There is considerable controversy over these team names and mascots because various groups, including some representing
indigenous peoples, view them as disrespectful and offensive. The National Congress of American Indians, the largest organization representing enrolled tribal citizens in the United States, issued a resolution opposing continued usage of Native American team names, mascots, and logos by non-Native teams. Numerous educational, academic, civil rights, athletic, and religious organizations have done the same.
Some teams that are themselves Native American continue to use the names Indians, Braves, and Redskins; while certain tribes have granted permission to use their specific names, as in the case of the
Saginaw Chippewa Tribal Nation and the [1 ] Seminole Tribe of Florida for [2 ] Central Michigan University and Florida State University, respectively.
Many teams and fans support the continued use of these names as a long-standing tradition, and citing public opinion polls indicating the names are not offensive to a majority, including a majority of Native Americans; instead, many claim to be honoring Native Americans.
Professional teams [edit ] [edit ] [edit ]
Guarani Esporte Clube (CE), Juazeiro do Norte Guarani Esporte Clube (MG), Divinópolis Guarani Futebol Clube, Campinas Guarany Futebol Clube, Bagé Guarany Futebol Clube (Camaquã) Guarany Sporting Club, Sobral Associação Atlética Guarany, Porto da Folha Esporte Clube Guarani, Venâncio Aires Sociedade Esportiva, Recreativa e Cultural Guarani, Palhoça Sport Club Guarany, Cruz Alta
Baseball [edit ] Basketball [edit ] [edit ] Ice hockey [edit ] Lacrosse [edit ] Rugby [edit ] Speedway [edit ] Amateur and school teams [edit ] Colleges and universities [edit ] Current Usage Alcorn State University - Lorman, Mississippi ( Braves) Logo is a large A, no indication of Native American imagery being used. Bacone College - Muskogee, Oklahoma (Warriors) was founded as a Cherokee Baptist Mission school and retains a connection to several tribes. [4 ] Bradley University - Peoria, Illinois (Braves) Central Michigan University - Mount Pleasant, Michigan (Chippewas) Chowan University - Murfreesboro, North Carolina (Braves) Florida State University - Tallahassee, Florida ( Seminoles) - Use of the Seminole name and imagery is supported by representatives of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and some members of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, two of three federally recognized Seminole tribes. [5 ] University of Hawaii at Manoa - ( Hawai) and ( ʻi Rainbow Warriors Rainbow Wahine) Since 2000, each team has been allowed to select its own mascot name; most notably, the football team has been simply known as "The Warriors". Mississippi College - Clinton, Mississippi (Choctaws) Ottawa University - Ottawa, Kansas (Braves) San Diego State University - San Diego, California ( Aztecs) University of North Carolina at Pembroke (Braves) – representing a college originally created to educate American Indians University of Utah - Salt Lake City, Utah (Utes) Prior Usage University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - have removed all official university sanction of Native American imagery, but unofficially, still widely used by students and fans - there is considerable controversy over whether the term "Illini" as originally used at the university was directly related to Native American culture at all, or whether the imagery was added after the fact; documentation tends to indicate that "Illini" refers to the state of Illinois itself and not its indigenous peoples. [6 ] Texas Tech Red Raiders does not use Native American imagery. University of North Dakota dropped its Fighting Sioux nickname in 2012. William & Mary Tribe – no longer uses any imagery related to indigenous peoples High schools [edit ]
The following high schools are listed in alphabetical order by team name:
Arrows [edit ] Tecumseh High School (New Carlisle, Ohio) - logo features arrow and feathers Apaches [edit ] Arcadia High School, Arcadia, California [7 ] [8 ] Centennial High School, Compton, California [8 ] Gonzales High School, Gonzales, Texas  Pottsville High School, Pottsville, Arkansas Sanger High School, Sanger, California [8 ] Vallejo High School, Vallejo, California (to be retired at graduation in June 2014) [8 ] [9 ] Aztecs [edit ] Blackhawks [edit ] Braves [edit ] Alta Loma High School, Rancho Cucamonga, California Annawan High School, Annawan, Illinois Avon High School, Avon, New York Badger High School, Kinsman, Ohio Baker High School, Baker, California Baldwin High School (Milledgeville, Georgia) Baldwin Park High School, Baldwin Park, California Banks High School, Banks, Oregon Bartram High School, Philadelphia Battle Creek Jr/Sr High School, Battle Creek, Nebraska Bellmont High School, Decatur, Indiana Benson High School (Minnesota) Bethel High School (Spanaway, Washington) Boise High School, Boise, Idaho Bonner Springs High School, Bonner Springs, Kansas Borden Jr/Sr High School, Sellersburg, Indiana Bottineau High School, Bottineau, North Dakota Brebeuf Jesuit Preparatory School, Indianapolis, Indiana Bountiful High School, Bountiful, Utah Bremen High School (Midlothian, Illinois) Brownstown Central High School, Brownstown, Indiana Berea High School, Berea, Ohio Blackhawk Christian School, Fort Wayne, Indiana Canandaigua Academy, Canandaigua, New_York Central High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma) Cheyenne-Eagle Butte School, North Eagle Butte, South Dakota Chopticon High School, Morganza, Maryland Community High School (Nevada, Texas) Council Grove High School, Council Grove, Kansas El Cajon Valley High School, El Cajon, California Flathead High School, Kalispell, Montana Fonda-Fultonville High School, Fonda, NY Gladstone Area High School, Gladstone, Michigan Grant County High School, Dry Ridge, Kentucky Hamilton Union High School, Hamilton City, California Indian Creek High School, Trafalgar, Indiana Indian Hill High School, Cincinnati, Ohio Indian Valley High School, Gnadenhutten, Ohio Lake Gibson High School, Lakeland, Florida Lompoc High School, Lompoc, California Maconaquah High School, Bunker Hill, Indiana Mandan High School, Mandan, North Dakota Mount Zion High School, Mt. Zion, Illinois Mt. Edgecumbe High School, Sitka, Alaska Norte Vista High School, Riverside, California Octorara Area High School, Atglen, Pennsylvania Olentangy High School, Lewis Center, Ohio Parshall High School, Parshall, North Dakota Pequea Valley High School, Kinzers, Pennsylvania Reedsport Community Charter School, Reedsport, Oregon St. John Bosco High School, Bellflower, California Scott Central High School, Sikeston, Missouri Sherman Indian High School, Riverside, California - A residential school for Native Americans Shawnee High School (Springfield, Ohio) Shikellamy High School, Sunbury, Pennsylvania Smithville High School, Smithville, Oklahoma Socastee High School, Socastee, South Carolina South Jones High School, Ellisville, Mississippi South Vigo Senior High, Terre Haute, Indiana Star Valley High School, Afton, Wyoming Talawanda High School, Oxford, Ohio Tishomingo County High School, Iuka, Mississippi Tomales High School, Tomales, California Tawas Area High School, Tawas City, Michigan Turtle Mountain Community Schools, Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Belcourt, North Dakota - Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians Union County High School, Morganfield, Kentucky Walton High School, Defuniak Springs, Florida Washington High School, Cherokee, Iowa Williamstown High School, Williamstown, New Jersey Brownies [edit ] Cherokees [edit ]
South Doyle High School, Knoxville, Tennessee
Chickasaws [edit ] Chiefs [edit ] Cherokee High School, Burlington County, New Jersey Deer Creek Mackinaw High School, Mackinaw, Illinois Iroquois Central School District, Buffalo, New York Lakeland School District, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania Massapequa High School, Massapequa, New York McIntosh High School, Peachtree City, Georgia Monacan High School, Chesterfield County, Virginia Moses Lake Senior High School, Moses Lake, Washington North Myrtle Beach High School, Little River, South Carolina Northview High School (Century, Florida) Sequoyah High School, Hickory Flat, Georgia Saranac Central High School, Dannemora, New York Big Foot High School, Walworth, Wisconsin Canton High School, Plymouth, Michigan Chieftans [edit ] Bellevue East High School, Bellevue, Nebraska Dowagiac High School, Dowagiac, Michigan Logan High School, Logan, Ohio Comstock High School, Comstock, Michigan Plainwell Community High School, Plainwell, Michigan Palma High School, Salinas, California Sapulpa High School, Sapulpa, Oklahoma South Barber High School, Kiowa, Kansas Chickasaw High School, Chickasaw, Alabama Potosi High School, Potosi, Wisconsin Choctaws [edit ] Comanches [edit ] Eskimos or Eskymos [edit ] Indian/Indians [edit ] Adair County High School (Columbia, Kentucky) [13 ] Albany High School (Albany, Georgia) Altamont High School, Altamont, Illinois Alvarado High School, Alvarado, Texas Amesbury High School, Amesbury, Massachusetts Anacoco High School, Anacoco, Louisiana Anacostia High School, Washington, D.C. Andale High School, Andale, Kansas Anderson High School, Anderson, Indiana Arapaho High School, Arapaho, Oklahoma Arickaree High School, Anton, Colorado Armijo High School, Fairfield, California Armuchee High School, Rome, Georgia Asher High School, Asher, Oklahoma Athens High School, Athens, Michigan Avinger High School, Avinger, Texas Baldwin Middle-Senior High School, Baldwin, Florida Bartlett Junior Senior High School, Webster, Massachusetts Berkeley Springs High School, Berkeley Springs WV Berlin High School, Berlin WI Billerica Memorial High School, Billerica MA Biloxi High School, Biloxi MS Bismarck High School, Bismarck MO Brentwood High School, Brentwood NY Bridgeport High School, Bridgeport WV Brimfield High School, Brimfield IL Broken Bow High School, Broken Bow NE Browning High School, Browning MT Browning Indians, Blackfeet Reservation Buhl High School, Buhl ID Burroughs High School, Burbank CA Byhalia High School, Byhalia MS Caddo Hills High School, Norman AR Calumet High School, Chicago IL Camanche High School, Camanche IA Cambridge High School, Cambridge NY Campbell High School, Campbell TX Canal Winchester High School, Canal Winchester OH Canaseraga High School, Canaseraga NY Candor High School, Candor NY Carlisle High School, Price TX Carlisle High School (Carlisle, Ohio) Carlyle High School, Carlyle IL Carrollton High School, Carrollton AL Catoosa High School, Catoosa OK Cedarville High School, Cedarville OH Central High School, Cheyenne WY Central High School, St. Joseph MO Charlton County High School, Folkston GA Chattooga High School, Summerville GA Cherokee High School (Alabama), Cherokee AL Cherokee High School, (Tennessee) Cherokee TX Chesaning High School, Chesaning MI Cheyenne Mountain High School, Colorado Springs CO Chiefland High School, Chiefland FL Chilhowee High School, Chilhowee MO Choctawhatchee High School, Fort Walton Beach FL Cincinnati Country Day High School, Cincinnati OH Clark County High School, Kahoka MO Clarke High School, Osceola IA Clarksville High School, Clarksville IA Clearwater High School, Clearwater KS Cleveland High School, Cleveland TX Clifton-Fine High School, Star Lake NY Cobre High School, Bayard NM Colbert County High School, Leighton AL Colville High School, Colville WA Comanche High School, Comanche TX Comanche High School, Comanche OK Conemaugh Township High School, Davidsville PA Conneaut Lake High School, Conneaut Lake PA Conneaut Valley High School, Conneautville PA Copley High School, Copley OH Cord-Charlotte High School, Charlotte AR Couch Myrtle High School, MO Council Rock North High School, Newtown PA County Line High School, Branch AR Cowanesque Valley High School, Westfield PA Coxsackie-Athens High School, Coxsackie NY Cross Keys High School, Atlanta GA Dakota High School, Dakota IL Danville High School, Danville VT Dartmouth High School, South Dartmouth MA Delaplaine High School, Delaplaine AR Dobyns-Bennett High School, Kingsport TN Dodge County High School, Eastman GA Donegal High School, Mt. Joy PA Douglass High School, Douglass TX DuQuoin High School, DuQuoin IL East Bay High School, Gibsonton FL East Coweta High School, Sharpsburg GA East Limestone High School, Athens AL East Robertson High School, Cross Plains TN El Reno High School, El Reno OK Elko High School, Elko NV Elsberry High School, Elsberry MO Elton High School, Elton LA Fair Park High School, Shreveport LA Fairfield High School, Fairfield OH Fairfield High School, Cincinnati OH Farmington High School, Farmington CT Flandreau Indian High School, Flandreau SD Forest City High School, Forest City IA Fort Davis High School, Fort Davis TX Fort Defiance High School VA [14 ] Fort Osage High School, Independence MO Fort Recovery High School, Fort Recovery OH Fort White High School, Fort White FL Four Winds High School (Spirit Lake Reservation), Fort Totten ND Fourche Valley High School, Briggsville AR Franklin High School (Reisterstown, Maryland) Frankston High School, Frankston TX Fullerton Union High School, Fullerton CA Gaffney High School, Gaffney SC Ganado High School, Ganado TX Gar-Field Senior High School, Woodbridge VA Giddings State High School, Giddings TX Gilbert High School, Gilbert SC Girard High School, Girard OH Glens Falls High School, Glens Falls NY Grafton Memorial High School, Grafton MA Grand Ridge High School, Grand Ridge FL Grand Saline High School, Grand Saline TX Greenville High School, Greenville CA Greenwood High School, Greenwood WI Groton High School, Groton NY Groveton High School, Groveton TX Guilford High School, Guilford CT H.C. Wilcox Technical High School, Meriden CT Hallsville High School, Hallsville MO Hancock County High School, Sneedville TN Hanover High School, Hanover MA Happy Camp High School, Happy Camp CA Harlandale High School, San Antonio TX Harpeth High School, Kingston Springs TN Hart High School, Newhall CA Hartford High School, Hartford MI Haskell High School, Haskell TX Hays High School, Hays KS Hayti High School, Hayti MO Hazlehurst High School, Hazlehurst MS Hillsboro High School, Hillsboro OH Holt High School, Wentzville MO Holy Cross High School, Covington KY Hononegah High School, Rockton IL Hoosic Valley High School, Schaghticoke NY Hoxie High School, Hoxie KS Huckabay High School, Stephenville TX Immokalee High School, Immokalee FL Indian Lake Central High School, Indian Lake NY Indian River High School, Dagsboro DE Indiana High School, Indiana PA Indianola High School, Indianola IA Irwin County High School, Ocilla GA Istrouma High School, Baton Rouge LA Itawamba Agricultural High School, Fulton MS Jackson High School, Jackson MO Jackson North Side High School, Jackson TN Jacksonville High School, Jacksonville TX Jefferson High School, Daly City CA Jim Ned High School, Tuscola TX John Jay High School, Cross River NY Johnston City High School, Johnston City IL Jourdanton High School, Jourdanton TX Juniata High School, Mifflintown PA Karnack High School, Karnack TX Keller High School, Keller TX Kelly High School, Wise VA Kennett High School, Kennett MO Keshequa High School, Nunda NY Ketcham High School, Wappingers Falls NY Kewaskum High School, Kewaskum WI Keya Paha County High School, Springview NE Keystone Heights High School, Keystone Heights FL Kiowa High School, Kiowa CO Lake Central High School, St. John IN Lane Technical College Prep High School, Chicago IL Larned High School, Larned KS Lawrenceville High School, Lawrenceville IL Lehighton Area High School, Lehighton, PA Lemont High School, Lemont IL Lenape High School, Medford NJ Letchworth High School, Gainesville NY Lewistown High School, Lewistown IL Liberty High School, Liberty NY Lipan High School, Lipan TX Little Axe High School, Norman OK Loachapoka High School, Loachapoka AL Lodge Grass High School, Lodge Grass MT Loveland High School, Loveland CO Lumpkin County High School, Dahlonega GA Lutie High School, Theodosia MO Lyme Central High School, Chaumont NY Madison Central High School, Richmond KY Mahnomen High School, Mahnomen MN Mahnomen/Waubun High School, Mahnomen MN Mahopac High School, Mahopac NY Manchester High School, Manchester CT Manhasset High School, Manhasset NY Manhattan High School, Manhattan KS Marengo High School, Marengo IL Maricopa High School, Maricopa CA Marietta High School, Marietta OK Marion High School, Marion IA Marked Tree High School, Marked Tree AR Marysville High School, Marysville CA Mascoutah High School, Mascoutah IL McEachern High School, Powder Springs GA Mechanicsburg High School, Mechanicsburg OH Medicine Lodge High School, Medicine Lodge KS Menomonee Falls High School, Menomonee Falls WI Meredosia-Chambersburg High School, Meredosia IL Milan High School, Milan IN Milford High School, Milford CT Millersburg High School, Millersburg PA Minatare High School, Minatare NE Minooka High School, Minooka IL Mishicot High School, Mishicot WI Mississinewa High School, Gas City IN Mohawk High School, Marcola OR Molalla High School, Molalla OR Montgomery Central High School, Cunningham TN Montgomery County High School, Mt. Sterling KY Montrose High School, Montrose CO Montville High School, Oakdale CT Morton High School, Morton TX Mosinee High School, Mosinee WI Mountain Valley High School, Saguache CO Mountain Valley/Moffat High School, Saguache CO Mt. Gilead High School, Mt. Gilead OH Mukwonago High School, Mukwonago WI Muncy High School, Muncy PA Murray County High School, Chatsworth GA Napa High School, Napa CA Navajo High School, Altus OK Negreet High School, Negreet LA Neoga High School, Neoga IL New Hope High School, New Hope AL Newberry High School, Newberry MI Newington High School, Newington CT Newington/Berlin High School, Newington CT Newton Local High School, Pleasant Hill OH Nezperce High School, Nezperce ID Nocona High School, Nocona TX North Shawnee High School, Mission KS North Brookfield High School, North Brookfield MA North Central High School, Spokane WA North East High School, North East MD North Haven High School, North Haven CT North Haven/Amity/Cheshire High School, North Haven CT North Hills High School, Pittsburgh PA Northside Vernon TX Northumberland High School, Heathsville VA Northwest High School, Canal Fulton OH Northwest Catholic High School, West Hartford CT Norwood High School, Norwood OH Nyack High School, Upper Nyack NY Nyack/Tappan Zee High School, Upper Nyack NY Odessa-Montour High School, Odessa NY Ogallala High School, Ogallala NE Ohatchee High School, Ohatchee AL Oklahoma School for the Deaf, Sulphur OK Oneida High School, Oneida TN Oneida High School, Oneida NY Onteora High School, Boiceville NY Orangeburg Prep High School, Orangeburg SC Osage High School, Kaiser MO Osage City High School, Osage City KS Osceola High School, Osceola MO Oshkosh West High School, Oshkosh WI Oskaloosa High School, Oskaloosa IA Oswego High School, Oswego KS Owego Free Academy High School, Owego NY Pacific High School, Pacific MO Paint Rock High School, Paint Rock TX Palm Springs High School, Palm Springs CA Pascack Valley High School, Hillsdale NJ Passaic High School, Passaic NJ Pawnee High School, Pawnee IL Pawnee City High School, Pawnee City NE Pawnee/Divernon High School, Pawnee IL Pecatonica High School, Pecatonica IL Peebles High School, Peebles OH Penn Hills High School, Pittsburgh PA Pennsauken High School, Pennsauken NJ Peru High School, Peru NY Peters Township High School, McMurray PA Pinson Valley High School, Pinson AL Piqua High School, Piqua OH Plainview High School, Ardmore OK Pocahontas High School, Pocahontas VA Pocahontas High School, Pocahontas IA Pocahontas/Pomeroy-Palmer High School, Pomeroy IA Pocatello High School, Pocatello ID Pocola High School, Pocola OK Ponca High School, Ponca NE Pontiac High School, Pontiac IL Poplar High School, Poplar MT Port Neches-Groves High School, Port Neches TX Portage High School, Portage IN Powell Valley High School, Speedwell TN Powhatan High School, Powhatan VA Poyen High School, Poyen AR Prairie Lea High School, Prairie Lea TX Preston High School, Preston ID Puxico High School, Puxico MO Quanah High School, Quanah TX Rahway High School, Rahway NJ Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk High School, Ravena NY Reardan High School, Reardan WA Red Jacket High School, Shortsville NY Renton High School, Renton WA Richfield Springs Central High School, Richfield Springs NY Riesel High School, Riesel TX Ripon High School, Ripon CA Rittman High School, Rittman OH Roosevelt High School, Yonkers NY Roseburg High School, Roseburg OR Roxborough High School, Philadelphia PA Rural Retreat High School, Rural Retreat VA Russellville High School, Russellville MO Sac City High School, Sac City IA Sacred Heart Catholic School, Hallettsville TX Sanborn Regional High School, Kingston NH Sandwich Community High School, Sandwich IL Sanford High School, Sanford CO Sanger High School, Sanger TX Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe TX Satanta High School, Satanta KS Saugatuck High School, Saugatuck MI [15 ] Sauquoit Valley High School, Sauquoit NY Scappoose High School, Scappoose OR Schoharie High School, Schoharie NY Seminole High School, Seminole TX Seminole County High School, Donalsonville GA Seneca High School, Seneca WI Seneca High School, Seneca MO Sequatchie County High School, Dunlap TN Sequoyah High School, Tahlequah OK Sewanhaka High School, Floral Park NY Seymour High School, Payson IL Shady Side Academy, Pittsburgh PA Shamokin Area High School, Coal Township PA Shattuck High School, Shattuck OK Shawnee High School, Lima OH Shelter Island High School, Shelter Island NY Shelter Island/Ross High School, Shelter Island NY Shoshone High School, Shoshone ID Sissonville High School, Charleston WV Skowhegan Area High School, Skowhegan ME Sleepy Eye High School, Sleepy Eye MN Souderton High School, Souderton PA South Bend High School, South Bend WA Southampton High School, Courtland VA Southern High School, Salineville OH Southern Choctaw High School, Gilbertown AL Southern Fulton High School, Warfordsburg PA Spirit Lake High School, Spirit Lake IA St. Francis High School, St. Francis KS St. Joseph High School, South Bend IN St. Paul High School, St. Paul KS St. Stephens High School, Hickory NC St. Vincent High School, Perryville MO Stafford High School, Falmouth VA Stamford Central High School, Stamford NY Stebbins High School, Riverside OH Stephens County High School, Toccoa GA Stilwell High School, Stilwell OK Stockbridge Valley High School, Munnsville NY Strafford High School, Strafford MO Strasburg High School, Strasburg CO Susquehanna Township High School, Harrisburg PA Swett High School, Crockett CA Tallulah Falls High School, Tallulah Falls GA Tarkio High School, Tarkio MO Tecumseh High School (Michigan), Tecumseh MI Tekonsha High School, Tekonsha MI The Dalles-Wahtonka High School, The Dalles OR (Indian Eagles, after early 2000's merger of two schools: TDHS Indians and Wahtonka Eagles) Tioga High School, Tioga LA Tishomingo High School, Tishomingo OK Toledo High School, Toledo WA Toms River South High School, Toms River NJ Touchet High School, Touchet WA Towns County High School, Hiawassee GA Turners Falls High School, Montague MA Twin Lakes High School, Monticello IN Union City High School, Union City IN Unionville High School, Kennett Square PA Upper Perkiomen High School, Pennsburg PA Valley High School, Lucasville OH Van-Far High School, Vandalia MO Venice High School, Venice FL Vero Beach High School, Vero Beach FL Vici High School, Vici OK Vidalia High School, Vidalia GA Waite High School, Toledo OH Wapanucka High School, Wapanucka OK Wapello High School, Wapello IA Ware High School, Ware MA Washington-Marion High School, Lake Charles LA Waterloo High School, Waterloo NY Watertown High School, Watertown CT Watertown/Pomperaug High School, Watertown CT Waterville High School, Waterville NY Waterville/Madison Central High School, Waterville NY Waukon High School, Waukon IA Wauseon High School, Wauseon OH Waxahachie High School, Waxahachie TX Wayne City High School, Wayne City IL Wayne Valley High School, Wayne NJ Waynesboro High School, Waynesboro PA Weehawken High School, Weehawken NJ Weeping Water High School, Weeping Water NE Weequahic High School, Newark NJ Wells High School, Wells NY West Allegheny High School, Imperial PA West Canada Valley High School, Newport NY West Forest High School, Tionesta PA West Seneca High School, West Seneca NY Western High School, Latham, OH Western Local Schools Westminster Catawba Christian High School, Rock Hill, SC [16 ] Wetumpka High School, Wetumpka AL [17 ] Weyauwega-Fremont High School, Weyauwega WI [18 ] White Cloud High School, White Cloud MI [19 ] Wichita County High School, Leoti, KS [20 ] Wicomico High School, Salisbury, MD [21 ] Wilcox RVT, Meriden CT Williford High School, Williford AR [22 ] Winnebago High School, Winnebago, IL [23 ] Winnebago High School, Winnebago NE [24 ] Yazoo City High School, Yazoo City MS [25 ] Ysleta High School, El Paso TX [26 ] Yuma High School, Yuma CO [27 ] Mohawks [edit ] Mohicans [edit ] Mohigans [edit ] Red Raiders [edit ] Decatur High School Red Raiders (Decatur, AL) Massena Central High School (NY) Port Richmond Red Raiders Uniontown (PA) Red Raiders Wagner (SD) Red Raiders Wauwatosa (WI) East Red Raiders Kahuku High & Intermediate School Red Raiders (Laie, HI) Iolani High School Red Raiders (Kaimuki, HI) Cameron County High School (Emporium, PA) Redmen [edit ] Bedford Road Collegiate Redmen (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) Bellevue High School, Bellevue, Ohio Bucyrus High School, Bucyrus, Ohio Cedar High School Redmen (Cedar City, Utah) Denis Morris Catholic High School Redmen (St. Catharines, Ontario) Killingly High School Redmen (Killingly, CT) Parma Senior High School Redmen (Parma, Ohio) Rock Hill High School (Ironton, Ohio) Smith Center High School Redmen, (Smith Center, Kansas) Tewksbury Memorial High School Redmen (Tewksbury, Massachusetts) Woonsocket High School Redmen (Woonsocket, South Dakota) Marquette Senior High School Redmen (Marquette, Michigan) Reds [edit ] Eaton Reds, Eaton, Colorado Redskins [edit ] Anderson High School (Cincinnati, Ohio) In a local controversy twist: Native American student wanted to be mascot. [28 ] [29 ] Arcadia High School (Arcadia, Ohio) Belding High School, Belding MI [30 ] Bryan County High School, Pembroke GA [31 ] Caldwell High School (Caldwell, Ohio) Calaveras High School, San Andreas CA Controversy: [32 ] [33 ] Camden-Frontier High School, Camden MI [34 ] Canister-Greenwood High School, Canisteo NY [35 ] [36 ] Capitol Hill (Oklahoma City) Chowchilla High School, Chowchilla CA [37 ] Clinton High School, Clinton MI [38 ] [39 ] Conrad Schools of Science, Wilmington DE [40 ] Coshocton High School, Coshocton OH [41 ] Cuyahoga Heights High School Donna High School, Donna TX Dustin High School, Dustin OK [42 ] Emmerich Manual High School, Indianapolis IN [43 ] Fort Loramie High School, Fort Loramie OH Goshen High School, Goshen IN [44 ] Gustine High School, Gustine CA [45 ] Hurricane High School (West Virginia) Indian Creek High School (Wintersville, Ohio) [46 ] Kingston High School, Kingston OK The town population is about 15% Native American [47 ] Knox Community High School, Knox IN [48 ] La Veta High School, La Veta CO [49 ] Lamar High School (Houston, Texas) [50 ] Lancaster High School (Lancaster, New York) [51 ] Ledgemont High School, Thompson OH Liberal High School (Kansas) Little River High School, Little River KS [52 ] Loudon High School, Loudon TN [53 ] Local response to national controversy: [54 ] [55 ] Manteo High School, Manteo NC McLoud High School, McLoud OK [56 ] Momence High School, Momence IL [57 ] Morris Community High School, Morris IL [58 ] Neshaminy High School, Langhorne PA - School officials keep name, but student paper votes to stop using it. [59 ] [60 ] Nokomis High School, Nokomis IL [61 ] North Side High School (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Oneonta High School, Oneonta AL [62 ] Oriskany High School, Oriskany NY [63 ] Paw Paw High School, Paw Paw MI [64 ] Pocahontas High School (Arkansas) Port Townsend High School, Port Townsend WA [65 ] Port Clinton High School, Port Clinton OH Red Mesa High School, Teec Nos Pos AZ (Majority of students Native American) Ringgold High School, Ringgold LA [66 ] Rush Springs High School, Rush Springs OK [67 ] Sandusky High School, Sandusky MI [68 ] Saranac High School, Saranac MI [69 ] Sayre High School, Sayre PA [70 ] Shawnee High School, Wolf Lake, Illinois [71 ] Social Circle High School, Social Circle GA [72 ] St. Johns High School (Arizona) St. Henry HS, St. Henry OH Sullivan High School, Sullivan IL [73 ] Tulare Union High School, Tulare CA [74 ] Union High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma) Utica High School (Ohio) Wapakoneta High School, Wapakoneta OH [75 ] Wellpinit High School, Wellpinit WA (Majority of students Native American) [76 ] Wichita North High School, Wichita KS [77 ] Renegades [edit ]
Clinton High School (MI) Redskins
Sachems [edit ] Sauras [edit ] Savages [edit ] Broken Bow High School, Broken Bow OK [78 ] Hot Springs High School, Hot Springs, MT [79 ] Lamar High School, Lamar CO [80 ] Leflore High School, Leflore OK [81 ] Quinton High School, Quinton OK [82 ] Salmon High School, Salmon, ID [83 ] Salmon River HS, Salmon River ID [84 ] Savannah High School (Missouri) Sigourney HS, Sigourney IA [85 ] Tecumseh High School (Oklahoma) Wynnewood, Oklahoma Seminoles [edit ] Sioux [edit ] Thunderbirds [edit ]
Edsel Ford High School Dearborn, MI
South Holland, IL
Tribe [edit ] Warriors [edit ] Aloha High School, Aloha, Oregon Anadarko, Oklahoma Bristol, Pennsylvania Henderson High School, West Chester, Pennsylvania Brother Rice HS Bloomfield Township, Oakland County, Michigan Cambridge Rindge and Latin School (MA) Curtis High School Cherokee High School (Canton, Georgia) East Poinsett County (AR) Gettysburg Area High School Gordon Central High School, Calhoun, Georgia Hall High School (Connecticut) Heart Butte Warriors, Blackfeet Reservation Idabel High School, Idabel OK Jupiter Community High School Lakeview–Fort Oglethorpe High School Lamar High School (Arkansas) Mandaree High School, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, Mandaree, North Dakota McClymonds High School Mission San Jose High School Mohawk High School (Sycamore, Ohio) North Cobb (GA) High School Oconee County High School Ontario High School, Mansfield, Ohio The Orme School of Arizona Ouachita High School Pocahotas County (WV) High School Rice Lake High School (Rice Lake, WI) South Grand Prairie High School (Grand Prairie, TX) Standing Rock High School, Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Fort Yates, ND St. Charles West High School, St. Charles, MO Smithville High School (Missouri) Thompson High School Tidewater Academy, Wakefield, VA Tuloso-Midway High School (TX) Walsh Jesuit High School Warroad Warwick High School (Lititz, PA) Warwick High School, Spirit Lake Indian Reservation, Warwick, ND Wawasee High School Wayne High School (Huber Heights, Ohio) Weldon Valley, Weldona, Colorado West Orange High School (Winter Garden, Florida) Western Grove (AR) Westside (AR) Wheaton Academy Wickes (AR) Waccamaw High School Watchung Hills Regional High School Waunakee High School – Waunakee means peaceful valley in a Native American language White County (GA) High School White Shield High School, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, Roseglen, ND Winnacunnet High School Wilton-Lyndeborough Cooperative High School Wyoming Area, Wyoming Valley, PA Grass Lake High School (MI) Middle school [edit ] Antioch Redskins of Plant City, FL, Youth Football [86 ] Dearborn Heights Redskins Jr. Football, Dearborn Heights, MI [87 ] Gaffney Middle School, Gaffney, South Carolina (Chiefs) Gettysburg Area Middle School Braves Granard Middle School, Gaffney, South Carolina (Warriors) Grayling Redskins Youth Football, Grayling, MI [88 ] J.D. Meisler Middle School, Metairie, Louisiana (Chiefs) Lakeview Middle School, Rossville, Georgia (Warriors) Lancaster Junior Redskins, Lancaster (village), NY [89 ] Morden Redskins, South Eastern Manitoba Hockey League (amateur adult) [90 ] Morris, IL - Little Redskins IKWF sanctioned wrestling club (K-8th grade) Uses a version of the DC team logo [91 ] New Rock Redskins, Conyers, GA (Ages 6–12) Uses the DC team logo [92 ] Orangeview J.H.S (Buena Park, CA) Warriors Ohio Redskins Youth Sports (age 4-14), Columbus, OH [93 ] Patterson Redskins Football (youth) Patterson, CA [94 ] Rochester Redskins, Rochester Hills, MI [95 ] Sarasota Redskins Youth Football, Sarasota, FL (age 4-14) [96 ] South Cherokee Recreation Association (SCRA) Youth Footfall, Woodstock, GA Uses the DC team logo [97 ] Sterling Heights Redskins, Sterling Heights, MI (youth) Uses the DC team logo [98 ] Wayland Redskins, Wayland, NY (Youth Football ages 6–12) [99 ] Woonsocket Redskins, Woonsocket, RI - Youth Football (K-9th grade) Uses the DC team logo [100 ] [edit ] Albemarle Redskins, Virginia [101 ] Bennetts Creek Warriors, Suffork, VA [102 ] Derby Red Raiders, Derby CT [103 ] East Bay Warriors, Oakland CA [104 ] Fort Braden Chiefs, FL [105 ] Immokalee Seminoles, FL [106 ] Lower Sussex Indians, DE [107 ] Nonnewaug Chiefs, Woodbury, CT [108 ] Phoenix, AZ [109 ] Pomperaug Warriors, Southbury, CT [110 ] Reynolds Corner Redskins, Toledo OH [111 ] Southland Comanches, CO [112 ] Stratford Redskin, CT [113 ] Water Oak Indians , Watertown, CT [114 ] Western Albemarle Chiefs, Crozet, VA [115 ] Willamette Redskins, Eugene OR [116 ] Teams that no longer use Native American names or symbols [edit ] College [edit ]
Old Name School City, State Year Changed New Name Notes Beothuk Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada 1987 Sea-Hawks The Beothuk aboriginal peoples went extinct in 1829 and the university deemed the use of the Beothuk name to be offensive Braves University of West Georgia Carrollton, Georgia 2006 Wolves Braves Seneca College Toronto, Ontario 1999-2000 The Sting Braves Quinnipiac University Hamden, Connecticut 2002 Bobcats Brown Indians/Squaws St. Bonaventure University Allegany (town), New York 1979 Bonnies Chiefs Oklahoma City University Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Stars Chiefs Springfield College Springfield, Massachusetts Pride Chieftains Seattle University Seattle, Washington Redhawks Chieftains Stonehill College Easton, Massachusetts Skyhawks Fighting Sioux University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 2012 None yet selected Hurons Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, Michigan Eastern Michigan Eagles The mascot is "Swoop" Indians Adams State University Alamosa, Colorado Grizzlies Indians Arkansas State University Jonesboro, Arkansas Arkansas State Red Wolves Indians University of the Cumberlands Williamsburg, Kentucky 2002 Patriots Originally Cumberland College, name changed 2005 Indians Dartmouth College Hanover, Massachusetts 1970s Dartmouth Big Green Indians was not official Indians Midwestern State University Wichita Falls, Texas 2006 Mustangs Indians McMurry University Abilene, Texas 2006 War Hawks Indians University of Louisiana at Monroe Monroe, Louisiana Louisiana–Monroe Warhawks Indians Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana County, Pennsylvania 2007 IUP Crimson Hawks Indians Stanford University Stanford, California 1972 Stanford Cardinal for the school color, a shade of red Indians College of William & Mary Williamsburg, Virginia 1978 Tribe Mascot is the Griffin Indians and Otahkians Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri 2004 Southeast Missouri State Redhawks "H" is NOT capitalized here, unlike the case with Miami's nickname. Mohawks Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts North Adams, Massachusetts Trailblazers Plainsmen Nebraska Wesleyan University Lincoln, Nebraska Prairie Wolves Red Raiders Colgate University Hamilton (village), New York Raiders Redmen Carthage College Kenosha, Wisconsin Red Men/Lady Reds Redmen University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 1972 UMass Minutemen According to the University Redmen referred to the color of uniforms worn by the athletics teams Redmen Northeastern State University Tahlequah, Oklahoma RiverHawks Founded as the Cherokee National Female Seminary Redmen St. John's University New York City 1995 Red Storm The school's website indicates that the name did not refer to American Indians, but to the school color, a bright cardinal red. Redmen and Lady Reds Simpson College Indianola, Iowa 1992 The Storm Redskins Miami University Oxford, Ohio 1997 Miami RedHawks Redskins Southern Nazarene University Bethany, Oklahoma Crimson Storm Saltine Warrior Syracuse University Syracuse, New York Syracuse Orange Savages Dickinson State University Dickinson, North Dakota 1972 Blue Hawks Savages Eastern Washington University Cheney, Washington 1973 Eagles Savages Southeastern Oklahoma State University Durant, Oklahoma 2006 Savage Storm Warriors Hartwick College Oneonta, New York 1994 Hawks Warriors Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1994 Marquette Golden Eagles Retired the mascot "Willie Wampum" in 1971 [117 ] Pro and minor league [edit ] Many teams at this level changed because they moved to another city, or went out of business
Old Name Sport/League City, State Year Changed New Name Notes Akron Indians National Football League Akron, OH Akron Pros Changed back to the Indians in 1926, then folded Tri-Cities "Blackhawks" Baseball 1951 Atlanta Hawks Team was also the Milwaukee & St. Louis "Hawks" Buffalo Braves National Basketball Association 1978 Los Angeles Clippers Also the San Diego Clippers Burlington Indians Baseball Burlington Royals Affiliated with the Kansas City Royals Canton/Akron Indians Minor League Baseball Akron, OH Aeros Former farm team for the Cleveland Indians Cleveland Indians (1921) National Football League Cleveland, Ohio defunct Cleveland Indians (1931) National Football League Cleveland, Ohio defunct Duluth Eskimos professional football Duluth, MN 1927 NA also known as the Duluth "Kelleys" Flint Indians Michigan Baseball League Kansas City Scouts National Hockey League now the New Jersey Devils First moved to Colorado and became the "Rockies" Kinston Indians Minor League Baseball Mexico City Aztecas Continental Basketball Association Mexico City NA Only one season 1994-95 Oorang Indians National Football League NA, defunct Consisting mostly of Native Americans Ottawa Tomahawks National Basketball League of Canada Ottawa SeaHawks Name dropped shortly after announced due to controversy Salisbury Indians Minor League Baseball Salisbury, Maryland NA Defunct Springfield Indians Peoria, Illinois Rivermen First moved to Worcester and became the IceCats Tecumseh Major Series Lacrosse (OALA Sr A) Toronto, ON 1911 Young Torontos High Schools [edit ] Afton High School, Afton NY Indians became the Crimson Knights in 2001. Centennial High School (Blaine, Minnesota), changed from the Chiefs to the Cougars. Cooperstown, NY Central School changed from Redskins to Hawkeyes. [118 ] [119 ] Cumberland High School, Cumberland KY was the Redskins, but was consolidated with three other schools into one. Edmondson-Westside High School, Baltimore, Maryland changed from the Redskins to the Redstorm in 2002. Enterprise High School (Oregon) changed name/mascot from Savages to Outlaws Flint Central High School Indians, renamed "Phoenix" in 2005 Forest Area School District PA "Indians" no more? Grand Forks Central Redskins, renamed the "Knights" Glenwood High School (Illinois) Redskins to Titans 2001 Grafton Blackhawks, renamed to "Black Hawks" Grand Rapids High School Indians (Grand Rapids, Minnesota), renamed the "Thunderhawks" Gridley High School, Gridley IL (Redskins) merged with another school to become the El Paso-Gridley Titans. H.C. Wilcox Technical High School Meriden, CT [120 ] Hermosillo Seris Hiawatha (KS) High School Redskins, changed to Red Hawks in 2000 Marshall High School Redskins (Marshall, MI), became Redhawks in 2005 Millard South High School Indians (Omaha, Neb.) changed to Patriots in 2000 Monticello High School Redmen, in Monticello, Minnesota, now "Magic" Montevideo High School Mohawks (MN) today the Thunder Hawks Naperville Central High School (IL) were the Redskins from 1939 to 1992, became the Red Hawks in 1993. [121 ] Ossining Indians, now no mascot Owatonna Indians, now the "Huskies" Parsippany High School Redskins, Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey, now the "Redhawks" Penfield High School Chiefs, Penfield, New York, now the "Patriots" Pekin High School in Pekin, Illinois were the "Chinks" until 1980 Poynette High School Indians, Poynette, Wisconsin, became the "Pumas" in 2009 [122 ] Red Lodge High School, Red Lodge MT "Redskins" became "Rams" in 2011 Salisbury Indians, team defunct Sanford HS (Maine) Redskins to Spartans [123 ] Seneca High School Redskins in Louisville, Kentucky, now "RedHawks" Sauk Rapids-Rice High School Indians, in Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, now "Storm" Tamalpais Indians, became the Tamalpais High School "Red Tailed Hawks" [ ] after 1990. sic [124 ] Vallejo High School Apaches (to be retired at graduation in June 2014) [9 ] [125 ] West Seneca West Senior High School, NY [126 ] Wiscasset HS, Wiscasset, Maine dropping Redskins, will become Wolverines. [127 ] [128 ] Mascots [edit ] Defunct mascots [edit ] Indiana State University's Chief Ouabache and Indian Princess were discontinued in 1989 The Golden State Warriors' "Indian warrior" logo was replaced in 1971 Marquette University's "Willie Wampum," retired in 1971 Syracuse University's " Saltine Warrior" Chief Brave Spirit, University of Louisiana at Monroe, retired in 2006 (mascot changed from "Indians" to "Warhawks") Chief Moccanooga, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (use of this mascot ended in 1996) Chief Noc-A-Homa, Milwaukee and Atlanta Braves (use of this mascot ended in early 1980s, existed as late as 1983 season) Princess Win-A-Lotta, paired with Chief Noc-A-Homa, introduced late 1970s, dropped at same time as Noc-A-Homa Chief Illiniwek, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Oklahoma, Little Red William Jackson Palmer High School "Terrors". Eagle Beak mascot replaced with a bird. Fictional teams [edit ] "Chief" nickname [edit ]
It is also common practice to use the nickname "Chief" for indigenous sportsmen. Some notable examples include:
However, use of the "Chief" nickname is not necessarily limited to indigenous sportsmen.
Kansas City mayor (1952–1960)
H. Roe Bartle began his career as a Professional Boy Scout Executive, whereupon he founded an honor camping society (Mic-O-Say) for the Boy Scouts in the St Joseph, MO and Kansas City, MO Boy Scout Councils. As founder of Mic-O-Say and "Chief" (Lone Bear,as he was known in Mic-O-Say circles), Bartle was instrumental in bringing the AFL Dallas Texans to Kansas City, MO in 1963. The transplanted AFL franchise was renamed the "Chiefs" in his honor. Basketball Hall of Famer Robert Parish, an African American, was nicknamed "The Chief", after Chief Bromden, a Native American character in the novel and One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest its film adaptation who pretended to be deaf and mute. Parish was originally given the nickname by Boston Celtics teammate Cedric Maxwell because of his stoic nature. See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ "Tribe feels Chippewa nickname is an honor". Central Michigan Life. ^ "Florida State University thanks Seminoles for historic vote of support". ^ The Hockey News: Special Features: THN.com's NHL Logo Rankings ^ About Bacone College ^ http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/college/2005-08-11-fsu-mascot-support_x.htm ^ 'Fighting Illini FAQ' | University of Illinois Archives ^ Gary Fuller. "Arcadia High School's Apache Name Continues To Spark Controversy" . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ a b c d Bañes, Lanz Christian (2013-11-18). "Vallejo: Apache mascot at high school may be changed" . Retrieved 23 November 2013. ^ a b Bañes, Lanz Christian (2013-11-21). "Vallejo school board votes to drop Apaches' name". Vallejo Times Herald . Retrieved 23 November 2013. ^ "Ugh! to Agawam's Nickname". The Los Angeles Times. April 25, 1987 . Retrieved 01/17/2014. ^ Football ^ "Escanaba Area Public Schools: Indian Education Program". ^ Adair County Kentucky ^ Augusta County ^ "Indian mascots for schools and sports teams? Contentious Saugatuck forum revives debate". The Grand Rapids Press. April 21, 2009 . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ Westminster Catawba Christian School ^ Wetumpka AL ^ Weyauwega-Fremont ^ White Cloud ^ Leoti ^ Salisbury, MD ^ Williford AR ^ Winnebago, IL ^ Winnebago NE ^ Yazoo City MS ^ El Paso TX ^ Yuma CO ^ Anderson High School ^ Cindy Kranz (August 14, 2003). "Student, school at odds on mascot". The Cincinnati Enquirer . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ Belding MI ^ Pembroke GA ^ San Andreas CA ^ Gray George (January 21, 2014). "Redskins mascot a source of pride, outrage". Calaveras Enterprise. ^ Camden MI ^ Canisteo NY ^ "Redskins nickname causing new uproar". June 12, 2013 . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ Chowchilla CA ^ Clinton MI ^ Colleen Wells (April 29, 2010). "Controversial Clinton School's Redskins mascot will stay". Toledo News Now . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ Wilmington DE ^ Coshocton High School ^ Dustin OK ^ Knox IN ^ Annie Chang (July 30, 2013). "Goshen High's mascot stays the Redskins". WSBT-TV . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ Gustine CA ^ Indian Creek High School ^ Kingston OK ^ http://hs.knox.k12.in.us/ ^ La Veta CO ^ "Lamar: Once A Redskin Always A Redskin". ^ Mike Florio (July 19, 2013). "Another high school looks at whether to keep Redskins name". NBC Sports . Retrieved 2013-10-15. ^ Little River KS ^ Loudon TN ^ Loudon Football ^ Stephen W Butera (October 18, 2013). "Redskins name at Loudon H.S. a tradition, despite national controversy". WBIR. ^ "McLoud: Our-Community Is Proud Of Our Name". ^ Momence IL ^ Morris IL ^ Omari Fleming (Oct 25, 2013). "Parent Asks School To Change Mascot Name". Fox News. ^ Christian Menno (October 25, 2013). "Student newspaper to stop using school's 'Redskin' nickname". The Morning Call. ^ Nokomis IL ^ Oneonta AL ^ Oriskany NY ^ Paw Paw MI ^ Charlie Bermant. "Retire Port Townsend High's Redskins mascot, advisory panel says". Peninsula Daily News. ^ Ringgold LA ^ Rush Springs OK ^ Sandusky MI ^ Saranac MI ^ Sayre PA ^ Wolf Lake, Illinois ^ Social Circle GA ^ http://home.sullivan.k12.il.us/ ^ Tulare CA ^ Wapakoneta OH ^ Wellpinit WA ^ Wichita KS ^ Broken Bow OK ^ Hot Springs HS ^ Lamar CO ^ Leflore OK ^ Quinton OK ^ Salmon, ID ^ Salmon River ID ^ Sigourney IA ^ Antioch Redskins ^ Dearborn Heights Redskins Jr. Football ^ Grayling Redskins Youth Football ^ Lancaster Junior Redskins ^ Morden Redskins ^ Little Redskins ^ New Rock Redskins ^ Ohio Redskins Youth Sports ^ Patterson Redskins Football ^ Rochester Redskins ^ Sarasota Redskins ^ South Cherokee Recreation Association ^ Sterling Heights Redskins ^ Wayland Redskins ^ Woonsocket Redskins ^ Albemarle Redskins Virginia ^ Bennetts Creek Warriors ^ Derby Red Raiders, CT ^ East Bay Warriors, Oakland CA ^ Fort Braden Chiefs, FL ^ Immokalee Seminoles, FL ^ Lower Sussex Indians, DE ^ Nonnewaug Chiefs, CT ^ Phoenix, AZ ^ Pomperaug Warriors, CT ^ Reynolds Corner Redskins, Toledo OH ^ Southland Comanches, CO ^ Stratford Redskin, CT ^ Water Oak Indians , CT ^ Western Albemarle Chiefs ^ Willamette Redskins, Eugene OR ^ "Willie Wampum". ^ Cooperstown CS ^ "Cooperstown Redskins No More: NY School Board Votes To Retire Nickname After Criticism". AP. 03/07/13 . Retrieved 2013-10-15. ^ No longer "Indians"? ^ "History of the NCHS Mascot" . Retrieved 2013-11-15. ^ http://portagedailyregister.com/news/article_8728019c-af14-11de-acf5-001cc4c03286.html ^ Ryan McLaughlin (June 8, 2012). "Sanford High School replaces Redskins with Spartans". Bangor Daily News. ^ Tamalpais High School official site: A Brief History of Tam, accessed 10/21/2013 ^ Schaefer, Samantha (November 21, 2013). "Controversial Apache mascot dropped by Northern California school". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 23 November 2013. ^ "Indians"? ^ Seth Koenig (March 19, 2011). "Wiscasset High to keep ‘Redskins’ mascot through end of school year". Times Record. ^ Seth Koenig (April 15, 2011). "Wiscasset High releases poll on proposals to replace controversial ‘Redskins’ moniker" . Retrieved 2013-11-15.
King, C. Richard, Ellen J. Staurowsky, Lawrence Baca, Laurel R. Davis, and Cornel Pewewardy 2002. Of Polls and Prejudice: Sports Illustrated’s Errant ‘Indian Wars’.
Journal of Sport & Social Issues 26 (4), November: 381-402. External links [edit ]