List of tallest buildings and structures in the world

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The Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

The world's tallest man-made structure is the 829.8 m (2,722 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building gained the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" at its opening on January 4, 2010.

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, an organization that certifies buildings as the "World’s Tallest", recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area.[1] Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as "towers".

There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 ft) in height, and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.

Debate over definitions[edit]

When assessing the placings of structures, there is some debate about:

For buildings, there is debate over:

Tallest structures[edit]

Warsaw radio mast, the height record holder from 1974 to 1991
The CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, was the world's tallest freestanding structure from 1975 to 2007.

This category does not require the structure be "officially" opened.

The tallest man-made structure is Burj Khalifa, a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height on January 17, 2009.[2] By April 7, 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota, USA.[3] That September it officially surpassed Poland's 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.

The CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, standing at 553.3 m (1,815 ft), was formerly the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land. Opened in 1976, it was surpassed in height by the rising Burj Khalifa on September 12, 2007.[4][5][6] It has the world's highest public observation deck at 446.5 m (1,465 ft).

The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2,000 ft) off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated whether underwater height should be counted in the same manner as height below ground is ignored on buildings. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1,549 ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Despite this, Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1,306 m (4,285 ft). The Magnolia Tension-leg Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is even taller with a total height of 1,432 m (4,698 ft).

Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, set records in three of the four skyscraper categories at the time it opened in 2004; at the time the Burj Khalifa opened in 2010 it remained the world's tallest inhabited building 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). The height of its roof 449.2 m (1,474 ft) and highest occupied floor 439.2 m (1,441 ft) had been surpassed by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 m (1,598 ft) and 474 m (1,555 ft) respectively. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527.3 m (1,730 ft).

Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin.

Tallest structure by category[edit]

Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas Twin Towers are counted.

Note: The following table is a list of the tallest structure in each of the categories below. There can only be one structure in each category, unless the title for the tallest is a draw.


CategoryStructureCountryCityHeight (metres)Height (feet)Year BuiltCoordinates
SkyscraperBurj KhalifaUnited Arab EmiratesDubai829.82,722201025°11′50.0″N 55°16′26.6″E / 25.197222°N 55.274056°E / 25.197222; 55.274056 (Burj Dubai)
Self supporting towerTokyo Sky TreeJapanTokyo6342,080201135°42′36.5″N 139°48′39″E / 35.710139°N 139.81083°E / 35.710139; 139.81083 (Tokyo Skytree)
Guyed MastKVLY-TV mastUnited StatesBlanchard628.82,063196347°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)
Clock buildingAbraj Al Bait TowersSaudi ArabiaMecca6011,972201121°25′08″N 39°49′35″E / 21.41889°N 39.82639°E / 21.41889; 39.82639 (Abraj Al Bait Towers)
Mast radiatorLualualei VLF transmitterUnited StatesLualualei4581,503196221°25′11.87″N 158°08′53.67″W / 21.4199639°N 158.1482417°W / 21.4199639; -158.1482417 (VLF transmitter Lualualei, Mast 1) ; 21°25′13.38″N 158°09′14.35″W / 21.4203833°N 158.1539861°W / 21.4203833; -158.1539861 (VLF transmitter Lualualei, Mast 2)
Twin towersPetronas Twin TowersMalaysiaKuala Lumpur4521,48219983°09′27.45″N 101°42′40.7″E / 3.1576250°N 101.711306°E / 3.1576250; 101.711306 (Petronas Tower 1); 3°09′29.45″N 101°42′43.4″E / 3.1581806°N 101.712056°E / 3.1581806; 101.712056 (Petronas Tower 2)
ChimneyEkibastuz GRES-2 Power StationKazakhstanEkibastusz419.71,377198752°1′26.3″N 75°28′34.5″E / 52.023972°N 75.476250°E / 52.023972; 75.476250 (GRES-2 Power Station)
RadarDimona Radar FacilityIsraelDimona4001,312200830°58′6.93″N 35°05′49.64″E / 30.9685917°N 35.0971222°E / 30.9685917; 35.0971222 (Dimona Radar Facility) ; 30°58′32.46″N 35°05′55.25″E / 30.9756833°N 35.0986806°E / 30.9756833; 35.0986806 (Dimona Radar Facility)
Lattice towerKiev TV TowerUkraineKiev3851,263197350°28′16.49″N 30°27′11.97″E / 50.4712472°N 30.4533250°E / 50.4712472; 30.4533250 (Kiev TV Tower)
Electricity pylonZhoushan Island Overhead Powerline TieChinaZhoushan3701,214200929°56′2.78″N 122°2′10.12″E / 29.9341056°N 122.0361444°E / 29.9341056; 122.0361444 (Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie, 370 metres tower) ; 29°54′41.39″N 122°1′26.38″E / 29.9114972°N 122.0239944°E / 29.9114972; 122.0239944 (Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie, 370 metres tower)
Partially guyed towerGerbrandy TowerNetherlandsIJsselstein366.81,203196152°00′36.24″N 05°03′12.87″E / 52.0100667°N 5.0535750°E / 52.0100667; 5.0535750 (Gerbrandy Tower)
Guyed tubular steel mastTV Tower VinnytsiaUkraineVinnytsia3541,161196149°14′30.04″N 28°25′25.25″E / 49.2416778°N 28.4236806°E / 49.2416778; 28.4236806 (TV Tower Vinnytsia)
Bridge pillarMillau ViaductFranceMillau3421,122200444°05′09.97″N 03°01′17.94″E / 44.0861028°N 3.0216500°E / 44.0861028; 3.0216500 (Viaduc de Millau)
Tower for scientific researchObninsk Meteorological towerRussiaObninsk3151,034195855°06′41.72″N 36°35′53.75″E / 55.1115889°N 36.5982639°E / 55.1115889; 36.5982639 (Obninsk Meteorological tower)
Blaw-Knox TowerLakihegy TowerHungarySzigetszentmiklós-Lakihegy3141,031196847°22′23″N 19°00′16″E / 47.37306°N 19.00444°E / 47.37306; 19.00444 (Lakihegy Tower)
DamNurek DamTajikistanNurek300984[7]198038°22′17.09″N 69°20′53.57″E / 38.3714139°N 69.3482139°E / 38.3714139; 69.3482139 (Nurek Dam)
Concrete damGrande Dixence DamSwitzerlandVal d'Hérens285935[8]196546°4′49.89″N 7°24′13.13″E / 46.0805250°N 7.4036472°E / 46.0805250; 7.4036472 (Grande Dixence Dam)
MinaretHassan II MosqueMoroccoCasablanca210689199333°36′28.71″N 7°37′58.16″W / 33.6079750°N 7.6328222°W / 33.6079750; -7.6328222 (Hassan II Mosque)
Wind turbineNowy Tomyśl Wind Turbines[9]PolandNowy Tomyśl210689201252°17′39″N 16°09′00″E / 52.29417°N 16.15000°E / 52.29417; 16.15000 (Nowy Tomyśl Wind Turbine) ; 52°17′41″N 16°09′22″E / 52.29472°N 16.15611°E / 52.29472; 16.15611 (Nowy Tomyśl Wind Turbine)
Cooling towerKalisindh Power StationIndiaKalisindh202[10]663201224°32′04.34″N 76°05′58.09″E / 24.5345389°N 76.0994694°E / 24.5345389; 76.0994694 (Kalisindh Power Station)
MonumentGateway ArchUnited StatesSt. Louis192630196538°37′28.62″N 90°11′5.87″W / 38.6246167°N 90.1849639°W / 38.6246167; -90.1849639 (Gateway Arch)
Water towerMain tower of Kuwait TowersKuwaitKuwait City187614197929°23′22.75″N 48°00′11.57″E / 29.3896528°N 48.0032139°E / 29.3896528; 48.0032139 (Kuwait Towers)
Wooden structureATLAS-I at Kirtland Air Force BaseUnited StatesAlbuquerque180600198035°01′48″N 106°33′27″W / 35.029898°N 106.557574°W / 35.029898; -106.557574 (ATLAS-I)
Masonry towerAnaconda Smelter StackUnited StatesAnaconda178.3585191946°06′36.53″N 112°54′48.8″W / 46.1101472°N 112.913556°W / 46.1101472; -112.913556 (Anaconda Smelter Stack)
Inclined structure,
Stadium
Olympic StadiumCanadaMontreal175574197645°33′33.53″N 73°33′7.61″W / 45.5593139°N 73.5521139°W / 45.5593139; -73.5521139 (Montreal Olympic Stadium)
ObeliskSan Jacinto MonumentUnited StatesLa Porte173.7570193929°44′59.46″N 95°04′50.52″W / 29.7498500°N 95.0807000°W / 29.7498500; -95.0807000 (San Jacinto Monument)
Church buildingChicago Temple BuildingUnited StatesChicago173568192441°52′58.81″N 87°37′50.25″W / 41.8830028°N 87.6306250°W / 41.8830028; -87.6306250 (Chicago Temple Building)
Masonry buildingMole AntonellianaItalyTorino167548188945°04′8.45″N 7°41′35.62″E / 45.0690139°N 7.6932278°E / 45.0690139; 7.6932278 (Mole Antonelliana)
Masonry buildingPhiladelphia City HallUnited StatesPhiladelphia167548190139°57′9.79″N 75°09′48.72″W / 39.9527194°N 75.1635333°W / 39.9527194; -75.1635333 (Philadelphia City Hall)
Ferris wheelSingapore FlyerSingaporeSingapore165541.320081°17′22.27″N 103°51′47.6″E / 1.2895194°N 103.863222°E / 1.2895194; 103.863222 (Singapore Flyer)
Flagpole, free-standingDushanbe FlagpoleTajikistanDushanbe165[11]541201138°34′44.44″N 68°46′48.39″E / 38.5790111°N 68.7801083°E / 38.5790111; 68.7801083 (Dushanbe Flagpole)
Church towerUlm MinsterGermanyUlm162530189048°23′55″N 9°59′30.78″E / 48.39861°N 9.9918833°E / 48.39861; 9.9918833 (Ulm Minster)
Industrial hallVehicle Assembly BuildingUnited StatesKennedy Space Center160525196628°35′9.64″N 80°39′2.11″W / 28.5860111°N 80.6505861°W / 28.5860111; -80.6505861 (Vehicle Assembly Building)
DomeDome of the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of YamoussoukroCôte d'IvoireYamoussoukro15851819906°48′40″N 5°17′47″W / 6.81111°N 5.29639°W / 6.81111; -5.29639 (Dome of Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro)
Memorial crossSanta Cruz del Valle de los CaídosSpainEl Escorial152.4500195740°38′31.46″N 4°9′19.6″W / 40.6420722°N 4.155444°W / 40.6420722; -4.155444 (Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos)
TelescopeArecibo TelescopeUnited StatesArecibo150492196318°20′39″N 66°45′10″W / 18.34417°N 66.75278°W / 18.34417; -66.75278 (Arecibo Telescope)
Roller coasterKingda KaUnited StatesJackson138.98456200540°08′26.54″N 74°25′59.83″W / 40.1407056°N 74.4332861°W / 40.1407056; -74.4332861 (Kingda Ka)
TombGreat Pyramid of GizaEgyptGiza138.8455.22560 BC29°58′44.93″N 31°08′3.09″E / 29.9791472°N 31.1341917°E / 29.9791472; 31.1341917 (Great Pyramid of Giza)
LighthouseJeddah LightSaudi ArabiaJeddah1334361990[12]21°28′07.14″N 39°08′58.98″E / 21.4686500°N 39.1497167°E / 21.4686500; 39.1497167 (Jeddah Light)
Air traffic control towerSuvarnabhumi Airport control towerThailandBangkok132.2433.7200613°41′47.05″N 100°44′58.8″E / 13.6964028°N 100.749667°E / 13.6964028; 100.749667 (Suvarnabhumi Airport control tower)
Statue (including pedestal)Spring Temple BuddhaChinaLushan128420200233°46′31″N 112°27′04″E / 33.775150°N 112.451016°E / 33.775150; 112.451016 (Spring Temple Buddha)
StupaPhra Pathom ChediThailandNakorn Pathom127417187013°49′11″N 100°3′37″E / 13.81972°N 100.06028°E / 13.81972; 100.06028 (Phra Pathom Chedi)
SculptureSpire of DublinIrelandDublin121.2393200353°20′59.28″N 6°15′36.93″W / 53.3498000°N 6.2602583°W / 53.3498000; -6.2602583 (Spire of Dublin)
Storage siloHenninger TurmGermanyFrankfurt120394196150°05′50.18″N 8°41′36.81″E / 50.0972722°N 8.6935583°E / 50.0972722; 8.6935583 (Henninger Turm)
Wooden lattice towerGliwice Radio TowerPolandGliwice118387193550°18′48.12″N 18°41′20.26″E / 50.3133667°N 18.6889611°E / 50.3133667; 18.6889611 (Gliwice Radio Tower)
Aerial tramway support towerPillar of third section of Gletscherbahn KaprunAustriaKaprun113.6373196647°11′58.62″N 12°41′16.96″E / 47.1996167°N 12.6880444°E / 47.1996167; 12.6880444 (Glacial Aerial Tramway Kaprun III Support Pillar)
SphereEricsson GlobeSwedenStockholm85279198959°17′36.92″N 18°04′58.79″E / 59.2935889°N 18.0829972°E / 59.2935889; 18.0829972 (Ericsson Globe)
Brick lighthouseLighthouse of GenoaItalyGenoa77253112844°24′16.25″N 8°54′16.67″E / 44.4045139°N 8.9046306°E / 44.4045139; 8.9046306 (Torre della Lanterna)
GopuramMurudeshwara TempleIndiaMurudeshwara76249200814°05′39″N 74°29′07″E / 14.094197°N 74.485163°E / 14.094197; 74.485163 (Murudeshwara Temple)
Wooden churchChurch of the Holy Archangels[13]RomaniaŞurdeşti72236176647°35′49.11″N 23°45′52.54″E / 47.5969750°N 23.7645944°E / 47.5969750; 23.7645944 (Church of the Holy Archangels)

Tallest destroyed structures by category, not surpassed by existing structures[edit]

There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type. There are also destroyed structures omitted from this list that had been surpassed in height prior to being destroyed.

CategoryStructureCountryCityHeight (Meters)Height (Feet)CoordinatesRemarks
Guyed mastWarsaw Radio MastPolandGąbin646.382,12152°22′3.74″N 19°48′8.73″E / 52.3677056°N 19.8024250°E / 52.3677056; 19.8024250 (Konstantynow Radio Mast (destroyed))completed in 1974, collapsed on August 8, 1991
Tower for scientific researchBREN TowerUnited StatesNevada Test Site4621,51636°46′50.23″N 116°14′36.9″W / 36.7806194°N 116.243583°W / 36.7806194; -116.243583 (BREN-Tower)completed in 1962, destroyed on May 23, 2012[14]
Guyed tubular steel mastShushi-Wan Omega TransmitterJapanTsushima3891,27634°36′53″N 129°27′13″E / 34.61472°N 129.45361°E / 34.61472; 129.45361 (Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter (dismantled))completed in 1973, dismantled in 1998
Structure for scientific experimentSmoky Shot TowerUnited StatesNevada Test Site213700 ???Guyed mast, which carried 44 kt yield nuclear bomb "Smoky" (part of operation Plumbbob) on top until its explosion on August 31, 1957
Wooden structureMühlacker Wood Radio TowerGermanyMühlacker19062348°56′27.67″N 8°51′8.24″E / 48.9410194°N 8.8522889°E / 48.9410194; 8.8522889 (Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower (replaced by guyed mast))completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6, 1945, by the Germans to prevent usage by the Allies, replaced by mast radiator
Masonry buildingMole AntonellianaItalyTorino167.5549.545°04′8.45″N 7°41′35.62″E / 45.0690139°N 7.6932278°E / 45.0690139; 7.6932278 (Mole Antonelliana)spire destroyed by a tornado in 1953 (Rebuilt since then).
Pre-Industrial Era buildingLincoln CathedralEnglandLincoln16052453°14′3.26″N 0°32′10.54″W / 53.2342389°N 0.5362611°W / 53.2342389; -0.5362611 (Lincoln Cathedral)completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549
LighthouseLighthouse of AlexandriaEgyptAlexandria115-135377-44331°12′51″N 29°53′06″E / 31.21417°N 29.88500°E / 31.21417; 29.88500 (Lighthouse of Alexandria)completed in 279 BC, destroyed by an earthquake in 1323

Tallest building by function[edit]

CategoryStructureCountryCityArchitectural top (metres)Architectural top (feet)
Mixed-Use*Burj KhalifaUnited Arab EmiratesDubai829.82,722
OfficeOne World Trade CenterUnited StatesNew York City5411,776
ResidentialPrincess TowerUnited Arab EmiratesDubai4141,358
HotelJW Marriott Marquis DubaiUnited Arab EmiratesDubai3551,166
EducationalMoscow State UniversityRussiaMoscow240787
PagodaTianning TempleChinaChangzhou153.79505
ChurchUlm MinsterGermanyUlm143469
HospitalGuy's HospitalUnited KingdomLondon143468
LibraryShanghai LibraryChinaShanghai106348
CinemaCineworld (Glasgow)United KingdomGlasgow62203

* Mixed-Use is defined as having three or more real estate uses (such as retail, office, hotel, etc.) that are physically and functionally integrated in a single property and are mutually supporting.[15]

Tallest buildings[edit]

Prior to 1998, the tallest building status was determined by the height of the building to the top of its architectural elements including spires, but not including "temporary" structures (such as antennae or flagpoles), which could be added or changed relatively easily without requiring major changes to the building's design. Other criteria for height measurement were not used. For this reason, the originally 1451 foot (442.1 meter) to rooftop or 1518 feet with original antennas [16] Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was generally accepted as being the tallest building continuously after its completion in 1973, and being taller than both World Trade Center towers, in spite of the fact the 1 World Trade Center Tower (North Tower) possessed a higher pinnacle absolute height after it added its 360-foot (110m) radio antenna (total height of 1727 feet or 526.3 meters) in 1978. The 1 World Trade Center building maintained a higher absolute height to antenna top until the Sears Tower enlarged its own radio antenna in 2000 to a total height of 1730 feet.[16] However, the Willis Tower was always considered the taller building because it still possessed a greater height to its architectural top (1451 feet vs. 1362 feet), and thus its status as the world's tallest was generally not contested.

Other historic cases in which a building with a taller absolute pinnacle height was not considered the tallest building include, in 1905 when the former New York Times building or The Times Square Building (at 229 West 43rd Street in New York) was completed at 111 m (363 ft) to the roof with 128 m (420 ft) including a flagpole. That building was never considered to be taller than the 119 m (391 ft) high then-current record-holder Park Row Building of New York because a flagpole is not an integral architectural part of a building.[17]

Prior to 1998 the tallest building status had been contested on occasion, but the disputes did not result in a change of the criteria used to determine the world's tallest building. A famous historical case of this discrepancy was the rivalry between The Trump Building (then known as the Bank of Manhattan Building) and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 927 ft (283 m) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 125-foot (38 m) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 1048 feet (319 m), despite having a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires are not counted in their heights. Upset by Chrysler’s victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of Bank of Manhattan building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 100 feet (30 m) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and essentially inaccessible.[18] However, the Chrysler Building was generally accepted as the tallest building in the world despite their protests.

However, none of the previous discrepancies or disputes in criteria to measure height (spires vs antennae, absolute pinnacle height vs. architectural height, height of highest occupied floor, etc.) resulted in the controversy that occurred upon the completion of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The Petronas Towers possessed a higher architectural height (spires, but not antennae), but a lower absolute pinnacle height and lower top occupied floor than the previous record-holder Willis Tower in Chicago, United States. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, Willis Tower was still considered the tallest at that time. When the Petronas Twin Towers were built, controversy arose because their spires extended nine metres higher than the roof of Willis Tower. Excluding their spires, the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis Tower. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) found the Willis Tower to be the third-tallest building, and the Petronas Towers to be the world's tallest buildings. This decision caused a considerable amount of controversy in the news media because this was the first time a country outside the United States had held the world’s tallest building record.[17] Therefore, the CTBUH revised their criteria and defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured,[19] by retaining the old criterion of height to architectural top and added three new categories[17]

  1. Height to Architectural Top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles). This measurement is the most widely used and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World.
  2. Highest Occupied Floor
  3. Height to Top of Roof (omitted from criteria from November 2009 onwards)[20]
  4. Height to Tip

The height to roof criterion was discontinued because relatively few modern tall buildings possess flat rooftops, making this criterion difficult to determine and measure.[21] The CBTUH has further clarified their definitions of building height, including specific criteria concerning subbasements and ground level entrances (height measured from lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance rather than from a previously undefined "main entrance"), building completion (must be topped out both structurally and architecturally, fully clad, and able to be occupied), condition of the highest occupied floor (must be continuously used by people living or working and be conditioned, thus including observation decks, but not mechanical floors) and other aspects of tall buildings.[21][22]

The height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance. At the time, the Willis Tower held first place in the second and third categories, the Petronas Towers held the first category, and the 1 World Trade Center building held the fourth with its antenna height to top of pinnacle.[17] In 2000, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Willis Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007 it was announced that Burj Khalifa had surpassed Taipei 101 in height, reaching 512 m (1,680 ft).

Since being completed in early 2010, Burj Khalifa leads in all categories (the first building to do so). With a spire height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft), Burj Khalifa surpassed Taipei 101 as the tallest building to architectural detail and the Willis Tower as the tallest building to tip. It also leads in the category of highest occupied floor.

Before Burj Khalifa was completed, Willis Tower led in the fourth category with 527 m (1,729 ft), previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago tower's western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the World Trade Center's destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, One World Trade Center measured 526 m (1,726 ft). The World Trade Center became the world's tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Building, which once stood a block from the World Trade Center site.[citation needed] A different superlative for skyscrapers is their number of floors. The World Trade Center set that at 110, and this was not surpassed for nearly four decades until the Burj Khalifa, which opened in 2010.

Structures such as the CN Tower, the Ostankino Tower and the Oriental Pearl Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not "habitable buildings", which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.[1]

History of record holders in each CTBUH category[edit]

Date (Event)Architectural topHighest occupied floorRoofTip
2010: Burj Khalifa completedBurj KhalifaBurj KhalifaBurj Khalifa
2009: CTBUH omits Height to Roof categoryTaipei 101Shanghai World Financial CenterWillis Tower
2008: Shanghai World Financial Center completedTaipei 101Shanghai World Financial CenterShanghai World Financial CenterWillis Tower
2003: Taipei 101 completedTaipei 101Taipei 101Taipei 101Willis Tower
2000: Willis Tower antenna extensionPetronas TowersWillis TowerWillis TowerWillis Tower
1998: Petronas Towers completedPetronas TowersWillis TowerWillis TowerWorld Trade Center
1996: CTBUH defines categoriesWillis TowerWillis TowerWillis TowerWorld Trade Center

World's tallest freestanding structure on land[edit]

Freestanding structures include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be "Habitable buildings", but excludes supported structures such as guyed masts and ocean drilling platforms. (See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)

The world's tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting man-made structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of world's tallest building or world's tallest structure based on the percentage of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Visit world's tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.

As of May 12, 2008, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building, which now stands at 829.8 m (2,722 ft), surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.3 m (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It was completed in 2010, and was topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in January 2009.[2]

History[edit]

The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land. (See also Timeline of three tallest structures in the world until Empire State Building).

Tallest Historical Structures
Record fromRecord toName and LocationConstructedHeight (metres)Height (feet)CoordinatesNotes
c. 2650 BCc. 2610 BCPyramid of Djoser, Egyptc. 2650 BC6220329°52′16.53″N 31°12′59.59″E / 29.8712583°N 31.2165528°E / 29.8712583; 31.2165528 (Pyramid of Djoser) 
c. 2610 BCc. 2605 BCMeidum Pyramid in Egyptc. 2610 BC93.530729°23′17″N 31°09′25″E / 29.38806°N 31.15694°E / 29.38806; 31.15694 (Meidum Pyramid)Shortly after completion Meidum Pyramid collapsed due to bad design/instability and is now 65 m (213 ft).
c. 2605 BCc. 2600 BCBent Pyramid in Egyptc. 2605 BC101.133229°47′25″N 31°12′33″E / 29.79028°N 31.20917°E / 29.79028; 31.20917 (Bent Pyramid)Angle of slope decrease during construction to avoid collapse.
c. 2600 BCc. 2560 BCRed Pyramid of Sneferu, Egyptc. 2600 BC10534529°48′31.39″N 31°12′22.49″E / 29.8087194°N 31.2062472°E / 29.8087194; 31.2062472 (Red Pyramid) 
c. 2560 BCc. 1311 ADGreat Pyramid of Giza in Egyptc. 2560 BC14648129°58′44.93″N 31°08′3.09″E / 29.9791472°N 31.1341917°E / 29.9791472; 31.1341917 (Great Pyramid of Giza)By 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft).
 13111549Lincoln Cathedral in England1092–131116052553°14′3.26″N 0°32′10.54″W / 53.2342389°N 0.5362611°W / 53.2342389; -0.5362611 (Lincoln Cathedral)The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft (160 m) is accepted by most sources,[23][24][25][26][27][28] others consider it doubtful[29]
15491647St. Mary's Church in Stralsund, Germany1384–147815149554°18′36.01″N 13°5′14.81″E / 54.3100028°N 13.0874472°E / 54.3100028; 13.0874472 (St. Mary's church, Stralsund)The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The height is 104 m (341 ft) .
16471874Strasbourg Cathedral in France143914246948°34′54.22″N 7°45′1.48″E / 48.5817278°N 7.7504111°E / 48.5817278; 7.7504111 (Strasbourg Cathedral)By 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft) hence Strasbourg Cathedral was higher .
18741876St. Nikolai in Hamburg, Germany1846–187414748353°32′50.94″N 9°59′26.12″E / 53.5474833°N 9.9905889°E / 53.5474833; 9.9905889 (St. Nikolai, Hamburg)
18761880Cathédrale Notre Dame in Rouen, France1202–187615149549°26′24.54″N 1°5′41.85″E / 49.4401500°N 1.0949583°E / 49.4401500; 1.0949583 (Rouen Cathedral) 
18801884Cologne Cathedral in Germany1248–188015751550°56′28.08″N 6°57′25.73″E / 50.9411333°N 6.9571472°E / 50.9411333; 6.9571472 (Cologne Cathedral, Tower South) ;50°56′29.11″N 6°57′25.85″E / 50.9414194°N 6.9571806°E / 50.9414194; 6.9571806 (Cologne Cathedral, Tower North)
18841889Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States188416955538°53′22.08″N 77°2′6.89″W / 38.8894667°N 77.0352472°W / 38.8894667; -77.0352472 (Washington Monument)The world's tallest all-stone structure, as well as the tallest obelisk-form structure.
18891930Eiffel Tower in Paris, France188930098648°51′29.77″N 2°17′40.09″E / 48.8582694°N 2.2944694°E / 48.8582694; 2.2944694 (Eiffel Tower)First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m (1,063 ft).
19301931Chrysler Building in New York, United States1928–19303191,04640°45′5.78″N 73°58′31.52″W / 40.7516056°N 73.9754222°W / 40.7516056; -73.9754222 (Chrysler Building)
19311967Empire State Building in New York, United States1930–19313811,25040°44′54.95″N 73°59′8.71″W / 40.7485972°N 73.9857528°W / 40.7485972; -73.9857528 (Empire State Building)First building with 100+ storeys. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 448.7 m (1,472 ft). This was subsequently lowered to 443.1 m (1,454 ft).
19671975Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia1963–19675371,76255°49′10.94″N 37°36′41.79″E / 55.8197056°N 37.6116083°E / 55.8197056; 37.6116083 (Ostankino Tower)Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation.
19752007CN Tower in Toronto, Canada1973–19765531,81543°38′33.22″N 79°23′13.41″W / 43.6425611°N 79.3870583°W / 43.6425611; -79.3870583 (CN Tower)Remains the tallest in the Western Hemisphere
2007presentBurj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates2004–2009829.82,72225°11′50.0″N 55°16′26.6″E / 25.197222°N 55.274056°E / 25.197222; 55.274056 (Burj Dubai)Holder of world's tallest freestanding structure. Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in 2009.
Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884.

Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BC and estimated between 115–135 m (383–440 ft). It was the world's tallest non-pyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramaya stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the world's tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years.

The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m (335 ft) tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m (318 ft) tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.

World's highest observation deck[edit]

Timeline of development of world's highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower.

Held recordName and LocationConstructedHeight above groundNotes
FromTomft
18891931Eiffel Tower, Paris1889275902Two lower observation decks at 57 m (187 ft) and 115 m (377 ft).
19311973Empire State Building, New York City1931369[30]1,250On the 102nd floor - a second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 m (1,050 ft).
19731974World Trade Center, New York City1973399.41,310Indoor observatory on the 107th floor of South Tower opened on April 4, 1973. Destroyed on September 11, 2001
19741975Willis Tower, Chicago1974412.41,353103rd floor Skydeck opened on June 22, 1974
19751976World Trade Center, New York City1973419.71,377Outdoor observatory on the South Tower rooftop opened on December 15, 1975. Destroyed on September 11, 2001
19762008CN Tower, Toronto1976446.51,464.9Two further observation decks at 342 m (1,122 ft) and 346 m (1,135 ft).
20082011Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai20084741,555Two further observation decks at 423 m (1,388 ft) and 439 m (1,440 ft).
2011presentCanton Tower, Guangzhou20114881,601The rooftop outdoor observation deck opened in December 2011. There are also several other indoor observation decks in the tower, the highest at 433.2 m (1,421 ft).

Higher observation decks have existed on mountain tops or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. For example, the Royal Gorge Bridge in Cañon City, Colorado, USA, was constructed in 1929 spanning the Royal Gorge at a height of 321 m (1,053 ft) above the Arkansas River. The Grand Canyon Skywalk, constructed in 2007, protrudes 21 m (70 ft) over the west rim of the Grand Canyon and is approximately 1,100 m (3,600 ft) above the Colorado River, making it the highest of these types of structures.[citation needed]

Timeline of guyed structures on land[edit]

As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts, here is a timeline of world's tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.

As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II.

Held recordName and LocationConstructedHeight (m)Height (ft)CoordinatesNotes
FromTo
 1913 1920Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany 191325082052°31′40″N 9°24′24″E / 52.52778°N 9.40667°E / 52.52778; 9.40667 (Eilvese transmitter ( demolished))Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931
 1920 1923Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Station, Nauen, Germany 192026085352°38′56″N 12°54′30″E / 52.64889°N 12.90833°E / 52.64889; 12.90833 (Nauen transmitter)2 masts, demolished in 1946
 1923 1933Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium 192328794251°4′44″N 3°20′6.9″E / 51.07889°N 3.335250°E / 51.07889; 3.335250 (Zendmast Ruiselede (destroyed) ( location unclear))?8 masts, destroyed in 1940
 1933 1939Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 19333141,03147°22′23.45″N 19°0′17.21″E / 47.3731806°N 19.0047806°E / 47.3731806; 19.0047806 (Lakihegy Radio Tower)Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt
 1939 1946Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, Herzberg (Elster), Germany 19393351,09951°42′59.76″N 13°15′51.5″E / 51.7166000°N 13.264306°E / 51.7166000; 13.264306 (Deutschlandsender III ( dismantled))Insulated against ground, dismantled 1946/1947
 1946 1948Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 19463141,03147°22′23.45″N 19°0′17.21″E / 47.3731806°N 19.0047806°E / 47.3731806; 19.0047806 (Lakihegy Radio Tower)Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945
 1948 1949WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA 1948321.91,05642°39′33.19″N 78°37′33.91″W / 42.6592194°N 78.6260861°W / 42.6592194; -78.6260861 (WIVB-TV Tower)
 1949 1950Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland 19493351,09952°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast)Insulated against ground
 1950 1954Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA 1950371.251,21843°26′41.9″N 75°5′9.55″W / 43.444972°N 75.0859861°W / 43.444972; -75.0859861 (Forestport Tower ( demolished))Insulated against ground, demolished
 1954 1956Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA 1954480.51,57635°32′58.59″N 97°29′50.27″W / 35.5496083°N 97.4972972°W / 35.5496083; -97.4972972 (Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma) 
 1956 1959KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA 1956490.71,61033°22′31.31″N 103°46′14.3″W / 33.3753639°N 103.770639°W / 33.3753639; -103.770639 (KOBR-TV Tower)Collapsed in 1960, afterwards rebuilt
 1959 1960WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA 19594951,62443°55′28.43″N 70°29′26.72″W / 43.9245639°N 70.4907556°W / 43.9245639; -70.4907556 (WGME TV Tower)
 1960 1962KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA 1960511.11,67737°25′44.5″N 89°30′13.84″W / 37.429028°N 89.5038444°W / 37.429028; -89.5038444 (KFVS TV Mast)
 1962 1963WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Cusseta, Georgia, USA 19625331,74932°19′25.09″N 84°46′45.07″W / 32.3236361°N 84.7791861°W / 32.3236361; -84.7791861 (WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower)
 1963 1963WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA 1963534.011,75236°08′05.49″N 83°43′28.01″W / 36.1348583°N 83.7244472°W / 36.1348583; -83.7244472 (WIMZ-FM-Tower)
 1963 1974KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963628.82,06347°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)
 1974 1991Warsaw Radio Mast, Gąbin, Poland 1974646.42,12152°22′3.74″N 19°48′8.73″E / 52.3677056°N 19.8024250°E / 52.3677056; 19.8024250 (Konstantynow Radio Mast (destroyed))Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991
 1991 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963628.82,06347°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)

Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings[edit]

Burj Khalifa and other tallest structures.

The list categories are:

Notes:

RankName and locationYear
completed
Architectural top[31]
(metres)
Architectural top
(feet)
Floors
Structures (supported)
1KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States19636292,064
2KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States19986282,060
3KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States20006252,051
Structures (media supported)
1Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico20006102,000
2Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico19985801,900
3Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico19895291,736
Freestanding structures
1Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates2010829.82,722163
2Tokyo Sky Tree, Tokyo, Japan20116342,080
3Abraj Al Bait, Mecca, Saudi Arabia20116011,972120
4Canton Tower, Guangzhou, China20106001,969
5CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada19765531,814
6One World Trade Center, New York City, USA2013546.21,792104
7Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia19675401,770
8Willis Tower, Chicago, United States19745271,729108
9Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan20045091,670101
10Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China20084921,614101
11International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong20104841,588118
12Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai, China19944681,535
13John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States19694571,499100
14Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia19984521,48388
Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia19984521,48388
15Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, China20094501,48089
16Empire State Building, New York City, United States19314431,453102
17Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran20074351,427
18Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia19954211,381
19Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China19984211,38188
20Chimney of GRES-2 Power Station, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan19874201,380
21Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong20034151,36288
22Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin, China19914151,362
23Central TV Tower, Beijing, China19924051,329
Buildings
1Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates20108282,717163
2Abraj Al Bait, Mecca, Saudi Arabia20116011,972120
3One World Trade Center, New York City, USA2013541.31,776104
4Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan20045091,670101
5Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China20084921,614101
6International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong20104841,588118
7Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia19984521,48388
8Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, China20094501,48089
9Willis Tower, Chicago, United States19744421,450108
10Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China19984211,38188
11Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong20034151,36288
12CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, China19973911,28380
13Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, China19963841,26069
14Empire State Building, New York City, United States19313811,250102
15Central Plaza, Hong Kong19923741,22778
16Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong19903671,20470
17Bank of America Tower, New York City, United States20083661,20154
18Almas Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates20083601,18074
19Emirates Office Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates20003551,16554
20Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan19973481,14285
21Aon Center, Chicago, United States19733461,13583
22The Center, Hong Kong19983461,13573
23John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States19693441,129100
24Rose Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates20073331,09372
Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, China20063331,09360
25Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, China20073311,08668
25Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea (topped out)19923301,080105
China World Trade Center Tower 3, Beijing, China20083301,08074
27Q1, Gold Coast, Australia20053231,06078
28Burj Al Arab, Dubai, United Arab Emirates19993211,05360
29Chrysler Building, New York City, United States19303191,04777
Nina Tower I, Hong Kong20073191,04780
New York Times Building, New York City, United States20073191,04752
32Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, United States19923121,02455
33U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles, United States19893101,02073
34Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia20013101,02055
35Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates20003091,01456
36One Island East, Hong Kong20083081,01070
37AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago, United States19893071,00760
38The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates20083061,00463
39JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, United States19823051,00175

Source: Emporis

Under construction and on-hold[edit]

Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of the following are under construction and, depending on the order of completion, could become the world's tallest building or structure in at least one category:

Proposed[edit]

Many proposed structures have not yet been built, and many probably never will be built. See proposed tall buildings and structures for structures that have been or are being proposed.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Burj Dubai all set for 09/09/09 soft opening". Emirates Business24/7. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  3. ^ "Burj Dubai surpasses KVLY-TV mast to become the world’s tallest man-made structure" (Press release). Emaar. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  4. ^ "CN Tower dethroned by Dubai building". Canada: CBC News. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  5. ^ "Burj Dubai scales 150 storeys and is the world’s tallest free-standing structure" (Press release). Emaar Properties PJSC. 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  6. ^ "Dubai building surpasses CN Tower in height". CTV.ca (CTVglobemedia). 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  7. ^ "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)" (chart). 1998 ICOLD World Register of Dams. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  8. ^ Guinness World Records – Science & Technology – Structures – World's Highest Concrete Dam [1]. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
  9. ^ "Nowy Tomyśl: powstały najwyższe wiatraki na świecie!" (in Polish). Epoznan. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  10. ^ "Comansa Jie builds the world’s highest cooling towers". Construcciones Metálicas COMANSA S.A. August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "Dushanbe's flagpole enters Guinness Book of Records". September 1, 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  12. ^ Jeddah Port Control Tower on Emporis.com
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ McCord, Keith (May 23, 2012). video "Tallest structure in West demolished". KSL-TV. Salt Lake City, UT. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  15. ^ Schwanke D. et al. (2003). Mixed-use Development Handbook, 2nd edition. Washington: Urban Land Institute ISBN 978-0-87420-888-7
  16. ^ a b http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=5/
  17. ^ a b c d http://ctbuh.org/AboutCTBUH/History/MeasuringTall/tabid/1320/language/en-US/Default.aspx
  18. ^ Binders, George (August 2006). 101 of the World's Tallest Buildings. p. 102.
  19. ^ – CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings
  20. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. November 17, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b http://www.ctbuh.org/NewsMedia/PR_091117_ChangeHeightCriteria/tabid/1273/language/en-US/Default.aspx
  22. ^ http://www.ctbuh.org/HighRiseInfo/TallestDatabase/Criteria/tabid/446/Default.aspx.
  23. ^ Haughton, Brian(2007),Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries,p.167
  24. ^ Michael Woods, Mary B. Woods(2009), Seven Wonders of the Ancient World,p.41
  25. ^ Skyscraper News
  26. ^ Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince(2010), Frommer's England 2010,p.588
  27. ^ Mary Jane Taber(1905), The cathedrals of England: an account of some of their distinguishing characteristics,p.100
  28. ^ A Brief History of the World's Tallest Buildings Time magazine
  29. ^ Kendrick, A. F. (1902). "2: The Central Tower". The Cathedral Church of Lincoln: A History and Description of its Fabric and a List of the Bishops. London: George Bell & Sons. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-178-03666-4. "The tall spire of timber, covered with lead, which originally crowned this tower reached an altitude, it is said, of 525 feet; but this is doubtful. This spire was blown down during a tempest in January 1547-8." 
  30. ^ "The Empire State Building". Wired New York. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  31. ^ height for inhabited buildings with floors; does not include TV towers and antennas
  32. ^ "Economic downturn barely dents appetite for super-tall". The National. 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  33. ^ "India Tower: CTBUH Tall Buildings Database". CTBUH. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  34. ^ http://www.pozzocrete.co.in/index.php?id=69&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=148&tx_ttnews[backPid]=4&cHash=95ebc8b5da

External links[edit]