List of the oldest buildings in the world

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

This article attempts to list the oldest extant freestanding buildings constructed in the world, including on each of the continents and within each country. "Building" is defined as any human-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy. In order to qualify for the list a structure must:

This consciously excludes ruins of limited height and statues. The list also excludes:

Dates for many of the oldest structures have been arrived at by radiocarbon dating and should be considered approximate.

By continent[edit]

The following are among the oldest extant buildings on each of the major continents.

BuildingImageCountryContinentFirst BuiltUseNotes
BarnenezBarnenez front2.jpgFranceEurope4850 BCPassage graveLocated in northern Finistère and partially restored. The structure is 72 m long, 25 m wide and over 8 m high.[2][3]
Sechin BajoSechin casma valley.JPGPeruSouth America3500 BCPlazaThe oldest known building in the Americas.[4][5]
Pyramid of DjoserPyramid of Djoser 2010.jpgEgyptAfrica2667–2648 BCBurialEarliest large-scale cut stone construction[6]
DholaviraDholavira1.JPGIndiaAsia2650 BC-2100 BCBrick water reservoirs, with steps, circular graves & ruins of well planned townA complex of ruins with varying dates at Dholavira.[7][8][9]
Cuicuilco Circular PyramidLeading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPGMexicoNorth America800–600 BCCeremonial centerOne of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures.[10]
Wiebbe Hayes Stone FortThe Fort - West Wallabi Island - Colour.JPGAustraliaAustralasiaAD 1629Defensive fortOldest known building in Australia, a defensive fort used by the survivors of the Batavia shipwreck on West Wallabi Island.[11]
Cape Adare hutsBorchgrevink Hut.jpg-AntarcticaAD 1899Explorers' hutsWooden buildings constructed by Carsten Borchgrevink in Victoria Land.[12]

By age[edit]

The following are amongst the oldest buildings in the world. Many of them are brick structures. There are numerous extant structures that survive in the Orkney islands of Scotland, some of the best known of which are part of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site.[13] The list also contains many large buildings from the Egyptian Age of the Pyramids.


BuildingImageCountryContinentFirst BuiltUseNotes
BarnenezBarnenez front2.jpgFranceEurope4850 BCPassage graveLocated in northern Finistère and partially restored. According to André Malraux it would have been better named ‘The Prehistoric Parthenon’. The structure is 72 m long, 25 m wide and over 8 m high.[2][3]
Tumulus of BougonBarnenezFranceEurope4700 BCTumulusA complex of tombs with varying dates near Poitiers, the oldest being F0.[2]
Tumulus Saint-MichelBarnenezFranceEurope4500 BCTumulusThe tumulus forms what is almost an artificial hillock of more than 30,000m3 (125m long, 60m wide and 10m high).[14][15]
Knap of HowarKnapofhowarinsun.jpgScotlandEurope3700 BCHouseOldest preserved stone house in north west Europe.[16][17][18]
ĠgantijaGgantija Temples (1).jpgMaltaEurope3700 BCTempleTwo structures on the island of Gozo. The second was built four centuries after the oldest.[19][20]
West Kennet Long BarrowWestkennet.jpgEnglandEurope3650 BCTombLocated near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[21]
ListoghilSligo carrowmore.jpgIrelandEurope3550 BCPassage TombAt the centre of the Carrowmore passage tomb cluster, a simple box-shaped chamber is surrounded by a kerb c.34m in diameter and partly covered by a cairn. It has been partly reconstructed.[22]
Sechin BajoSechin casma valley.JPGPeruSouth America3500 BCPlazaThe oldest known building in the Americas.[5]
La Hougue BieLa Hougue Bie entrance and chapel, Jersey.jpgJerseyEurope3500 BCPassage graveAn 18.6 metre long passage chamber. The chapel above is medieval.[23]
Midhowe Chambered CairnMidhowe Cairn interior - geograph.org.uk - 33776.jpgScotlandEurope3500 BCTombA well preserved example of the Orkney-Cromarty type on the island of Rousay.[24]
Gavrinis passage tombCairn Gavrinis entrance.jpgFranceEurope3500 BCTombOn a small island, situated in the Gulf of Morbihan.[25]
Wayland's SmithyWaylands Smitty 2 db.jpgEnglandEurope3460 BCChamber tombA barrow constructed on top of an older burial chamber.[26]
Unstan Chambered CairnUnstan chambered cairn entrance by Bruce McAdam.jpgScotlandEurope3450 BCTombExcavated in 1884, when grave goods were found, giving their name to Unstan ware.[27][28][29]
Knowe of Yarso chambered cairnKnowe of Yarso Chambered Cairn 20110525.jpgScotlandEurope3350 BCTombOne of several Rousay tombs. It contained numerous deer skeletons when excavated in the 1930s.[27][30][31]
Quanterness chambered cairnChambered Cairn and Farm House - geograph.org.uk - 1075905.jpgScotlandEurope3250 BCTombThe remains of 157 individuals were found inside when excavated in the 1970s.[27][32]
Skara BraeSkara Brae 12.jpgScotlandEurope3180 BCSettlementNorthern Europe's best preserved Neolithic village.[33]
Tomb of the EaglesIsbister Chambered Cairn 20110524.jpgScotlandEurope3150 BCTombIn use for 800 years or more. Numerous bird bones were found here, predominantly White-tailed Sea Eagle.[34][35]
NewgrangeNewgrange.JPGIrelandEurope3100–2900 BCBurialPartially reconstructed around original passage grave.[36]
Tarxien TemplesTarxien TempleMaltaEurope3100 BCTemplesDescribed by Colin Renfrew as "the oldest free-standing monuments in the world".[37][38]
Dolmen de BagneuxSaumur Dolmen Bagneux 2007.jpgFranceEurope3000 BCDolmenThis is the largest dolmen in France, and perhaps the world, the overall length of the dolmen is 23 m (75 ft), with the internal chamber at over 18 m (60 ft) in length and at least 3m high.[39][40][41]
Grey Cairns of CamsterThe Grey Cairns of Camster - geograph.org.uk - 675.jpgScotlandEurope3000 BC or olderTombLocated near Upper Camster in Caithness.[42][43]
Hulbjerg JættestueHulbjerg Jættestue.jpgDenmarkEurope3000 BCPassage graveThe grave is concealed by a round barrow on the southern tip of the island of Langeland. One of the skulls found there showed traces of the world's earliest dentistry work.[44][45][46]
Maikop kurgansDolmen Russia Kavkaz Jane 3.JPGRussiaEurope3000 BCTombThere are numerous tombs, some perhaps originating in the Maikop culture, in the North Caucasus.[47][48]
Taversoe Tuick chambered cairnTaversoe Tuick - geograph.org.uk - 1448330.jpgScotlandEurope3000 BCTombUnusually, there is an upper and lower chamber.[49]
Holm of Papa chambered cairnInside the chambered cairn on the Holm of Papa Westray - geograph.org.uk - 1364571.jpgScotlandEurope3000 BCTombThe central chamber is over 20 metres long.[50][51]
Barpa LangassEntrance to Barpa Langass Chambered Cairn - geograph.org.uk - 1523313.jpgScotlandEurope3000 BCTombThe best preserved chambered cairn in the Hebrides.[52][53]
Cuween Hill Chambered CairnCuween Hill, front external view, 2012 March.jpgScotlandEurope3000 BCTombExcavated in 1901, when it was found to contain the bones of men, dogs and oxen.[54][55]
Quoyness cairnQuoyness Chambered Cairn - geograph.org.uk - 86230.jpgScotlandEurope2900 BCTombAn arc of Bronze Age mounds surrounds this cairn on the island of Sanday.[56]
MaeshoweMaes Howe 1861.jpgScotlandEurope2800 BCTombThe entrance passage is 36 feet (11 m) long and leads to the central chamber measuring about 15 feet (4.6 m) on each side.[57][58]
Monte d'AccoddiMonted'accoddisardegna.pngItalyEurope2700–2000 BC[59]Possibly an open-air temple."A trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway."[60]
Pyramid of DjoserPyramid of Djoser 2010.jpgEgyptAfrica2667–2648 BCBurialEarliest large-scale cut stone construction.[6]
DholaviraDholavira1.JPGIndiaAsia2650 BC-2100 BCBrick water reservoirs, with steps, circular graves & ruins of well planned townA complex of ruins with varying dates at Dholavira.[61][62][63]
MehrgarhPakistanAsia2600 BCMud brick storage structuresA complex of ruins with varying dates near Bolan Pass.[64][65]
CaralPiramide de Caral.jpgPeruSouth America2600 BCPyramidOnce thought to be the oldest building in South America.[66]
Pyramid of MeidumPyramid of sneferu Meidum 01.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2580 BCTombFourth Dynasty structure completed by Sneferu.
Bent PyramidSnefru's Bent Pyramid in Dahshur.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2580 BCTombA second structure completed by Sneferu.
Red PyramidSnofrus Red Pyramid in Dahshur (2).jpgEgyptAfricac. 2580 BCTombThird large pyramid completed by Sneferu.[67]
Great Pyramid of GizaKheops-Pyramid.jpgEgyptAfrica2560 BCTombMausoleum for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu.[68]
KnowthKnowthPS.jpgIrelandEuropeBetween 2500-2000 BCPassage grave[69]
Pyramid of KhafreKhafre's Pyramid343.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2500 BCTombOne of the Pyramids of Giza.[70]
Pyramid of MenkaureMenkaure's pyramid.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2500 BCTombMenkaure was probably Khafre's successor.
Dowth468179976 c01f6a21ce o.jpgIrelandEurope2500 BCTombThe cairn is about 85 metres (280 ft) in diameter and 15 metres (50 ft) high.[69]
Pyramid of UserkafSaqqarah Ouserkaf 06.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2480 BCTombLocated close to Pyramid of Djoser.[71]
Pyramid of SahurePyramide de Sahourê Abousir.JPGEgyptAfricac. 2480 BCTombBuilt for Sahure.[72]
Pyramid of Neferirkare KakaiNeferefre Abusir Pyramid.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2460 BCTombBuilt for Neferirkare Kakai.[72]
Pyramid of NeferefreAbousir Neferefre 01.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2455 BCTombNever completed but does contain a tomb.[72]
Pyramid of NiuserrePyramid of Niuserre.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2425 BCTomb[73]
Pyramid of Djedkare-IsesiPyramid of Djedkare, Saqqara, 1990ies.pngEgyptAfricac. 2370 BCTomb
Pyramid of UnasSakkara C02-29.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2340 BCTomb[74]
Pyramid of TetiPiramideTeti.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2330 BCTomb
LabbacalleeLabbacallee.jpgIrelandEuropec. 2300 BCTombThe largest wedge tomb in Ireland.[citation needed]
Pyramid of MerenrePyramid of Merenre, Saqqara, 1990ies.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2275 BCTombBuilt for Merenre Nemtyemsaf I but not completed.
Pyramid of Pepi II NeferkarePepiIIPyramid.jpgEgyptAfricac. 2180 BCTomb
Crantit cairnScotlandEurope2130 BCTombDiscovered in 1998 near Kirkwall.[75][76]
Dolmen de VieraDolmen de Viera.JPGSpainEurope2000 BCTombThe Dolmen de Viera or Dolmen de los Hermanos Viera is a dolmen—a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb[77]
Rubha an Dùnain passage graveChambered Cairn at Rubh' an Dunain - geograph.org.uk - 180698.jpgScotlandEurope2000 BC or olderTomb[78][79][80]
Corrimony chambered cairnCorrimony Chambered Cairn - 3 - 29042008.JPGScotlandEurope2000 BC or olderTombA Clava-type passage grave surrounded by a circle of 11 standing stones.[81][82]
KnossosMinoan Palace of Knossos.jpgGreeceEurope2000–1300 BCPalaceMinoan structure on a Neolithic site.[83]
Bryn Celli DduBrynCelliDdu3.jpgWalesEurope2000 BCTombLocated on the island of Anglesey.[84]
Balnuaran of ClavaClava Cairns - geograph.org.uk - 476673.jpgScotlandEurope2000 BCTombThe largest of three is the north-east cairn, which was partially reconstructed in the 19th century. The central cairn may have been used as a funeral pyre.[80][85][86]
Vinquoy cairn, EdayVinquoy chambered tomb - geograph.org.uk - 190143.jpgScotlandEurope2000 BCTomb[87]
Pyramid of Amenemhat IAmenemhetIPyramid.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1960 BCTomb
Pyramid of Senusret ILicht-senwsPyramids 01.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1920 BCTomb
Pyramid of Senusret IISenusretIIPyramid.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1875 BCTomb
Pyramid of Senusret IIIPhoto-pyramide-sesostris3.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1835 BCTombBuilt for Senusret III
Black PyramidBlackPyramidOfAmenemhetIII.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1820 BCTombBuilt for Amenemhat III, it has multiple structural deficits.
HawaraPyramid of amenemhet hawarra 01.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1810 BCTombAlso built for Amenemhat III.
Pyramid of KhendjerKhendjer-complexe-1.jpgEgyptAfricac. 1760 BCTombBuilt for pharaoh Khendjer
Nuraghe Santu AntineTorralba San Antine 10.JPGItalyEurope1600 BCPossibly a fortThe tallest of these megalithic edifices found in Sardinia.[88]
Su Nuraxi di BaruminiNuraghe Su Nuraxi.jpgItalyEurope1500 BCPossibly a fort or a palaceThe palace of Barumini is formed by a huge quatrefoiled nuraghe, whose central tower is its oldest construction. Originally it was almost 20 metres high and divided into three floors.[89][90]
Nuraghe La PriscionaNuraghe la Prisciona.jpgItalyEurope1400 BCPossibly a fortThe monument has a central tower and 2 side towers, the former with an entrance defined by a massive lintel of 3.20 m. The central chamber has a false dome, which is more than 6 meters high.[91]
The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu‘Aqar Qūf.jpgIraqAsia14th century BCProbably religious ritualsBuilt for the Kassite King Kurigalzu I.[92]
Treasury of AtreusTreasure of Atreus.jpgGreeceEurope1250 BCTombThe tallest and widest dome in the world for over a thousand years.[93]
Chogha ZanbilChoghazanbil2.jpgIranAsia1250 BCTempleOne of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.[94]
Naveta d'Es TudonsTudons01.jpgSpainEurope1200-750 BCOssuaryThe most famous megalithic chamber tomb in Minorca.[95]
Dún AonghasaDun Aengus 2009.jpgIrelandEurope1100 BCFortDún Aonghasa, also called Dun Aengus, has been described as one of the most spectacular prehistoric monuments in western Europe. The drystone walled hillfort is made up of 4 widely spaced concentric ramparts.[96][97]
The King's GraveKivik Kungagraven.JPGSwedenEurope1000 BCTombNear Kivik is the remains of an unusually grand Nordic Bronze Age double burial.[98]
Cuicuilco Circular PyramidLeading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPGMexicoNorth America800–600 BCCeremonial centerOne of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures. First steps in the creation of a sun based calendar.[10]
Van FortressVan kalesi.jpgTurkeyAsia750 BCFortressMassive Urartean stone fortification overlooking Tushpa.
Necropolises of Cerveteri and TarquiniaTombaDadoBanditaccia.jpgItalyEurope700 BCTombsThese Etruscan necropolises contain thousands of tombs, some organized in a city-like plan.[99]
Temple of HeraVeduta di Paestum 2010.jpgItalyEurope550 BCTemplePart of a complex of three great temples in Doric style.[100]
Tomb of CyrusCyrustheGreatTomb 22057.jpgIranAsia530 BCTombTomb of Cyrus the Great, located in Pasargadae
ParthenonThe Parthenon in Athens.jpgGreeceEurope432–447 BCTempleIn the Acropolis of Athens
Thracian Tomb of KazanlakThe thracian tomb in Kazanlak from outside.jpgBulgariaEurope300–400 BCTombLocated near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seuthes III, and part of a large necropolis.[101]
Sanchi StupaSanchi Stupa from Eastern gate, Madhya Pradesh.jpgIndiaAsia300 BCBuddhist templeIn the village of Sanchi
Dhamek StupaSarnath1.jpgIndiaAsia249 BCBuddhist TempleIn Sarnath, Varanasi
Broch of MousaMousa broch.jpgScotlandEurope100 BCBrochLocated in Shetland it is amongst the best-preserved prehistoric buildings in Europe.[102][103]
Dun CarlowayDun Carloway.jpgScotlandEurope100 BCBrochBuilt in the first century BCE [104]
Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb MuseumLei Cheng Uk Han Tomb.jpgHong KongAsia25 ADTomb
ColosseumColosseum in Rome, Italy - April 2007.jpgItalyEurope70–80 ADAmphitheatre

By country[edit]

The following are amongst the oldest buildings in their respective countries.

BuildingImageCountryContinentFirst BuiltUseNotes
Weibbe Hayes Stone FortOngeluckige voyagie vant schip Batavia (Plate 3).jpgAustraliaAustralasia1629 ADStone FortOld stone fort built by the survivors of the Batavia shipwreck.
Thracian Tomb of KazanlakThe thracian tomb in Kazanlak from outside.jpgBulgariaEurope300–400 BCTombLocated near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seuthes III, and part of a large necropolis.[101]
Hulbjerg JættestueHulbjerg Jættestue.jpgDenmarkEurope3000 BCPassage graveThe Hulbjerg passage grave is concealed by a round barrow on the southern tip of the island of Langeland. One of the skulls found there showed traces of the world's earliest dentistry work.[44][44]
West Kennet Long BarrowWestkennet.jpgEnglandEurope3650 BCTombLocated near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[21]
Tumulus of BougonBarnenezFranceEurope4700 BCTumulusA complex of tombs with varying dates near Poitiers, the oldest being F0.[2]
Porta NigraTrier Porta Nigra BW 1.JPGGermanyEurope180 ADRoman city gateIt is today the largest Roman city gate north of the Alps.[105]
Chogha ZanbilChoghazanbil2.jpgIranAsia1250 BCTempleOne of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.[94]
The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu‘Aqar Qūf.jpgIraqAsia14th century BCProbably religious ritualsBuilt by the Kassite King Kurigalzu I.[92]
NewgrangeNewgrange.JPGIrelandEurope3200–2900 BCBurialPartially reconstructed around original passage grave.[36]
Monte d'AccoddiMonted'accoddisardegna.pngItalyEurope2700–2000 BCPossibly an open-air temple."A trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway."[60]
Tarxien TemplesTarxien TempleMaltaEurope3100 BCTemplesDescribed by Colin Renfrew as "the oldest free-standing monuments in the world".[37][38]
Cuicuilco Circular PyramidLeading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPGMexicoNorth America800–600 BCCeremonial centerOne of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures.[10]
Mission HouseKemp House, Kerikeri, New Zealand.jpgNew ZealandAustralasia1822ReligiousBuilt by Māori and missionary carpenters.[106]
MehrgarhPakistanAsiac. 2600 BCMud brick storage structuresA complex of ruins with varying dates near Bolan Pass.[64][65]
Sechin BajoPeruSouth America3500 BCPlazaThe oldest known building in the Americas.[5]
Knap of HowarKnapofhowarinsun.jpgScotlandEurope3700 BCHouseOldest preserved stone house in north west Europe.[16][17][18]
Naveta d'Es TudonsTudons01.jpgSpainEurope1200-750 BCOssuaryThe most famous megalithic chamber tomb in Minorca.[95]
The King's GraveKivik Kungagraven.JPGSwedenEurope1000 BCTombNear Kivik is the remains of an unusually grand Nordic Bronze Age double burial.[107]
HattusaHattusa.liongate.jpgTurkeyAsiac. 1600 BCRamparts and ruined buildingsCapital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age located near modern Boğazkale.[108]
Ancestral Puebloan communitiesDark Canyon Ruin.jpgUnited StatesNorth America750 ADVillagesPueblo construction began in 750 CE and continues to the present day. These buildings have been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed.
Bryn Celli DduBrynCelliDdu3.jpgWalesEurope2000 BCTombLocated on the island of Anglesey.[84]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Oldest of their type[edit]

The following are probably the oldest buildings of their type.

BuildingImageLocationFirst BuiltUseNotes
Pyramid of DjoserPyramid of Djoser 2010.jpgSaqqara, Egypt2667–2648 BCTombOldest large-scale cut stone construction[6]
JokhangJokhang Temple in Tibet.jpgLhasa, Chinac. 639 ADBuddhist templePerhaps the world's oldest timber frame building.[109]
Nanchan TempleNanchan Temple 2.JPGWutai, China782 ADBuddhist TempleIts Great Buddha Hall is currently China's oldest extant timber building.
Ditherington Flax MillDitheringtonFlaxmillReverse.jpgShrewsbury, England1797 ADIndustrialThe oldest iron framed building in the world.[110]
Maison CarréeMaisonCarrée.jpegFrance16 BCTempleThe only completely preserved temple of the ancient world.[111]
Pantheon, RomeRudolf von Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1835.jpegItaly125 ADReligiousOldest standing building still in regular use.[112]
Aula PalatinaTrier - Aula Palatina.JPGGermany306 ADPalace basilicaContains the largest extant hall from antiquity.[105]
Greensted ChurchGreensted Church North Side.jpgEnglandc. 1053 ADChurchMay be the oldest, extant wooden church in the world and the oldest, extant wooden building in Europe.[113][114]
Mundeshwari TempleMaa Mundeshwari Devi.jpgBihar, Indiaconflicting accounts; between 105-320 ADHindu TempleMay be the oldest surviving (non rebuilt) Hindu temple in the world[115][116]

Other structures[edit]

The following are very old human constructions that do not fit the above criteria for a building, typically because they are ruins that no longer fit the height requirement specified above or for which the only significant above-ground elements are single large stones.

BuildingImageLocationFirst BuiltUseNotes
Theopetra caveCliffs of meteora.jpgGreece21000 BCStone wallThe oldest known human-made structure.

The structure is a stone wall that blocked two-thirds of the entrance to the Theopetra cave near Kalambaka on the north edge of the Thessalian plain. It was constructed 23,000 years ago, probably as a barrier to cold winds.[117][118]

Göbekli TepeGöbekli Tepe, Urfa.jpgTurkey9500-8400 BCCeremonialThe oldest known human-made religious structure.[119][120]
Zeolots of JerichoTower of Jericho.jpgIsrael8000 BCDefensive/agriculturalSee also Wall of Jericho.[121]
ÇatalhöyükCatalHoyukSouthArea.JPGTurkey7400-6200 BCVillage ruins[122]
KhirokitiaKhirokitia4.jpgCyprus5800-3000 BCHousesSite has reconstructions of round houses.[123]
Tumulus de DissignacTumulus Dissignac2.jpgFrance4500-4000 BC[124]TumulusTwo Dolmenic chambers are covered by 15 metre diameter tumulus with corridors 11 metres in length. Substantially rebuilt.[125]
Table des MarchandPSM V67 D641 Table des marchands lockmariaquer brittany.pngFrance4000 BCDolmenA modern cairn has been rebuilt over the capstone and supporting pillars.[126]
Temple of Ba`alat GebalByblos(js) 4.jpgLebanonc. 2700 BCTempleLocated in the Phoenician city of Byblos, the nearby Temple of the Obelisks dates to c.1900-1600 BCE.[127][128]
Pyramid of Sekhemkhet aka the Buried PyramidSekhemkhet pyramid at Saqqara.jpgEgyptc. 2630 BCBurialAn unfinished Third Dynasty structure largely hidden under sand. Only the lowest step of the pyramid was constructed at the time of his death.[129]
Great Sphinx of GizaGreat Sphinx of Giza - 20080716a.jpgEgypt2558–2532 BCStatueThe largest monolith statue in the world, possibly completed during the reign of Khafra, although the subject is controversial.[130][131]
Large Stone StructureKDP IMG 4881.JPGIsrael/Palestine1000 BCPalace?A major public building but probably not the ruins of King David's palace.[132]

Disputed origin[edit]

These are very old structures, the human origin of which is disputed.

BuildingImageLocationFirst BuiltUseNotes
Yonaguni MonumentTurtleyonaguni.jpgRyukyu Islands, Japan-UnknownThere is a debate about whether the site is natural or is a man-made artifact.[133] If of human origin its contruction has been estimated by Masaaki Kimura to have been 2,000 to 3,000 years ago because the sea level then was close to current levels. He suggests that after construction tectonic activity caused it to be submerged below sea level. Archaeologist Richard J. Pearson believes this to be unlikely..[134] Kimura believes he can identify a pyramid, castles, roads, monuments and a stadium, and has surmised that the site may be a remnant of the mythical lost continent of Mu.[135]

See also[edit]

Lists

Sites

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Megaliths in Mecklenburg–Vorpommern". University of Toronto. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Chris Scarre, Roy Switsur, Jean-Pierre Mohen (1993) "New radiocarbon dates from Bougon and the chronology of French passage-graves". Antiquity/The Free Library. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  3. ^ a b Gibson, Marion; Trower, Shelley; Tregidga, Garry (2013) Mysticism, Myth and Celtic Identity. Routledge. Abingdon. p. 133
  4. ^ "Senchin Bajo - Plaza in Peru may be the America's oldest urban site". Gogeometry.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012
  5. ^ a b c McDonnell, Patrick J. (February 26, 2008) "A new find is the Americas' oldest known urban site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  6. ^ a b c Shaw, Ian, ed (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  7. ^ Subramanian, T S (5–18 June 2010. Vol 27 Issue 12). "The rise and fall of a Harappan City". Frontline. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  8. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Oxford University Press. 1998
  9. ^ "Will Dholavira ruins rewrite history of ancient theatre? by Robin David". Times of India. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c "Zona Arqueológica Cuicuilco". Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. (Spanish). Retrieved 12 July 2012
  11. ^ Elder, Bruce (2005). The Brutal Shore. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  12. ^ "Historic Huts in the Antarctic from the 'Heroic Age'." Antarctic-Circle.org. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  13. ^ "Heart of Neolithic Orkney". UNESCO. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  14. ^ "The Saint-Michel Tumulus". Culture.gouv.fr. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  15. ^ "Saint-Michel tumulus". Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Knap of Howar" Historic Scotland. Retrieved 23 Sept 2011.
  17. ^ a b "The Knap o' Howar, Papay". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  18. ^ a b Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 40.
  19. ^ "Megalithic Temples of Malta". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  20. ^ Mcintosh, Jane (2009) Handbook of Life in Prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 261-62Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  21. ^ a b "West Kennet Long Barrow, Avebury" English Heritage. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  22. ^ Alastair Whittle, Frances Healy & Alex Bayliss. Gathering time: dating the Early Neolithic enclosures of southern Britain and Ireland. 2 volumes. 2011. Oxford: Oxbow; 978-1-84217-425-8
  23. ^ "La Hougue Bie". Wondermondo. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  24. ^ "The Midhowe Stalled Cairn, Rousay". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  25. ^ Milisauskas, Sarunas (2002) European Prehistory: A Survey. Birkhäuser p. 231
  26. ^ "Wayland's Smithy". English Heritage. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  27. ^ a b c Fraser, David (1980) Investigations in Neolithic Orkney. Glasgow Archaeological Journal. 7 p. 13. ISSN 1471-5767
  28. ^ "Unstan Chambered Cairn". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  29. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 48
  30. ^ "Rousay, Knowe of Yarso". Canmore. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  31. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. pp. 56-57
  32. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 50
  33. ^ Clarke, David (2000) Skara Brae; World Heritage Site. Historic Scotland. ISBN 1900168979
  34. ^ "Tomb of the Eagles" tomboftheeagles.co.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  35. ^ Hedges, J. 1990. Tomb of the Eagles: Death and Life in a Stone Age Tribe. New Amsterdam Books. ISBN 0-941533-05-0 p. 73
  36. ^ a b O’Kelly, Michael J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. Page 13.
  37. ^ a b "Megalithic Temples of Malta". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  38. ^ a b Cilia, Daniel (2004-04-08). "Tarxien". The Megalithic temples of Malta. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  39. ^ http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/franceloire.htm
  40. ^ http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=6333738
  41. ^ http://www.themodernantiquarian.com/site/13725/grand_dolmen_de_bagneux.html
  42. ^ "Grey Cairns of Camster". Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  43. ^ "Grey Cairns of Camster". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  44. ^ a b c Danish National Museum. Retrieved 12 July 2012
  45. ^ Gron, Ole "The World's Oldest Root-canal Work". Kulturarv.dk. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  46. ^ "Hulbjerg Jættestue". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  47. ^ http://lah.ru/fotoarh/megalit/rus/kavkaz.htm
  48. ^ Markovin, V.I. "western Caucasian Dolmens". (pdf) Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia. 41, no. 4 (Spring 2002), pp. 68–88
  49. ^ "The Taversoe Tuick, Rousay" Orkneyjar. Retrieved17 July 2012.
  50. ^ "Info Board, Holm of Papa Westray Cairn" Wikimedia Commons/Historic Scotland. Retrieved17 July 2012.
  51. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn pp. 62-63
  52. ^ "North Uist, Barpa Langass". Canmore. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  53. ^ Armit, Ian (1996) The archaeology of Skye and the Western Isles. Edinburgh University Press/Historic Scotland. p. 71
  54. ^ "The Cuween Hill Cairn, Firth". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  55. ^ "Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  56. ^ "The Quoyness Cairn, Sanday". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  57. ^ Childe, V. Gordon; W. Douglas Simpson (1952). Illustrated History of Ancient Monuments: Vol. VI Scotland. Edinburgh: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.  pp.18-19
  58. ^ Ritchie, Graham & Anna (1981). Scotland: Archaeology and Early History. New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27365-0.  p. 29
  59. ^ Delfino, Carlo (ed) (2000) "The Prehistoric Altar of Monte d'Accoddi". (pdf) Archaeological Sardinia. 29. Retrieved 14 October 2013. p. 45.
  60. ^ a b Blake, Emma; Arthur Bernard Knapp (2004). The archaeology of Mediterranean prehistory. Wiley Blackwell. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-631-23268-1. Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  61. ^ Subramanian, T S (5–18 June 2010. Vol 27 Issue 12). "The rise and fall of a Harappan City". Frontline. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  62. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Oxford University Press. 1998
  63. ^ "Will Dholavira ruins rewrite history of ancient theatre? by Robin David". Times of India. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  64. ^ a b Jarrige, J. F. (1979). "Excavations at Mehrgarh-Pakistan". In Johanna Engelberta Lohuizen-De Leeuw. South Asian archaeology 1975: papers from the third International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, held in Paris. Brill. pp. 76–87. ISBN 978-90-04-05996-2. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  65. ^ a b "Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  66. ^ "Oldest evidence of city life in the Americas reported in Science, early urban planners emerge as power players". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  67. ^ "King Snefru: The First Great Pyramid Builder". Fathom. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  68. ^ "Egyptian researchers claim to have exact date for Great Pyramid". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  69. ^ a b Harbison, Peter. (1970). Guide to the National Monuments of Ireland. Gill & Macmillan. 
  70. ^ "Pyramid of Chefren". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  71. ^ Winston, Alan "The Pyramid Complex of Userkaf at Saqqara". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  72. ^ a b c Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2. 
  73. ^ Lehner, Mark (1997) The Complete Pyramids London: Thames and Hudson pp. 148-49 ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  74. ^ Jaromir Malek, "The Old Kingdom (c.2160-2055 BCE)" in Ian Shaw (editor) (2000) The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: University Press. p. 112
  75. ^ "C14 Radiocarbon dating for Crantit" Canmore. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  76. ^ "Crantit" Canmore. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  77. ^ http://www.nuevaacropolismalaga.org/archives/malaga/dolmenes_de_antequera.php
  78. ^ Armit, Ian (1996) The archaeology of Skye and the Western Isles. Edinburgh University Press/Historic Scotland. p. 73
  79. ^ "Skye, Rubh' An Dunain, 'Viking Canal' ". Canmore. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  80. ^ a b "The Cairns of Clava, Scottish Highlands". The Heritage Trail. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  81. ^ "Corrimony Chambered Cairn & RSPB Nature Reserve". Glen Affric.org. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  82. ^ "Corrimony Chambered Cairn". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  83. ^ "Knossos". Interkriti. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  84. ^ a b "Bryn Celli Ddu". Ancient Britain Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  85. ^ "A Visitors’ Guide to Balnuaran of Clava: A prehistoric cemetery. (2012) Historic Scotland.
  86. ^ Bradley, Richard (1996) Excavation at Balnuaran of Clava, 1994 and 1995. Highland Council.
  87. ^ Uney, Graham (2010) Walking on the Orkney and Shetland Isles: 80 Walks in the Northern Isles. Cicerone Press. p. 71
  88. ^ "Nuraghe Santu Antine e Museo della Valle dei Nuraghi". Museo Valle de Inuraghi. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  89. ^ "Su Nuraxi di Barumini". Google World Wonders. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  90. ^ "Su Nuraxi di Barumini". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  91. ^ "Nuraghe la Prisgiona -Arzachena Costa Smeralda". Beepworld. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  92. ^ a b J A Brinkman, Materials and Studies for Kassite History Vol I: A Catalogue of Cuneiform Sources Pertaining to Specific Monarchs of the Kassite Dynasty, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1976, ISBN 0-918986-00-1
  93. ^ "Treasury of Atreus" Structurae.de. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  94. ^ a b "Chogha Zanbil" The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  95. ^ a b "Naveta des Tudons". MenorcaWeb.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  96. ^ "Dun Aonghasa". Archaeology Travel. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  97. ^ "Dún Aonghasa". The Discovery Programme. Retrieved 8 August 2012
  98. ^ Goldhahn, Joakim (2005) Bredarör i Kivik. Department of Archaeology, University of Gothenburg. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  99. ^ "Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  100. ^ "Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  101. ^ a b "Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  102. ^ Fojut, Noel (1981)"Is Mousa a broch?" Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. 111 pp. 220-228.
  103. ^ Armit, I. (2003) Towers in the North: The Brochs of Scotland. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-1932-3 p. 15.
  104. ^ http://www.callanishvisitorcentre.co.uk/dounebroch.html
  105. ^ a b http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/367/
  106. ^ "Kemp House. Kerikeri.co.nz. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  107. ^ Goldhahn, Joakim (2005) Bredarör i Kivik. Department of Archaeology, University of Gothenburg.
  108. ^ Hattusha: the Hittite Capital. UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  109. ^ Alexander, André (2006) "The Lhasa Jokhang – is the world's oldest timber frame building in Tibet?" Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony. University of Napoli. ISSN 1827-8868
  110. ^ Jones, Nigel (2005). Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales. England: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 92. ISBN 0-313-31850-6. Retrieved 10 July 2012. 
  111. ^ http://www.avignon-et-provence.com/provence-tourism/nimes/maison-carree-nimes.htm
  112. ^ Pantheon", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, revised December 2008
  113. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (117767)". Images of England. 
  114. ^ "Early church date". British Archaeology (December 1995) No 10.
  115. ^ http://oborge.com/oldest-hindu-temple-world/
  116. ^ http://www.navhindtimes.in/iwatch/oldest-temple-india
  117. ^ http://news.discovery.com/history/oldest-man-made-structure-found-in-greek-cave.html
  118. ^ http://www.showcaves.com/english/gr/caves/Theopetra.html
  119. ^ "Gobekli Tepe, Turkey - Overview". Global Heritage Fund. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  120. ^ "The World's First Temple". (Nov/Dec 2008) Archaeology. Volume 61, Number 6.
  121. ^ O'Sullivan, Arieh (14 February 2011) "World’s first skyscraper sought to intimidate masses". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  122. ^ "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  123. ^ Mitsis, F.J.; Taramidis, G.(1995) "Alveolar bone loss on neolithic man remains on 38 skulls of Khirokitia's (Cyprus) inhabitants". Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  124. ^ "The Tumulus of Dissignac | Saint Nazaire | Loire-atlantique". Guide2 Pays de la Loire. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  125. ^ http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=6333666
  126. ^ "Dolmen dit Table-des-Marchands". Culture.gouv.fr. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  127. ^ "The Temple of Baalat Gebal, the Lady of Byblos'." Hethert.org. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  128. ^ "Byblos". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  129. ^ Jaromir Malek (2002) 'The Old Kingdom' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt by Ian Shaw (ed.) Oxford University Press. p. 92
  130. ^ Dunford, Jane; Fletcher, Joann; French, Carole (ed., 2007). Egypt: Eyewitness Travel Guide. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7566-2875-8.
  131. ^ "Great Sphinx of Giza". Emporis. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  132. ^ Erlanger, Steven (24 August 2005) "King David's palace found? Scholars differ". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  133. ^ Robert M. Schoch (1999). "Yonaguni Enigmatic Underwater Monuments". Circular Times. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  134. ^ "Yonaguni, Japan". New Scientist (2736). 2009-11-25. Archived from the original on 2009-11-28. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  135. ^ Kimura, Masaaki (1991). Mu tairiku wa Ryukyu ni atta (The Continent of Mu was in Ryukyu) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten.