List of spaceflight records

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The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965.

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are included.

First independent sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight by country[edit]

CountryMission and launch vehicleCrewDateType
Soviet Union USSRVostok 1, Vostok-KYuri Gagarin12 April 1961Orbital
United States USAMercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-RedstoneAlan Shepard5 May 1961Sub-orbital
United States USAMercury-Atlas 6, Atlas LV-3BJohn Glenn20 February 1962Orbital
Russia Russia
(as successor of the USSR)
Soyuz TM-14, Soyuz-U2Klaus-Dietrich Flade
Aleksandr Kaleri
Aleksandr Viktorenko
17 March 1992Orbital
China ChinaShenzhou 5, Long March 2FYang Liwei15 October 2003Orbital

Most spaceflights[edit]

Note: While, Young has made 6 spaceflights, he was launched 7 times, if his moon ascent on Apollo 16 is counted.

* Dual citizen.

Duration of spaceflight[edit]

Most time in space[edit]

Ten longest human space flights[edit]

#Time in spaceCrewCountryLaunch date (Launch craft)Landing date (Landing craft)Space Station or mission type
1437.7 days[5]Valeri Polyakov[5] Russia1994-01-09 (Soyuz TM-18)1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20)Mir[5]
2379.6 daysSergei Avdeyev Russia1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28)1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29)Mir
3365.0 daysVladimir Titov
Musa Manarov
 Soviet Union1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4)1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6)Mir
4326.5 daysYuri Romanenko Soviet Union1987-02-5 (Soyuz TM-2)1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3)Mir
5311.8 daysSergei Krikalev Soviet Union/ Russia1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12)1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13)Mir
6240.9 daysValeri Polyakov Soviet Union1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6)1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7)Mir
7237.0 daysLeonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Oleg Atkov
 Soviet Union1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10)1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11)Salyut 7
8215.4 daysMikhail Tyurin
Michael López-Alegría
 United States
2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9)2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9)International Space Station
9211.4 daysAnatoli Berezovoy
Valentin Lebedev
 Soviet Union1982-05-13 (Soyuz T-5)1982-12-10 (Soyuz T-7)Salyut 7
10207.5 daysTalgat Musabayev
Nikolai Budarin
 Russia1998-01-29 (Soyuz TM-27)1998-08-25 (Soyuz TM-27)Mir

Longest single flight by woman[edit]

Longest continuous occupation of space[edit]

Longest solo flight[edit]

Longest time on lunar surface[edit]

Longest time in lunar orbit[edit]

Animal records[edit]

First animals in space[edit]

First animal in orbit[edit]

First animals beyond low–Earth orbit[edit]

Longest canine single flight[edit]

Speed and altitude[edit]

Farthest humans from Earth[edit]

Highest altitude for manned non-lunar mission[edit]


Age records[edit]

Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)[edit]

Earliest-born to go into space (orbital flight)[edit]

Youngest (age during space flight)[edit]

Oldest (age during space flight)[edit]


Most spacewalks[edit]

Most spacewalks during a single mission[edit]

* Two were internal "spacewalks" inside a depressurized module.

Human spaceflight firsts[edit]

Person to reach space
Person in orbit
Gagarin in Sweden-2.jpg
Yuri GagarinVostok 1[11]Soviet Union USSR12 April 1961
Person to make suborbital flight
Person to land (splashdown)
in a spacecraft after spaceflight
Person to pilot a craft in space
Alan ShepardFreedom 7United States USA5 May 1961
Person in space for over 24 hours
Multiple orbits spaceflight
Gherman TitovVostok 2Soviet Union USSR6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land (splashdown)
in a spacecraft after orbital flight
John GlennFriendship 7United States USA20 February 1962
Group flight
Adjacent orbits
Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
Andrian Nikolayev
Pavel Popovich
Vostok 3
Vostok 4
Soviet Union USSR12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
Woman in space
Civilian in space
Valentina TereshkovaVostok 6Soviet Union USSR16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraftJoe WalkerX-15 Flight 90United States USA19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 km)Joe WalkerX-15 Flights
90 and 91
United States USA22 August 1963
Three-person spaceflight, single spacecraft
Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
Manned flight without pressurized spacesuits
Vladimir Komarov
Konstantin Feoktistov
Boris Yegorov
Voskhod 1[11]Soviet Union USSR12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Berkut spacesuit at Air and Space - back removed.jpg
Alexey LeonovVoskhod 2[11]Soviet Union USSR18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit)Gus Grissom, John W. YoungGemini 3[11]United States USA23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflightsGordon CooperFaith 7
Gemini 5
United States USA15 May 1963 –
16 May 1963;
21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in spaceGordon Cooper
Pete Conrad
Gemini 5United States USA21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
Space rendezvous
(orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
Four people in space
Frank Borman, Jim Lovell
Walter Schirra, Thomas Stafford
Gemini 7
Gemini 6A[11]
United States USA15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Space docking
Gemini 8 docking.jpg
Neil Armstrong
David Scott
Gemini 8 and Agena[11]United States USA16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvousJohn W. Young
Michael Collins
Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8United States USA19 July 1966;
20 July 1966
Spaceflight fatality (during landing)Vladimir KomarovSoyuz 1Soviet Union USSR23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflightsWalter SchirraApollo 7
(previous flights Mercury-Atlas 8, Gemini 6A)
United States USA22 October 1968
Persons to leave Low Earth orbit (LEO)
Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo8 Prime Crew2.jpg
Frank Borman
Jim Lovell
Bill Anders
Apollo 8United States USA24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
Space docking of two manned spacecraft
Dual spacewalk
Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)
Vladimir Shatalov
Boris Volynov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Yevgeny Khrunov
Soyuz 4
Soyuz 5
Soviet Union USSR16 January 1969
Moon landing/
planetary surface EVA
Aldrin Apollo 11 original.jpg
Neil Armstrong
Buzz Aldrin
Apollo 11United States USA20 July 1969
Time five people are in spaceGeorgi Shonin, Valeri Kubasov
Anatoly Filipchenko, Vladislav Volkov, Viktor Gorbatko
Soyuz 6
Soyuz 7
Soviet Union USSR12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
Triple spaceflight
Seven-people in space
Shonin, Kubasov
Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko
Vladimir Shatalov, Aleksei Yeliseyev
Soyuz 6
Soyuz 7
Soyuz 8
Soviet Union USSR13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflightsJames A. LovellApollo 13
(previous flights Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8)
United States USA17 April 1970
Person to fly two lunar flights, Person to complete two flights beyond low–Earth orbitJames A. LovellApollo 13
(previous flight Apollo 8)
United States USA11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
People to spend two weeks in space
Night launch
Andrian Nikolayev
Vitali Sevastyanov
Soyuz 9Soviet Union USSR1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of
sight of their spacecraft
Alan Shepard
Edgar Mitchell
Apollo 14United States USA6 February 1971
Docking with space station
Night landing
Vladimir Shatalov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Nikolai Rukavishnikov
Soyuz 10
docked with Salyut 1 (soft dock)
Soviet Union USSR22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station
Salyut 4 and Soyuz drawing.svg
Georgi Dobrovolski
Viktor Patsayev
Vladislav Volkov
Soyuz 11
docked with Salyut 1
Soviet Union USSR7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalitiesGeorgi Dobrovolski
Viktor Patsayev
Vladislav Volkov
Soyuz 11Soviet Union USSR29 June 1971
EVA in outer space outside Low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory)Al WordenApollo 15United States USA5 August 1971
Person twice in lunar orbit
(during separate lunar expeditions)
John W. YoungApollo 16 (previous flight Apollo 10)United States USA16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeksPete Conrad
Joseph Kerwin
Paul Weitz
Skylab 2United States USA25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeksAlan Bean
Jack Lousma
Owen Garriott
Skylab 3United States USA28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeksGerald Carr
William Pogue
Edward Gibson
Skylab 4United States USA16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
Spaceflight aborted during liftoff
(at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
Re-entry (emergency) with 20g acceleration
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg MakarovSoyuz 18aSoviet Union USSR5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space stationVladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg MakarovSoyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crewSoviet Union USSR10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr IvanchenkovSalyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31Soviet Union USSR15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery RyuminSalyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37Soviet Union USSR9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraftJohn W. Young
Robert L. Crippen
STS-1United States USA12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraftJohn W. YoungSTS-1 (previous flights in Gemini, Apollo, and Lunar Module)United States USA12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflightsJohn W. YoungSTS-1
(previous flights Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16)
United States USA14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Vance Brand, Robert F. Overmyer
Joseph P. Allen, William B. Lenoir
STS-5United States USA11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Robert L. Crippen, Frederick H. Hauck
John M. Fabian, Sally K. Ride, Norman E. Thagard
STS-7United States USA18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
John W. Young, Brewster H. Shaw, Owen K. Garriott, Robert A. Parker, Byron K. LichtenbergUSA
Ulf MerboldGermany (European Space Agency)
STS-9United States USA
Germany West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflightsJohn W. YoungSTS-9
(previous flights Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1)
United States USA8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
EVAtion - GPN-2000-001087.jpg
Bruce McCandless IISTS-41-BUnited States USA7 February 1984
Time eight people in space, no dockingOleg Atkov, Leonid Kizim, Vladimir SolovyovUSSR
Vance D. Brand, Robert L. Gibson, Bruce McCandless II, Ronald McNair, Robert L. StewartUSA
Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-BSoviet Union USSR
United States USA
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
Time 11 people in space, no dockingOleg Atkov, Leonid D. Kizim, Yuri Malyshev, Vladimir Solovyov, Gennady StrekalovUSSR
Robert L. Crippen, Terry J. Hart, George Nelson, Francis Scobee, James van HoftenUSA
Rakesh SharmaIndia
STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
India India
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same missionLeonid Kizim, Vladimir SolovyovSalyut 7Soviet Union USSR26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by womanSvetlana SavitskayaSoyuz T-12Soviet Union USSR25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks
(7 months)
Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg AtkovSalyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11Soviet Union USSR8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Robert L. Crippen, Jon A. McBride, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride, David C. Leestma, Paul D. Scully-PowerUSA
Marc GarneauCanada
STS-41-GUnited States USA
Canada Canada
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Time two women in spaceKathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. RideSTS-41-GUnited States USA5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space stationAlexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir DzhanibekovSoyuz T-14, Salyut 7Soviet Union USSR17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
STS 61-A crew portrait onboard Challenger middeck.jpg
Henry W. Hartsfield, Steven R. Nagel, Bonnie J. Dunbar, James F. Buchli, Guion S. BlufordUSA
Reinhard Furrer, Ernst MesserschmidWest Germany
Wubbo OckelsNetherlands (European Space Agency)
STS-61-AUnited States USA
West Germany West Germany
Netherlands Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Fatalities during launchFrancis "Dick" Scobee
Michael J. Smith
Ellison Onizuka
Judith Resnik
Ronald McNair
Sharon Christa McAuliffe
Gregory Jarvis
STS-51-LUnited States USA28 January 1986
Space station to space station flight/
Space station to space station return flight/
Expedition on two space stations
Leonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to MirSoviet Union USSR15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space stationVladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander AlexandrovSoyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at MirSoviet Union USSR21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks
(one year)
Vladimir Titov, Musa ManarovMir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6Soviet Union USSR21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
Time 12 people in space; no dockingShuttle: Vance Brand, Samuel Durrance, Guy S. Gardner, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, Ronald Parise, Robert A. ParkerUSA
Mir: Gennady Manakov, Gennady StrekalovRussia

Soyuz and Soyuz/Mir:
Musa Manarov, Viktor AfanasyevRussia
Toyohiro AkiyamaJapan

STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10-Soyuz TM-11Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
Japan Japan
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Time three women in spaceMillie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea SeddonSTS-40United States USA5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
Three Crew Members Capture Intelsat VI - GPN-2000-001035.jpg
Pierre J. Thuot, Richard J. Hieb
Thomas D. Akers
STS-49United States USA13 May 1992
Time 13 people in space; no dockingShuttle: Steve Oswald, William Gregory, John Grunsfeld, Wendy Lawrence, Tammy Jernigan, Sam Durrance, Ron PariseUSA
Mir: Aleksandr Viktorenko, Yelena Kondakova, Valeriy PolyakovRussia

Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady StrekalovRussia
Norman E. ThagardUSA

STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21United States USA
Russia Russia
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Time ten people in one spacecraft; docking
Crewmembers of STS-71, Mir-18 and Mir-19 Pose for Inflight Picture - GPN-2002-000061 rotated.jpg
Robert L. Gibson, Charles J. Precourt, Ellen S. Baker, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Gregory J. Harbaugh Norman E. ThagardUSA
Anatoly Solovyev, Nikolai Budarin, Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady StrekalovRussia
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21United States USA
Russia Russia
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Space touristDennis TitoSoyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1United States USA
Russia Russia
April 28 2001 –
May 6 2001
Person to complete seven trips to spaceJerry L. RossSTS-110
(previous flights STS-61B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88)
United States USA19 April 2002
Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)
Kluft-photo-SS1-landing-June-2004-Img 1406c.jpg
Mike MelvillSpaceShipOne flight 15PUnited States USA21 June 2004
Time 13 people in one spacecraft; docking
STS-127 group picture 03.jpg
Michael Barratt, Mark L. Polansky, Douglas G. Hurley, Christopher J. Cassidy, Thomas H. Marshburn, David Wolf, Timothy KopraUSA
Gennady Padalka, Roman RomanenkoRussia
Robert Thirsk, Julie PayetteCanada
Frank De WinneBelgium (European Space Agency)
Koichi WakataJapan
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127United States USA
Russia Russia
Canada Canada
Belgium Belgium
Japan Japan
17 July 2009
Four women in space at once
STS-131 and Expedition 23 Group Portrait.jpg
Shuttle: Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie WilsonUSA
Naoko YamazakiJapan
ISS: Tracy Caldwell DysonUSA
ISS Expedition 23
United States USA
Japan Japan
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010

Total time in space[edit]

The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 28 January 2014.[12]


1Sergei Krikalev803.3716Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
2Alexandr Kaleri769.2765Active Russia
3Sergei Avdeyev747.5933Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
4Gennady Padalka710.2654Active Russia
5Valeriy Polyakov678.6902Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
6Anatoly Solovyev651.1175Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
7Yuri Malenchenko641.4665Active Russia
8Viktor Afanasyev555.7724Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
9Yury Usachev553.0164Retired Russia
10Pavel Vinogradov546.9393Active Russia
11Musa Manarov541.0212Retired Soviet Union ( Azerbaijan)
12Fyodor Yurchikhin537.1064Active Russia
13Mikhail Tyurin532.1184Active Russia
14Oleg Kotov526.2113Active Russia
15Alexander Viktorenko489.0664Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
16Nikolai Budarin444.0603Retired Russia
17Yuri Romanenko430.7653Retired Soviet Union
18Alexander Volkov391.4953Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
19Oleg Kononenko391.4712Active Russia
20Yuri I. Onufrienko389.2822Retired Russia
21Vladimir G. Titov387.0364Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
22Vasili Tsibliyev381.6622Retired Russia
23Valery G. Korzun381.6532Retired Russia
24Michael Fincke381.6333Active United States
25Peggy A. Whitson376.7382Active United States
26Leonid Kizim374.7493Deceased Soviet Union
27Michael Foale373.7636Active United States /  United Kingdom[13]
28Aleksandr Serebrov372.9544Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
29Valeri Ryumin371.7254Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
30Donald Pettit369.6963Active United States
31Sergey Volkov365.9403Active Russia
32Jeffrey Williams362.0603Active United States
33Vladimir Solovyov361.9522Retired Soviet Union
34Thomas Reiter350.2392Retired Germany
35Koichi Wakata347.3564Active Japan
36Talgat Musabayev339.4093Retired Russia
37Roman Romanenko333.4592Active Russia
38Vladimir Lyakhov333.3243Retired Soviet Union
39Yuri P. Gidzenko329.9503Retired Russia
40Sunita Williams321.7192Active United States
41Gennadi Manakov309.8892Retired Soviet Union /  Russia
42Aleksandr P. Aleksandrov309.7582Retired Soviet Union
43Gennady Strekalov268.9385Deceased Soviet Union /  Russia
44Michael López-Alegría257.9444Retired United States
45Viktor Savinykh252.8493Retired Soviet Union
46Vladimir Dezhurov244.2292Retired Russia
47Oleg Atkov236.9501Retired Soviet Union
48Carl E. Walz230.2124Retired United States
49Leroy Chiao229.3624Retired United States
50Richard Mastracchio227.5684Active United States

Total human spaceflight time by country[edit]

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [14] [15]
NationTotal personsTotal person flightsTotal in orbit (@ update)*Total person days*+ % of Total person days
 Soviet Union
 United States334835117156.18
 South Korea11-10.88
 South Africa11-9.89
 United Kingdom11-7.88
 Saudi Arabia11-7.07
Table data accurate as of 2014-11-21 05:01 UTC
Astronauts currently in space (grouped by flight):
Soyuz TMA-14M: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Samokutyayev Russia, Yelena Olegovna Serova Russia, Barry Eugene "Butch" Wilmore United States
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by - see table references).

Notable unmanned spaceflights[edit]

In reference to:SpacecraftEventOriginDate
EarthA-4(V-2)First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight).Germany GermanyJune 1944
EarthV-2 No. 20First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recovered.United States USA20 February 1947
EarthR-1V[16]First mammals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recovered.Soviet Union USSR22 July 1951
EarthSputnik 1First satellite in orbit.[11]Soviet Union USSR4 October 1957
EarthSputnik 2First animal in orbit, Laika the dog.Soviet Union USSR3 November 1957
EarthVanguard 1Oldest satellite still in orbit— expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964.United States USA17 March 1958
EarthPioneer 1Failed to reach the moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 km from Earth.United States USA11 October 1958
EarthJupiter AM-13First monkey in space.United States USA13 December 1958
EarthLuna 1First spacecraft to reach Earth's escape velocity.Soviet Union USSR4 January 1959
MoonLuna 1First flyby, dist. of 5,995 km.Soviet Union USSR4 January 1959
SunLuna 1First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit.Soviet Union USSR4 January 1959
MoonLuna 2First impact.[11]Soviet Union USSR14 September 1959
MoonLuna 3First image of lunar far-side.[11]Soviet Union USSR7 October 1959
EarthDiscoverer 13First satellite recovered from orbit.[11]United States USA11 August 1960
EarthKorabl-Sputnik 2First living beings recovered from orbit.[17]Soviet Union USSR19 August 1960
VenusVenera 1First flyby, dist. of 100,000 km (lost communication contact before).[11]Soviet Union USSR19 May 1961
VenusMariner 2First planetary flyby, dist. of 34,762 km (with communication contact).United States USA14 December 1962
MarsMariner 4First Mars flyby, first planetary imaging, dist. of 9,846 km.United States USA14 July 1965
EarthAstérixFirst satellite launched independently by a nation other than the US or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets).France France26 November 1965
MoonLuna 9First soft landing, first pictures from lunar surface.[11]Soviet Union USSR3 February 1966
VenusVenera 3First impact.[11]Soviet Union USSR1 March 1966
MoonLuna 10First orbiter.[11]Soviet Union USSR3 April 1966
MoonZond 5First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
First animals to circle the Moon.
Soviet Union USSR15 September 1968
MoonLuna 16First automated sample return.Soviet Union USSR24 September 1970
MoonLuna 17First automated roving vehicle – Lunokhod 1.Soviet Union USSR17 November 1970
VenusVenera 7First soft landing.Soviet Union USSR15 December 1970
MarsMariner 9First orbiter.United States USA14 November 1971
MarsMars 2First impact.Soviet Union USSR27 November 1971
MarsMars 3First soft landing, telemetry signal for 20 seconds
before transmissions ceased.
Soviet Union USSR2 December 1971
SunPioneer 10First spacecraft to reach Sun's escape velocity.United States USA3 March 1972
JupiterPioneer 10First flyby, dist. of 130,000 km.United States USA4 December 1973
MercuryMariner 10First flyby, dist. of 703 km.United States USA29 March 1974
VenusVenera 9First orbiter.
First surface-level imaging of another planet.
Soviet Union USSR22 October 1975
SunHelios 2Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the sun, 252,792 km/h.
Closest ever approach to the sun at a record distance of 0.29 AU (43 million km), slightly inside the orbit of Mercury. Record still unbeaten as of November 2009 but to be beaten by the future Solar Orbiter probe (0.23 AU / 33 million km).
West Germany West Germany
United States USA
17 April 1976
MarsViking 1First surface-level imaging of Mars.United States USA20 July 1976
SaturnPioneer 11First flyby, dist. of 21,000 km.United States USA1 September 1979
VenusVenera 13First sound record on another planet.Soviet Union USSR1 March 1982
Interstellar spacePioneer 10First extra-solar spacecraft (disputed because only according to some definitions).United States USA13 June 1983
VenusVega 1First helium balloon atmospheric probe.Soviet Union USSR11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-ZinnerInternational Cometary Explorer (ICE)First flyby through comet tail, dist. of 7,800 km, no pictures.United States USA11 September 1985
UranusVoyager 2First flyby, dist. of 81,500 km.United States USA24 January 1986
Comet HalleyVega 1First comet flyby with pictures returned, dist. of 8,890 km.Soviet Union USSR6 March 1986
Orbital SpaceplaneBuranFirst fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing).Soviet Union USSR15 November 1988
PhobosPhobos 2First flyby, dist. of 860 km.Soviet Union USSR21 February 1989
NeptuneVoyager 2First flyby, dist. of 40,000 km.United States USA25 August 1989
951 GaspraGalileo probeFirst asteroid flyby, dist. of 1,600 km.United States USA29 October 1991
JupiterGalileo probeFirst impact.United States USA7 December 1995
JupiterGalileo probeFirst orbiter.United States USA8 December 1995
MarsMars PathfinderFirst automated roving vehicle – Sojourner.United States USA4 July 1997
433 ErosNEAR ShoemakerFirst asteroid orbiter.United States USA14 February 2000
433 ErosNEAR ShoemakerFirst asteroid soft landing.United States USA12 February 2001
SaturnCassini orbiterFirst orbiter.Not the esa logo.svg ESA
United States USA
1 July 2004
Solar windGenesisFirst sample return from farther than the Moon.United States USA8 September 2004
TitanHuygens probeFirst soft landing.Not the esa logo.svg ESA
United States USA
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1Deep ImpactFirst comet impact.United States USA4 July 2005
25143 ItokawaHayabusaFirst asteroid ascent.
First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.
Japan Japan19 November 2005
81P/WildStardustFirst sample return from comet.United States USA15 January 2006
Farthest distance from EarthVoyager 1At greatest distance from Earth, 18.8 billion km.United States USAAs of December 2013[18]
Longest time in operationPioneer 6Longest operating space probe, brief contact was
reestablished on 8 December 2000, after nearly 35 years in space.
United States USAAs of 2005
Earth to Venus trajectoryIKAROSFirst interplanetary solar sail.Japan Japanset sail on 10 June 2010
25143 ItokawaHayabusaFirst sample return from asteroid.Japan Japan13 June 2010
MercuryMESSENGERFirst orbiter.United States USA17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian pointChang'e 2First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[19]China ChinaAugust 25, 2011
International Space StationSpaceX DragonFirst commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station.United States SpaceXMay 25, 2012
4179 ToutatisChang'e 2First object to reach asteroid directly from Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
First probe to explore both Moon and asteroid.[20]
China ChinaDecember 13, 2012
67P/Churyumov–GerasimenkoRosettaFirst comet orbiter.[21]Not the esa logo.svg ESA
August 6, 2014
67P/Churyumov–GerasimenkoPhilaeFirst comet soft landing.[22]Not the esa logo.svg ESA
November 12, 2014

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Astronaut Biography". NASA. 
  2. ^ a b NASA (2005). "Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Biography". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  3. ^ NASA (2005). "Krikalev Sets Time-in-Space Record". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  4. ^ NASA. "Peggy A. Whitson (Ph.D.)". Biographical Data. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  5. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2009-03-30). "Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  6. ^ Tariq Malik (2007). "Orbital Champ: ISS Astronaut Sets New U.S. Spacewalk Record". 
  7. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Sunita Williams (5/2008)". NASA Logo National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  8. ^ "Astronautic World Records: Spacecraft with one astronaut - General category". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale.  This only counts the duration of solo flight within a mission, so a longer mission with solo flight, such as Apollo 17 at 12d+13h duration is surpassed because the solo undocked duration was only 3d+7h.)
  9. ^ a b Tate, Karl. "Cosmic Menagerie: A History of Animals in Space (Infographic)" (infographic). Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  10. ^ "most spacewalk". 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "MAJOR SPACE "FIRSTS'-AN AMERICAN ASSESSMENT" (PDF). Flight 91 (3028): 459. 1967-03-23. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  12. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts (sorted by "Time in Space")".  The current missions are listed but not included in day count.
  13. ^ Michael Foale holds dual U.S./British citizenship.
  14. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)".  The alphabetical list of astronauts provides the "Total Persons" "Total Person Flights" as well as the "Total person days", excepting the time of astronauts currently in orbit
  15. ^ "Manned spaceflights".  The flight list allows is searched to determine which flight is in orbit, and when it reached orbit. This allows determination of "Total in orbit (@ update) and update the "Total person days" accordingly.
  16. ^ "R-1V". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  17. ^ Asif A. Siddiqi. "Challenge to Apollo". NASA. ; see page. 253
  18. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ "Ching'e 2 to reaches liberation point 2". 2011-08-27. 
  20. ^ "China's space probe flies by asteroid Toutatis". December 2012.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ [2]

External links[edit]