up with a pickax and buried alive. Father of French philosopher Sarah Kofman.[17]
Kolbe, Saint MaximilianSaint Maximilian KolbeJanuary 8, 1894August 14, 194147 years, 218 daysPolishChristian (Catholic)Saint. Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of Polish Army Sergeant Franciszek Gajowniczek, who was a stranger to him.
Laskier, RutkaRutka Laskier1929194314PolishJewishteenager who wrote a diary. Her writings were posthumously published. Dubbed the "Polish Anne Frank".
Lévy, HenriHenri LévyJune 7, 1883August 13, 194259 years, 67 daysFrenchJewishrabbi. He was deported on Convoy No. 8 to the camp on July 20, 1942.
Mauritz of Potocki, CountCount Mauritz of Potocki1942Polishnoble
Natan, BernardBernard NatanJuly 14, 1886October 194256 years, 3 monthsFranco-RomanianJewishfilm director and actor and former head of Pathé Film Studios. Arrived at the camp on September 25, 1942 and was killed several weeks later.
Némirovsky, IrèneIrène Némirovsky[18][19]February 11, 1903August 17, 194239 years, 187 daysFrench-RussianJewishnovelist. She was classified as a Jew under the Nazi racial laws, which did not take into account her conversion to Roman Catholicism.[18][19]
Epstein, MichelMichel Epstein[20]November 6, 1942Husband of Irène Némirovsky. Arrived on November 6, 1942, and was gassed immediately.
Noji, JózefJózef NojiSeptember 8, 1909February 15, 194333 years, 160 daysPolishtrack and field athlete and participant of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Murdered by the camp's SS guard, allegedly for trying to smuggle a letter.
Nussbaum, FelixFelix NussbaumDecember 11, 1904August 2, 194439 years, 235 daysGermanJewishpainter (surrealist). Entire family was eventually killed at the camp at different times, with the exception of one brother, who died from exhaustion at Stutthof in December 1944.
Peradze, Saint GrigolSaint Grigol PeradzeSeptember 13, 1899December 6, 194243 years, 84 daysGeorgianChristian (Orthodox)Saint. Priest, ecclesiastic figure, theologian, historian, Archimandrite, PhD of History, professor.
Rybarski, RomanRoman RybarskiJuly 3, 1887March 6, 194254 years, 246 daysPolishChristian (Catholic)economist, historian and politician connected with the right-wing National Democracy political camp. Executed by shooting for organizing the resistance movement in the camp.[21]
Salomon, ErichErich SalomonApril 28, 1886July 7, 194458 years, 70 daysGermanJewishphotographer (news).
Schalek, MalvaMalva SchalekFebruary 18, 1882194462 yearsCzechJewishpainter. Was transported to the camp on May 18, 1944 and was killed soon afterwards.
Selz, OttoOtto SelzFebruary 14, 1881August 27, 194362 years, 194 daysGermanJewishpsychologist and professor, formulated the first nonassociationist theory of thinking, in 1913.[22][23][24] Was transported to the camp on August 24, 1943.[24]
Singer, LavoslavLavoslav Singer1866194276 yearsCroatianJewishknown Bjelovar industrialist.[25][26][27]
Stein, Saint EdithSaint Edith SteinOctober 12, 1891August 9, 194250 years, 301 daysGermanChristian (Catholic)Saint. Philosopher and nun. Born into a Jewish family, considered a "Catholic Jew" (of Jewish heritage, but baptized and practiced Catholicism, considered Jewish by Nazi racial laws).[28]
Rumkowski, Mordechai ChaimMordechai Chaim Rumkowski[29]February 27, 1877August 28, 194467 years, 183 daysPolishJewishNazi-appointed head of the Judenrat while he lived in the Łódź Ghetto in Poland. He was known to abuse his power, such as by molesting young Jewish women within the ghetto.[29] Family was also killed at the camp.
Ginz, PetrPetr GinzFebruary 1, 1928September 28, 194416 years, 240 daysCzechJewishWriter. Esperantist.
Agsteribbe, EstellaEstella Agsteribbe[30]April 6, 1909September 17, 194334 years, 164 daysDutchJewishGymnast. Member of the Gold medal winning Dutch gymnastics team at the 1928 Summer Olympics.
Taube, CarloCarlo Taube[31]July 4, 1897October 1, 194447 years, 89 daysAustrianJewishComposer, conductor and pianist. From Galicia, active in Prague. Taube, his wife Erika and their child were deported from Prague to Theresienstadt concentration camp on December 10, 1941. They were deported to Auschwitz on October 1, 1944, where all three were killed immediately.[31]
Taube, ErikaErika Taube[31]October 1, 1944JewishWife of Carlo Taube.
Tański, TadeuszTadeusz Tański[32]March 11, 1892March 23, 194149 years, 12 daysPolishAutomobile engineer and the designer of the first Polish serially-built automobile, the CWS T-1. Arrested on July 3, 1940, and sent to the camp.
Kunerwalder, EgonEgon Kunerwalder[33]First husband of Stephanie Helbrun (married 1942). Deported to the camp with his wife in December 1943. Threw himself on the electric wire surrounding the camp in 1944.
Ančerl, ValyValy Ančerlc. October 15, 1944JewishWife of Karel Ančerl.
Ančerl, JanJan Ančerllate 1942 or 1943c. October 15, 19442 yearsCzechJewishSon of Karel Ančerl and Valy Ančerl. Born while parents were in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Feiner, HerthaHertha Feiner[34][35]March 12, 1943GermanJewishAmong last Jewish employees to leave Berlin. Put on train to Auschwitz on March 12, 1943; poisoned herself in transit.
Perl, MauriceMaurice Perl[36]HungarianJewishFather of Gisella Perl. Brought his prayer book into the gas chamber.
Dresden, BarendBarend Dresden[37]November 30, 1944JewishHusband of Anna Dresden-Polak and father of Eva Dresden, both of whom were killed at Sobibor on July 23, 1943.
Waterman-Hollander, Froukje EstherFroukje Esther Waterman-Hollander[38]October 25, 1915February 28, 194327 years, 126 daysDutchJewishDaughter of Han Hollander and Leentje Hollander-Smeer, both of whom were killed at Sobibor on July 9, 1943.
Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski, Prince LudwikPrince Ludwik Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski1876 or 1877May 3, 194164 yearsPolishNoble.
Mosdorf, JanJan MosdorfMay 30, 1904October 11, 194339 years, 134 daysPolishRight-wing politician, director of the nationalist organization All-Polish Youth and member of political party National Radical Camp. Killed for helping Jews in the camp.
Weisz, ÁrpádÁrpád WeiszApril 16, 1896January 31, 194447 years, 290 daysHungarianJewishFootball (soccer) player and manager.
Feig, SarahSarah FeigJewishMother of Elie Wiesel. Gassed immediately.
Wiesel, TziporaTzipora WieselRomanianJewishYounger sister of Elie Wiesel. Gassed immediately.
Zimetbaum, MalaMala Zimetbaum[39]January 26, 1922September 15, 194422 years, 233 daysBelgianJewishDeported to the camp on Transport #10 on September 15, 1942. Inmate #19880. Her proficiency in several languages allowed her to work as an interpreter in the camp. Publicly executed at the camp after an escape attempt, with her lover, Edward Galiński.
Galiński, EdwardEdward Galiński[40]May 10, 1923September 15, 194421 years, 128 daysPolishPublicly executed at the camp after an escape attempt, with his lover, Mala Zimetbaum.

Survivors[edit]

NamePrisoner numberDate of birthDate of deathAgeNationalityFaithArrival at campDeparture from campNotability
Lewis, HelenHelen LewisJune 22, 1916December 31, 200993 yearsCzechJewishMay 19441944Dancer who trained in Prague. Was moved to Stutthof and evacuated from there in January 1945 to go on a forced march from which she escaped, being liberated by the Russian army. Emigrated in 1947 to Belfast, where she made her name as a dance teacher and choreographer. In her later years talked about her Holocaust experiences and wrote an autobiography, A Time to Speak. Her husband Paul Hermann died at Schwarzheide in April 1945; her mother, a distinguished pianist, died at Sobibór.
Bartoszewski, WładysławWładysław Bartoszewski4427February 19, 1922alive92 years, 150 daysPolishChristian (Catholic)September 22, 1940April 8, 1941Member of Armia Krajowa. Released from camp due to actions by Polish Red Cross. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland (twice) after 1989.
Borowski, TadeuszTadeusz BorowskiNovember 12, 1922July 1, 195128 years, 231 daysPolish1943late 1944writer. Transferred to Natzweiler-Struthof, then to Dachau concentration camp; committed suicide after the war.
Brady, GeorgeGeorge BradyFebruary 9, 1928alive86 years, 160 daysCzechJewishOctober 23, 1944January 18, 1945Plumber. Sent on the death march; escaped when a Soviet tank blew a hole in the building he was in. His mother, father and sister Hana were gassed at the camp.
Braun, BorisBoris Braun[42][43][44]February 9, 1928alive93 years, 333 daysCroatJewishUniversity professor. His mother and father were killed during the Holocaust.
Bacon, YehudaYehuda BaconJuly 28, 1929alive84 years, 356 daysCzechJewishDecember 1943January 18, 1945Artist. Sent on the death march. His father was gassed in June 1944; his mother and his sister Hanna were deported to Stutthof concentration camp, where they died a few weeks before its liberation.
Gabbai, DarioDario Gabbai[45]HungarianJewishApril 1944January 27, 1945Part of the Sonderkommando. Family was killed at the camp.
Bielecki, JerzyJerzy Bielecki[45]PolishPolitical prisoner. Suffered hanging torture (arms hung behind back).
Paczyński, JózefJózef Paczyński[45]PolishPolitical prisoner. About every 1 1/2 weeks, he was ordered to cut the hair of the camp's commanding officer, Rudolf Höss. Personally witnessed gassings from nearby.[29]
Piechowski, KazimierzKazimierz Piechowski[45]918October 3, 1919alive94 years, 289 daysPolishJune 20, 1940June 20, 1942Imprisoned because the boy scouts were labeled a criminal organization. From Rajkowy. Deported to camp on second transport from Tarnów. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate. The escape was facilitated by Piechowski's fluent command of German. As they drove toward the gate he told the guards to hurry up and open it. None of the four were recaptured.[46][47]
Jaster, Stanisław GustawStanisław Gustaw Jaster[47]64381921PolishJune 20, 1942Veteran of Invasion of Poland in rank of first lieutenant, from Warsaw. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[46][47]
Lempart, JózefJózef Lempart[47]31991916PolishChristianJune 20, 1942Priest, from Wadowice. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[46][47]
Bendera, EugeniuszEugeniusz Bendera[47]85021906UkrainianJune 20, 1942Auto mechanic, from Chortkiv. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[46][47]
Smoleń, KazimierzKazimierz Smoleń[45]PolishPolitical prisoner.
Kowalczyk, AugustAugust Kowalczyk[45]PolishPolitical prisoner.
Stenkin, PavelPavel Stenkin[29]SovietPrisoner of war.
Mikusz, JózefJózef Mikusz[29]PolishPolitical prisoner.
Veselá, SilviaSilvia Veselá[29]SlovakJewish1942Deported from holding camp near Bratislava.
Votavová, EvaEva Votavová[29]SlovakJewishJuly 1942
Pressburger, OttoOtto Pressburger[29]SlovakJewishFrom Trnava. Forced to dig mass graves and exhume corpses. His mother and father were killed at the camp.
Breder, LibušaLibuša Breder[48]JewishWorked in the "Canada" sector of the camp. Witnessed rapes of women by the camp's officers.
Citrónová, HelenaHelena Citrónová[48]JewishWorked in the "Canada" sector of the camp. An SS officer, Franz Wunch, fell in love with her. As a result, Wunch would later save Helena's sister from the gas chambers, although her sister's son and daughter could not be saved.
Rybacki, TadeuszTadeusz Rybacki[48]PolishPolitical prisoner. Served as a waiter at the SS canteen in the camp.
Alexander, VeraVera Alexander[48]JewishWitnessed crimes committed by Irma Grese.
Mozes Kor, EvaEva Mozes Kor[48][49]87063January 30, 1934alive80 years, 170 daysRomanianJewish1944January 27, 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Both of her parents and two older sisters were killed at the camp; only Miriam and herself survived. Founder of CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center.
Mozes, MiriamMiriam Mozes[49]87064January 30, 1934June 6, 199359 years, 127 daysRomanianJewish1944January 27, 1945Eva's twin sister. One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Mengele injected Miriam with a chemical that stopped the growth of her kidneys; later, Eva donated one of her kidneys.
Laks, JonaJona Laks[49]One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Kriegel, VeraVera Kriegel[49]One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Pufeles, PearlPearl Pufeles[49]One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Helen Rappaport[49]One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Reichenberg, EphraimEphraim Reichenberg[49]HungarianOne of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Frankfurter, GyuriGyuri Frankfurter[50]HungarianOne of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Berettyóújfalu. Emigrated to United States in 1947, name changed to "George".
Frankfurter, LaciLaci Frankfurter[50]HungarianOne of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Berettyóújfalu. Emigrated to United States in 1947, name changed to "Leslie".
Greenfeld, PeterPeter Greenfeld[51]A-24591940CzechJewish1944January 27, 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Known at the camp as "Josef "Peipchek" Klineman". Born in Prague.
Klineman, MarthaMartha Klineman[51]A-49311940CzechJewish1944January 27, 1945Peter's twin. One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Prague.
Salomon, LipotLipot Salomon[52]A-57231923 or 1924April 19, 196540 yearsRomanianMay 28, 1944January 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Turţ. First deported to Vynohradiv ghetto on April 14, 1944.
Salomon, DezoDezo Salomon[52]A-57241923 or 1924April 22, 199671 yearsRomanianMay 28, 1944January 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Turţ. First deported to Vynohradiv ghetto on April 14, 1944.
Somogyi, PeterPeter Somogyi[53]A-17454April 14, 1933HungarianJewishJuly 9, 1944January 27, 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Pécs. Their mother and older sister (14 years) were gassed at Auschwitz at arrival.
Somogyi, ThomasThomas Somogyi[53]A-17455April 14, 1933HungarianJewishJuly 9, 1944January 27, 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Pécs.
Helbrun, StephanieStephanie Helbrun[33]February 4, 1924CzechJewishDecember 1943January 18, 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Subotica, lived in Prague until 1939. Escaped on the death march. Their parents and sister were killed in various camps.
Helbrun, AnnettaAnnetta Helbrun[33]February 4, 1924CzechJewishDecember 1943January 18, 1945One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Subotica, lived in Prague until 1939. Escaped on the death march.
Able, GeorgeGeorge Able[33]Met Annetta Helbrun when both were assigned to a commando loading corpses. Later married Annetta in 1948.
Spiegel, Zvi ErnstZvi Ernst Spiegel[53]1913 or 1914January 27, 1945Assigned to supervise twins used in the medical experiments of Josef Mengele. Saved children from the gas chamber on several occasions. After the camp's liberation, he took 157 Mengele twins and homeless children to safety in Hungary. 29 years old in 1944.
Nyiszli, MiklósMiklós Nyiszli[48]June 17, 1901May 5, 195654 years, 323 daysHungarianJewishJune 1944January 18, 1945Prisoner, and doctor (pathologist) who served Josef Mengele. Sent on the death march.
Dacko, RyszardRyszard Dacko[48]PolishPolitical prisoner.
Hantz, StanislawStanislaw Hantz[54]PolishPolitical prisoner.
Einsenschmidt, EliezerEliezer Einsenschmidt[54]Jewish
Cahana, Alice LokAlice Lok Cahana[54]1929alive81 or 82HungarianJewish1944Deported from Sárvár.
Venezia, MorrisMorris Venezia[54]HungarianJewishApril 1944Part of the Sonderkommando.
Rosenbach, FranzFranz Rosenbach[54]GypsySurvived because he was transferred to another camp. His mother was killed at the camp.
Szmyt, WładysławWładysław Szmyt[54]PolishPolitical prisoner.
Mandelbaum, HenrykHenryk Mandelbaum[54]181970December 15, 1922June 17, 200885 years, 185 daysPolishJewishApril 22, 1944January 18, 1945Part of Sonderkommando. Fled on a death march.
Mann, IbiIbi Mann[54]Jewish
Eichengreen, LucilleLucille Eichengreen[29]February 1, 1925alive89 years, 168 daysGermanJewishAugust 1944October 1944From Hamburg. Deported to Łódź Ghetto on October 26, 1941, where she was molested by Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski and remained for four years until deported to Auschwitz. Transferred to Neuengamme concentration camp.
Pilecki, WitoldWitold Pilecki4859May 13, 1901May 25, 194847 years, 12 daysPolishChristian (Catholic)September 22, 1940April 26, 1943Soldier and secret agent ("Tomasz Serafiński"). He volunteered to be imprisoned at Auschwitz (the only person known to do so) for a Polish resistance operation in order to gather intelligence and escape. As the author of the Witold's report, the first intelligence report on Auschwitz, his operation enabled the Polish government-in-exile to convince the Allies that the Holocaust was taking place. Later executed by Polish communists.
Wiesel, ElieElie Wiesel[54]A-7713September 30, 1928alive85 years, 292 daysRomanianJewishMay 17, 1944January 1945Writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner (1986). His mother and younger sister are gassed immediately. Transferred to Buchenwald concentration camp, where Wiesel's father, Shlomo, was beaten[55] and killed.[56] Two older sisters, Hilda and Beatrice, survive.
Firestone, RenéeRenée Firestone[57]HungarianJewishHer sister was killed at the camp during medical experiments.
Pisar, SamuelSamuel Pisar[58][59]March 18, 1929alive85 years, 123 daysPolishJewishLawyer, writer. His parents and younger sister Frieda were killed during the war. Transferred to Dachau concentration camp. Escaped during a death march.[58]
Ančerl, KarelKarel Ančerl[60]April 11, 1908July 3, 197365 years, 83 daysCzechJewishOctober 15, 1944Conductor. Josef Mengele was about to send Ančerl to the gas chamber, but a weakened Pavel Haas, who stood next to him, began to cough and the death sentence was therefore chosen for him instead. Helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Perl, GisellaGisella Perl[36][61]1907198880 or 81 yearsHungarianJewish1944Gynecologist. Forced to be an inmate doctor. Saved the lives of hundreds of pregnant women by aborting their pregnancies (pregnant women were often killed for experiments by Josef Mengele).
Vrba, RudolfRudolf Vrba[62]44070September 11, 1924March 27, 200681 years, 197 daysSlovakJewishJanuary 15, 1943April 7, 1944Scientist. Escaped from the camp. Co-author of the Vrba-Wetzler report, delivered to the Allies, which saved the lives of an estimated 120 to 200 thousand Jews. Testified against Adolf Eichmann at Eichmann's trial.
Wetzler, AlfrédAlfréd Wetzler[62]29162May 10, 1918February 8, 198869 years, 274 daysSlovakJewish1942April 7, 1944Escaped from the camp. Co-author of the Vrba-Wetzler report, delivered to the Allies, which saved the lives of an estimated 120 to 200 thousand Jews.
Dekel, AlexAlex Dekel[63]Served under Josef Mengele as his subject, witnessing many of Mengele's human medical experiments.
Kielar, WieslawWieslaw KielarAuthor of autobiographical novel 5 Years in Auschwitz

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jascha Nemtsov, Silvio Daus, Beate Schroder-Nauenburg: "Musik im Inferno des Nazi-Terrors: Judische Komponisten im "Dritten Reich", en: Acta Musicologica, Vol. 70, Fasc. 1 (enero-junio de 1998), pp. 22–44
  2. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-415-28145-4. 
  3. ^ Stagg Peterson, Shelley; Swartz, Larry (2008). Good Books Matter. Pembroke Publishers Limited. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-55138-232-6. 
  4. ^ Snješka Knežević (2011, p. 110)
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  6. ^ Daniel, Paul. "Destinul unui poet" and "Tabla ilustraţiilor". p.638
  7. ^ "Treba li povući tužbu za genocid?". www.danas.org (in Croatian) (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty). 
  8. ^ Slavko Goldstein. "Moj otac". Kolo (in Croatian) (Matica hrvatska). 
  9. ^ Film review of "The Führer Gives a City to the Jews at The Bootleg Files Archived September 30, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Dorothea Sluizer-Gerson". Joods Monument. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d Heilman, Anna, Sheldon Schwartz (ed.). Never Far Away: The Auschwitz Chronicles of Anna Heilman, Calgary, AB: University of Calgary Press, 2001. ISBN 978-1-55238-040-6 p. 143
  12. ^ Yahil, Leni (1987). The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945, p. 486. Oxford University Press.
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  14. ^ Matějková, J. Hugo Haas. Život je pes Prague: Nakladatelství XYZ, 2005. ISBN 978-80-86864-18-1, page 137
  15. ^ Snješka Knežević (2011, p. 31)
  16. ^ (Croatian) Milka Babović: Učiteljica tjelovježbe Ivana Hirschmann; Zagreb, moj grad; November 2007, No. 8; pp. 23–25.
  17. ^ Kofman, 1996, p. 9-10.
  18. ^ a b "Early glimpses of Némirovsky's talent". International Herald Tribune. March 29, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b Cohen, P. (2010) Assessing Jewish Identity of Author Killed by Nazis, The New York Times, April 25.
  20. ^ Suite Française (Vintage Books, New York, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4000-9627-5) Appendix II, translator's note.
  21. ^ Wapiński 1980, 259.
  22. ^ Otto Selz, German psychologist February 14 in History at www.brainyhistory.com
  23. ^ Otto Selz, German psychologist (In Auschwitz), dies August 27 in History at www.brainyhistory.com
  24. ^ a b "osi – Otto Selz". Universitaet Mannheim. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  25. ^ Miodrag Savkovitch (1926, p. 168)
  26. ^ (Croatian) Mira Kolar-Dimitrijević: Pretvaranje Bjelovara iz vojničkoga u privredno središte od 1871. do 1910. godine.: stranica 44: Bjelovar: 16 svibanj 2007.
  27. ^ "Lavoslav Singer". Pages of testimony by Yaakov Harel (relative) (Yad Vashem). 
  28. ^ Friedländer, Saul. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (2007). Page 411.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 2, Orders and Initiatives.
  30. ^ Schaffer, Kay; Smith, Sidonie (2000). The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Rutgers University Press. pp. 60–62. ISBN 978-0-8135-2820-5. 
  31. ^ a b c Karas, Joža (1990). Music in Terezín, 1941–1945. Pendragon Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-918728-34-0. 
  32. ^ Lucyna Smolińska, Mieczysław Sroka "Wielcy znani i nieznani" Wydawnictwa Radia i Telewizji, Warsaw 1988.
  33. ^ a b c d "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  34. ^ Friedländer, Saul. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (2007). Page 426.
  35. ^ Feiner, Hertha. Before Deportation: Letters from a Mother to Her Daughters, January 1939 – December 1942, ed. Karl Heinz Jahnke (Evanston, IL 1999), pp. 27–28.
  36. ^ a b Brozan, Nadine. Out of Death, a Zest for Life. New York Times, November 15, 1982
  37. ^ Yogi Mayer, Paul (2004). Jews and the Olympic Games. Vallentine Mitchell. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-85303-451-3. 
  38. ^ "Froukje Esther Waterman-Hollander". Joods Monument. March 28, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Malka Zimetbaum". Findagrave.com. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Edward Galinski". Findagrave.com. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  41. ^ David Winner (2002). Brilliant orange: the neurotic genius of Dutch soccer. Overlook Press. ISBN 1-58567-258-0. Retrieved December 24, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Preživio sam Auschwitz, majka i otac nisu". Goran Prokopec (in Croatian) (Deutsche Welle). 
  43. ^ "Sjećanje na holokaust: Prof. Boris Braun - električar bodljikave žice". Bojana Mrvoš Pavić (in Croatian) (Novi list). 
  44. ^ "Razgovor s Borisom Braunom" (in Croatian). Autonomni Kulturni Centar »Medika«. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 1, Surprising Beginnings.
  46. ^ a b c d Auschwitz chronicle 1939–1945 By Danuta Czech Publisher: I B Tauris & Co Ltd (November 1990) ISBN 978-1-85043-291-3 ISBN 978-1-85043-291-3
  47. ^ a b c d e f g "Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum: The Film about the Amazing Escape from Auschwitz". auschwitz.org.pl. January 13, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 4, Corruption.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g Forgiving Dr. Mengele (2006).
  50. ^ a b "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. January 29, 1985. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  51. ^ a b "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  53. ^ a b c "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 5, Murder and Intrigue.
  55. ^ Donadio, Rachel (January 20, 2008). "The Story of ‘Night'". The New York Times. 
  56. ^ see the film "Elie Wiesel Goes Home" by Judit Elek, narrated by William Hurt ISBN 978-1-930545-63-2
  57. ^ The Last Days (1998).
  58. ^ a b Hitron, Haggai. "Wrestling with God". Haaretz. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  59. ^ Forgiving Dr. Mengele
  60. ^ Matějková, J (2005). Hugo Haas. Život je pes Prague: Nakladatelství XYZ. p. 137. ISBN 978-80-86864-18-1
  61. ^ [[Out of the Ashes (2003 film)|]] (2003).
  62. ^ a b Secrets of the Dead: Escape from Auschwitz (PBS, 2008).
  63. ^ "Dr. Josef Mengele, ruthless Nazi concentration camp doctor - The Crime Library on truTV.com". Crimelibrary.com. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

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