List of thermal conductivities

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In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.

Thermal conductivity is often measured with laser flash analysis. Alternative measurements are also established.

Mixtures may have variable thermal conductivities due to composition.

Note that this table shows thermal conductivity in units of watts per meter per Kelvin (W·m−1·K−1). This is the current metric unit of measurement. Prior to this, however, thermal conductivity was measured in terms of BTUs per foot per hour per degree Fahrenheit. A value for the former can be computed from the latter by multiplying by 1.728.[1]

MaterialThermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1]Temperature [K]Electrical conductivity @ 293 K
[Ω−1·m−1]
Notes
Acrylic Glass (Plexiglas V045i)0.17[2]-0.19[2]-0.2[3]296[2]7.143E-15[2] - 5.0E-14[2]
Air0.024[4][5][6]-0.025[7]
0.0262 (1 bar)[8]
0.0457 (1 bar)[8]
273[4][5]-293[7]-298[6]
300[8]
600[8]
hiAerosols2.95[9]-loAerosols7.83[9]×10−15(N,21%O+0.93%Ar+0.04%CO2) (1 atm)
Alcohols OR Oils0.1[6][7]-0.110[10]-0.21[6][7]-0.212[10]293[7]-298[6]-300[10]
Aluminium, pure204.3[11]-205[4]-220[12]-237[7][13][14][15]-250[6]
214.6[11]
249.3[11]
293[7][11]-298[6][14][15]
366[11]
478[11]
37,450,000[14] - 37,740,000[16]
Aluminium nitride170[13]-175[17]-190[17]293[17]1×10^−11[17]
Aluminium oxide, pure26[18]-30[7]-35[18]-39[13]-40[19]293[7][18][19]1×10^−12-[18][19]
Ammonia, saturated0.507[10]300[10]
Argon0.016[6]-0.01772[15]-0.0179[15][20]298[6][15]-300[15][20]
Beryllium oxide218[13]-260[21]-300[21]293[21]1×10^−12[21]
Bismuth7.97[15]300[15]
Brass Cu63%125[22]296[22]15,150,000[22] - 16,130,000[22](Cu63%, Zn37%)
Brass Cu70%109[4][23] - 121[23]293[4]-296[23]12,820,000[23] - 16,130,000[23](Cu70%, Zn30%)
Brick0.15[4]-0.6[4]-0.69[6]-1.31[6]293[4]-298[6]
Bronze26[12]
42[24]-50[11][24]
293[11]-296[24]
5,882,000[24] - 7,143,000[24]
Sn25%[12]
(Cu89%, Sn11%)[24]
Calcium silicate0.063[25]373[25]
Carbon dioxide0.0146[6]-0.01465[26]-0.0168[20](sat. liquid 0.087[27])298[6]-273[26]-300[20](293[27])
Carbon nanotubes, bulk2.5 (multiwall)[28] - 35 (single wall, disordered mats)[29] - 200(single wall, aligned mats)[30]300[31]"bulk" refers to a group of nanotubes either arranged or disordered, for a single nanotube, see "carbon nanotube, single" . [32]
Carbon nanotube, single3180 (multiwall)[33][34]-3500 (single wall)[35]
(SWcalc.6,600[33][36]-37,000[33][36])
320[33][34]-300[35]
(300[33][36]-100[33][36])
(Lateral)10−16[37] - (Ballistic)108[37])values only for one single SWNT(length:2.6 μm, diameter:1.7 nm) and CNT. "Single", as opposed to "bulk" quantity (see "carbon nanotubes, bulk" ) of many nanotubes, which should not be confused with the denomination of nanotubes themselves which can be singlewall(SWNT) or multiwall(CNT) [38]
Concrete0.8[4] - 1.28[7]293[7]~61-67%CaO
Copper, pure385[4]-386[11][12]-390[7]-401[6][15][39]
368.7[11]
353.1[11]
293[4][6][7][11][15][39]
573[11]
873[11]
59,170,000[39] - 59,590,000[16]International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) pure =1.7×10−8Ω•m
=58.82×106Ω−1•m−1

For main article, see: Copper in heat exchangers.

Cork0.04[4] - 0.07[7]293[7]
Cotton or Plastic Insulation-foamed0.03[6][7]293[7]
Diamond, impure1,000[4][40]273[40] - 293[4]1×10^−16~[41]Type I (98.1% of Gem Diamonds) (C+0.1%N)
Diamond, natural2,200[42]293[42]1×10^−16~[41]Type-IIA (99%12C and 1%13C)
Diamond, isotopically enriched3,320[42]-41,000[33][43](99.999% 12C calc.200,000[43])293[42]-104[33][43](~80[43])(Lateral)10−16[41] - (Ballistic)108[41]Type-IIA isotopically enriched (>99.9%12C)
Epoxy, thermally conductive 0.682[44] - 1.038 - 1.384[45]
Expanded polystyrene - EPS0.03[6]-0.033[4][6][40]((PS Only)0.1[46]-0.13[46])98[40]-298[6][40](296[46])1×10^−14[46](PS+Air+CO2+CnH2n+x)
Extruded polystyrene - XPS0.029 - 0.3998-298
Fiberglass or Foam-glass0.045[7]293[7]
Gallium arsenide56[40]300[40]
Glass0.8[4]-0.93[7](SiO2pure1[13]-SiO296%1.2[47]-1.4[47])293[4][7][47]10−14[48][49]-10−12[47]-10−10[48][49]<1% Iron oxides
Glycerol0.285[10]-0.29[7]300[10]-293[7]
Gold, pure314[4]-315[11]-318[12][15][50]293[11]-298[15][50]45,170,000[16] - 45,450,000[50]
Granite1.73[51] - 3.98[51](72%SiO2+14%Al2O3+4%K2O etc.)
Graphene(4840±440)[52] - (5300±480)[52]293[52]100,000,000[53]
Helium II >100000 [54] 2.2liquid Helium in its superfluid state below 2.2 K
Ice1.6[4]-2.1[7]-2.2[40]-2.22[55]293[4][7] - 273[40][55]
Indium phosphide80[40]300[40]
Iron, pure71.8[12]-72.7[11]-79.5[4]-80[6]-80.2[40]-80.4[15][56]
55.4[11]
34.6[11]
293[4][11]-298[6]-300[15][40][56]
573[11]
1273[11]
9,901,000[56] - 10,410,000[16]
Iron, cast55[6][12]298[6](Fe+(2-4)%C+(1-3)%Si)
Lead, pure34.7[4][11]-35.0[6][12]-35.3[15][57]
29.8[11]
293[4][11]-298[6]-300[15][57]
573[11]
4,808,000[16] - 4,854,000[57]
Limestone1.26[51] - 1.33[51]Mostly CaCO3
Marble2.07[51]-2.08[6]-2.94[6][51]298[6]Mostly CaCO3
Methane0.030[6]-0.03281[58]298[6]-273[58]
Mineral Insulation or Wool(Felt/Glass/Rock)0.04[4][6][7]293[7]-298[6]
Nickel90.9[15]-91[6]298[6][15]
Nitrogen, pure0.0234[4]-0.024[6]-0.02583[15]-0.026[20][40]293[4]-298[6]-300[15][20][40](N2) (1 atm)
Oxygen, pure (gas)0.0238[4]-0.024[6]-0.0263[20]-0.02658[15]293[4]-298[6]-300[15][20](O2) (1 atm)
Paper0.05[6]298[6]
Perlite, (1 atm)0.031[6]298[6]
Perlite, [partial] Vacuum0.00137[6]298[6]
Plastic, fiber-reinforced0.23[59] - 0.7[59] - 1.06[7]293[7] - 296[59]10−15[59] - 100[59]10-40%GF or CF
Polyethylene High Density0.42[6] - 0.51[6]298[6]
Polymer, High-Density0.33[59] - 0.52[59]296[59]10−16[59] - 102[59]
Polymer, Low-density0.04[59] - 0.16[7] - 0.25[7] - 0.33[59]293[7] - 296[59]10−17[59] - 100[59]
Polyurethane foam0.02[6] - 0.021[6]298[6]
Quartz (single crystal)12[40] \parallel to c axis, 6.8[40] \perp to c axis300[40]
Quartz-Fused or Vitreous Silica or Fused Silica1.46[60]-3[7]
1.4[40]
293[7][60]
323[40]
1.333E-18[48] - 10−16[60]
Rice hulls (ash)0.062[61]
Rice hulls (whole)0.0359[61]
Rubber (92%)0.16[40]303[40]1×10^−13~[48]
Sandstone1.83[51] - 2.90[51]
2.1[62] - 3.9[62]
~95-71%SiO2
~98-48%SiO2, ~16-30% Porosity
Silica Aerogel0.003[40](carbon black9%~0.0042[63])-0.008[63]-0.017[63]-0.02[6]-0.03[40]98[40] - 298[6][40]Foamed Glass
Silver, pure406[4]-407[11]-418[12]
427[13]-429[6][15][40][64]-430[15]
293[4][11]
298[6][15][64]-300[15][40]
61,350,000[64] - 63,010,000[16]Highest electrical conductivity of any metal
Silver, sterling361[65]
Snow, dry0.05[6]-0.11[4]-0.25[6]273[6]
Sodium chloride35.1 - 6.5 - 4.85 [66]80 - 289 - 400 [66]
Soil, dry w/ organic matter0.15[7][67]-1.15[67]-2[7]293[7]composition may vary
Soil, saturated0.6[7]-4[7]293[7]composition may vary
Solder, Sn/63% Pb/37%50[68]
Lead free solder, Sn/95.6% Ag/3.5% Cu/0.9%, Sn/95.5% Ag/3.8% Cu/0.7% (SAC)~60[68]
Steel, carbon36[11][12]-43[6]50.2[4]-54[6][11][12]293[4][11]-298[6](Fe+(1.5-0.5)%C)
Steel, stainless16.3[12][69]-16.7[70]-18[71]-24[71]296[69][70][71]1,176,000[70] - 1,786,000[71](Fe, Cr12.5-25%, Ni0-20%, Mo0-3%, Ti0-trace)
Thermal grease, silver-based8.89+[72]
Thermal tape0.60[73]
Titanium, pure15.6[12]-19.0[11]-21.9[15][74]-22.5[11]293[11]-300[15][74]1,852,000[74] - 2,381,000[16]
Titanium Alloy5.8[75]296[75]595,200[75](Ti+6%Al+4%V)
Water0.563[76]-0.596[76]-0.6[4][7]-0.609[10]273[76]-293[4][7][76]-300[10]Pure10−6[41]-Sweet10−3±1[41]-Sea1[76]<4[76]%(NaCl+MgCl2+CaCl2)
Water vapor0.016[6]-0.02479 (101.3 kPa)[77]
0.0471 (1 bar)[8]
293[77]-398[6]
600[8]
Wood, +>=12% water0.09091[78]-0.16[40]-0.21[78]-0.4[7]298[40]-293[7]Species-Variable[78]
Wood, oven-dry0.04[4]-0.055[6]-0.07692[78]-0.12[4]-0.17[6][78]293[4]-298[6]Balsa[6]-Cedar[78]-Hickory[78]/Oak[6]
Zinc oxide21[13]
MaterialThermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1]Temperature [K]Electrical conductivity @ 293 K [Ω−1·m−1]Notes

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]