List of spaceflight records

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965.

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and canine records are included.

First independent sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight by country[edit]

CountryMission and launch vehicleCrewDateType
Soviet Union USSRVostok 1, Vostok-KYuri Gagarin12 April 1961Orbital
United States USAMercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-RedstoneAlan Shepard5 May 1961Sub-orbital
United States USAMercury-Atlas 6, Atlas LV-3BJohn Glenn20 February 1962Orbital
Russia Russia
(as successor of the USSR)
Soyuz TM-14, Soyuz-U2Klaus-Dietrich Flade
Aleksandr Kaleri
Aleksandr Viktorenko
17 March 1992Orbital
China ChinaShenzhou 5, Long March 2FYang Liwei15 October 2003Orbital

Most spaceflights[edit]

* Dual citizen.

Duration of spaceflight[edit]

Most time in space[edit]

Ten longest human space flights[edit]

#Time in spaceCrewCountryLaunch date (Launch craft)Landing date (Landing craft)Space Station or mission type
1437.7 days[5]Valeri Polyakov[5] Russia1994-01-08 (Soyuz TM-18)1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20)Mir[5]
2379.6 daysSergei Avdeyev Russia1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28)1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29)Mir
3364.9 daysVladimir Titov
Musa Manarov
 Soviet Union1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4)1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6)Mir
4326.5 daysYuri Romanenko Soviet Union1987-02-5 (Soyuz TM-2)1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3)Mir
5311.8 daysSergei Krikalev Soviet Union/ Russia1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12)1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13)Mir
6240.9 daysValeri Polyakov Soviet Union1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6)1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7)Mir
7237.0 daysLeonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Oleg Atkov
 Soviet Union1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10)1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11)Salyut 7
8215.4 daysMikhail Tyurin
Michael López-Alegría
 Russia
 United States
2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9)2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9)International Space Station
9211.4 daysAnatoli Berezovoy
Valentin Lebedev
 Soviet Union1982-05-13 (Soyuz T-5)1982-12-10 (Soyuz T-7)Salyut 7
10207.5 daysTalgat Musabayev
Nikolai Budarin
 Russia1998-01-29 (Soyuz TM-27)1998-08-25 (Soyuz TM-27)Mir

Longest single flight by woman[edit]

Longest continuous occupation of space[edit]

Longest solo flight[edit]

Longest time on lunar surface[edit]

Longest time in lunar orbit[edit]

Animal records[edit]

First animal in orbit[edit]

Longest canine single flight[edit]

Speed and altitude[edit]

Farthest humans from Earth[edit]

Highest altitude for manned non-lunar mission[edit]

Fastest[edit]

Age records[edit]

Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)[edit]

Earliest-born to go into space (orbital flight)[edit]

Youngest (age during space flight)[edit]

Oldest (age during space flight)[edit]

Spacewalks[edit]

Most spacewalks[edit]

Most spacewalks during a single mission[edit]

Human spaceflight firsts[edit]

FirstPerson(s)MissionCountryDate
Person to reach space
Person in orbit
Gagarin in Sweden-2.jpg
Yuri GagarinVostok 1[11]Soviet Union USSR12 April 1961
Person to make suborbital flight
Person to land (splashdown)
in a spacecraft after spaceflight
Alan ShepardFreedom 7United States USA5 May 1961
Person in space for over 24 hours
Multiple orbits spaceflight
Gherman TitovVostok 2Soviet Union USSR6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land (splashdown)
in a spacecraft after orbital flight
John GlennFriendship 7United States USA20 February 1962
Group flight
Adjacent orbits
Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
Andrian Nikolayev
Pavel Popovich
Vostok 3
Vostok 4
Soviet Union USSR12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
Woman in space
Civilian in space
Valentina TereshkovaVostok 6Soviet Union USSR16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraftJoe WalkerX-15 Flight 90United States USA19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 km)Joe WalkerX-15 Flights
90 and 91
United States USA22 August 1963
Three-person spaceflight, single spacecraft
Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
Manned flight without pressurized spacesuits
Vladimir Komarov
Konstantin Feoktistov
Boris Yegorov
Voskhod 1[11]Soviet Union USSR12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk
Berkut spacesuit at Air and Space - back removed.jpg
Alexey LeonovVoskhod 2[11]Soviet Union USSR18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit)Gus Grissom, John W. YoungGemini 3[11]United States USA23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflightsGordon CooperFaith 7
Gemini 5
United States USA15 May 1963 –
16 May 1963;
21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in spaceGordon Cooper
Pete Conrad
Gemini 5United States USA21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
Space rendezvous
(orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
Four people in space
Frank Borman, Jim Lovell
Walter Schirra, Thomas Stafford
Gemini 7
Gemini 6A[11]
United States USA15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Space docking
Gemini 8 docking.jpg
Neil Armstrong
David Scott
Gemini 8 and Agena[11]United States USA16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvousJohn W. Young
Michael Collins
Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8United States USA19 July 1966;
20 July 1966
Spaceflight fatality (during landing)Vladimir KomarovSoyuz 1Soviet Union USSR23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflightsWalter SchirraApollo 7
(previous flights Mercury-Atlas 8, Gemini 6A)
United States USA22 October 1968
Persons to leave Low Earth orbit (LEO)
Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo8 Prime Crew2.jpg
Frank Borman
Jim Lovell
Bill Anders
Apollo 8United States USA24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
Space docking of two manned spacecraft
Dual spacewalk
Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)
Vladimir Shatalov
Boris Volynov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Yevgeny Khrunov
Soyuz 4
Soyuz 5
Soviet Union USSR16 January 1969
Moon landing/
planetary surface EVA
Aldrin Apollo 11 original.jpg
Neil Armstrong
Buzz Aldrin
Apollo 11United States USA20 July 1969
Time five people are in spaceGeorgi Shonin, Valeri Kubasov
Anatoly Filipchenko, Vladislav Volkov, Viktor Gorbatko
Soyuz 6
Soyuz 7
Soviet Union USSR12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
Triple spaceflight
Seven-people in space
Shonin, Kubasov
Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko
Vladimir Shatalov, Aleksei Yeliseyev
Soyuz 6
Soyuz 7
Soyuz 8
Soviet Union USSR13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflightsJames A. LovellApollo 13
(previous flights Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8)
United States USA17 April 1970
Person to fly two lunar flightsJames A. LovellApollo 13
(previous flight Apollo 8)
United States USA11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
People to spend two weeks in space
Night launch
Andrian Nikolayev
Vitali Sevastyanov
Soyuz 9Soviet Union USSR1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of
sight of their spacecraft
Alan Shepard
Edgar Mitchell
Apollo 14United States USA6 February 1971
Docking with space station
Night landing
Vladimir Shatalov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Nikolai Rukavishnikov
Soyuz 10
docked with Salyut 1 (soft dock)
Soviet Union USSR22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station
Salyut 4 and Soyuz drawing.svg
Georgi Dobrovolski
Viktor Patsayev
Vladislav Volkov
Soyuz 11
docked with Salyut 1
Soviet Union USSR7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalitiesGeorgi Dobrovolski
Viktor Patsayev
Vladislav Volkov
Soyuz 11Soviet Union USSR29 June 1971
EVA in outer space outside Low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory)Al WordenApollo 15United States USA5 August 1971
Person twice in lunar orbit
(during separate lunar expeditions)
John W. YoungApollo 16United States USA16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeksPete Conrad
Joseph Kerwin
Paul Weitz
Skylab 2United States USA25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeksAlan Bean
Jack Lousma
Owen Garriott
Skylab 3United States USA28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeksGerald Carr
William Pogue
Edward Gibson
Skylab 4United States USA16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
Spaceflight aborted during liftoff
(at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
Re-entry (emergency) with 20g acceleration
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg MakarovSoyuz 18aSoviet Union USSR5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space stationVladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg MakarovSoyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crewSoviet Union USSR10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr IvanchenkovSalyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31Soviet Union USSR15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery RyuminSalyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37Soviet Union USSR9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraftJohn W. Young
Robert L. Crippen
STS-1United States USA12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraftJohn W. YoungSTS-1United States USA12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflightsJohn W. YoungSTS-1
(previous flights Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16)
United States USA14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Vance Brand, Robert F. Overmyer
Joseph P. Allen, William B. Lenoir
STS-5United States USA11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Robert L. Crippen, Frederick H. Hauck
John M. Fabian, Sally K. Ride, Norman E. Thagard
STS-7United States USA18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
John W. Young, Brewster H. Shaw, Owen K. Garriott, Robert A. Parker, Byron K. LichtenbergUSA
Ulf MerboldGermany (European Space Agency)
STS-9United States USA
Germany West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflightsJohn W. YoungSTS-9
(previous flights Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1)
United States USA8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
EVAtion - GPN-2000-001087.jpg
Bruce McCandless IISTS-41-BUnited States USA7 February 1984
Time eight people in space, no dockingOleg Atkov, Leonid Kizim, Vladimir SolovyovUSSR
Vance D. Brand, Robert L. Gibson, Bruce McCandless II, Ronald McNair, Robert L. StewartUSA
Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-BSoviet Union USSR
United States USA
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
Time 11 people in space, no dockingOleg Atkov, Leonid D. Kizim, Yuri Malyshev, Vladimir Solovyov, Gennady StrekalovUSSR
Robert L. Crippen, Terry J. Hart, George Nelson, Francis Scobee, James van HoftenUSA
Rakesh SharmaIndia
STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
India India
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same missionLeonid Kizim, Vladimir SolovyovSalyut 7Soviet Union USSR26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by womanSvetlana SavitskayaSoyuz T-12Soviet Union USSR25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks
(7 months)
Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg AtkovSalyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11Soviet Union USSR8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
STS41G-19-006.jpg
Robert L. Crippen, Jon A. McBride, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride, David C. Leestma, Paul D. Scully-PowerUSA
Marc GarneauCanada
STS-41-GUnited States USA
Canada Canada
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Time two women in spaceKathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. RideSTS-41-GUnited States USA5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space stationAlexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir DzhanibekovSoyuz T-14, Salyut 7Soviet Union USSR17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
STS 61-A crew portrait onboard Challenger middeck.jpg
Henry W. Hartsfield, Steven R. Nagel, Bonnie J. Dunbar, James F. Buchli, Guion S. BlufordUSA
Reinhard Furrer, Ernst MesserschmidWest Germany
Wubbo OckelsNetherlands (European Space Agency)
STS-61-AUnited States USA
West Germany West Germany
EuropeNetherlands Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Fatalities during launchFrancis "Dick" Scobee
Michael J. Smith
Ellison Onizuka
Judith Resnik
Ronald McNair
Sharon Christa McAuliffe
Gregory Jarvis
STS-51-LUnited States USA28 January 1986
Space station to space station flight/
Space station to space station return flight/
Expedition on two space stations
Leonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to MirSoviet Union USSR15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space stationVladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander AlexandrovSoyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at MirSoviet Union USSR21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks
(one year)
Vladimir Titov, Musa ManarovMir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6Soviet Union USSR21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
Time 12 people in space; no dockingShuttle: Vance Brand, Samuel Durrance, Guy S. Gardner, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, Ronald Parise, Robert A. ParkerUSA
Mir: Gennady Manakov, Gennady StrekalovRussia

Soyuz and Soyuz/Mir:
Musa Manarov, Viktor AfanasyevRussia
Toyohiro AkiyamaJapan

STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10-Soyuz TM-11Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
Japan Japan
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Time three women in spaceMillie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea SeddonSTS-40United States USA5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
Three Crew Members Capture Intelsat VI - GPN-2000-001035.jpg
Pierre J. Thuot, Richard J. Hieb
Thomas D. Akers
STS-49United States USA13 May 1992
Time 13 people in space; no dockingShuttle: Steve Oswald, William Gregory, John Grunsfeld, Wendy Lawrence, Tammy Jernigan, Sam Durrance, Ron PariseUSA
Mir: Aleksandr Viktorenko, Yelena Kondakova, Valeriy PolyakovRussia

Soyuz/Mir:
Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady StrekalovRussia
Norman E. ThagardUSA

STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21United States USA
Russia Russia
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Time ten people in one spacecraft; docking
Crewmembers of STS-71, Mir-18 and Mir-19 Pose for Inflight Picture - GPN-2002-000061 rotated.jpg
Robert L. Gibson, Charles J. Precourt, Ellen S. Baker, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Gregory J. Harbaugh Norman E. ThagardUSA
Anatoly Solovyev, Nikolai Budarin, Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady StrekalovRussia
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21United States USA
Russia Russia
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Person to complete seven trips to spaceJerry L. RossSTS-110
(previous flights STS-61B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88)
United States USA19 April 2002
Privately-funded human space flight (suborbital)
Spaceship One and White Knight in flight 1.jpg
Mike MelvillSpaceShipOne flight 15PUnited States USA21 June 2004
Time 13 people in one spacecraft; docking
STS-127 group picture 03.jpg
Michael Barratt, Mark L. Polansky, Douglas G. Hurley, Christopher J. Cassidy, Thomas H. Marshburn, David Wolf, Timothy KopraUSA
Gennady Padalka, Roman RomanenkoRussia
Robert Thirsk, Julie PayetteCanada
Frank De WinneBelgium (European Space Agency)
Koichi WakataJapan
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127United States USA
Russia Russia
Canada Canada
Belgium Belgium
Japan Japan
17 July 2009
Four women in space at once
STS-131 and Expedition 23 Group Portrait.jpg
Shuttle: Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie WilsonUSA
Naoko YamazakiJapan
ISS: Tracy Caldwell DysonUSA
STS-131
ISS Expedition 23
United States USA
Japan Japan
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010

Total time in space[edit]

The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 13 October 2013.:[12]

      Active       Retired       Currently in space

RankPersonDaysFlightsStatusNationality
1Sergei Krikalev803.3716Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
2Alexandr Kaleri769.2765Active Russia
3Sergei Avdeyev747.5933Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
4Gennady Padalka710.2654Active Russia
5Valeriy Polyakov678.6902Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
6Anatoly Solovyev651.1175Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
7Yuri Malenchenko641.4665Active Russia
8Viktor Afanasyev555.7724Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
9Yury Usachev553.0164Retired (alive) Russia
10Pavel Vinogradov546.9393Active Russia
11Musa Manarov541.0212Retired (alive) Azerbaijan /  Soviet Union
12Alexander Viktorenko489.0664Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
13Nikolai Budarin444.0603Retired (alive) Russia
14Yuri Romanenko430.7653Retired (alive) Soviet Union
15Alexander Volkov391.4953Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
16Oleg Kononenko391.4712Active Russia
17Yuri I. Onufrienko389.2822Retired (alive) Russia
18Vladimir G. Titov387.0364Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
19Vasili Tsibliyev381.6622Retired (alive) Russia
20Valery G. Korzun381.6532Retired (alive) Russia
21Michael Fincke381.6333Active United States
22Peggy A. Whitson376.7382Active United States
23Leonid Kizim374.7493Retired (deceased) Soviet Union
24Michael Foale373.7636Active United States /  United Kingdom[13]
25Aleksandr Serebrov372.9544Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
26Valeri Ryumin371.7254Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
27Fyodor Yurchikhin370.8324Active Russia
28Sergey Volkov365.9403Active Russia
29Jeffrey Williams362.0603Active United States
30Vladimir Solovyov361.9522Retired (alive) Soviet Union
31Oleg Kotov359.9432Active Russia
32Thomas Reiter350.2392Retired (alive) Germany
33Mikhail Tyurin344.2132Active Russia
34Talgat Musabayev339.4093Retired (alive) Russia
35Vladimir Lyakhov333.3243Retired (alive) Soviet Union
36Yuri P. Gidzenko329.9503Retired (alive) Russia
37Sunita Williams321.7192Active United States
38Gennadi Manakov309.8892Retired (alive) Russia /  Soviet Union
39Aleksandr P. Aleksandrov309.7582Retired (alive) Soviet Union
40Gennady Strekalov268.9385Retired (deceased) Russia /  Soviet Union
41Michael López-Alegría257.9444Retired (alive) United States
42Viktor Savinykh252.8493Retired (alive) Soviet Union
43Vladimir Dezhurov244.2292Retired (alive) Russia
44Oleg Atkov236.9501Retired (alive) Soviet Union
45Carl E. Walz230.2124Retired (alive) United States
46Leroy Chiao229.3624Retired (alive) United States
47Daniel W. Bursch226.5944Retired (alive) United States
48William S. McArthur224.9304Retired (alive) United States
49Shannon W. Lucid223.1615Retired (alive) United States
50Valentin Lebedev219.2502Retired (alive) Soviet Union

Total human spaceflight time by country[edit]

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [14] [15]
NationTotal personsTotal person flightsTotal in orbit (@ update)*Total person days*+ % of Total person days
TOTAL5331201643305.13-
1
 Russia
 Soviet Union
118246323279.25
0.537563392902939
 United States333832216571.47
0.382667710977839
3457-1875.52
0.0433095211214378
 Japan9171800.90
0.0184942997774637
 Canada917-506.15
0.0116880085887123
 Germany1014-493.64
0.0113990865494881
 France917-432.19
0.00998003786363654
 Italy610-427.52
0.00987233955562579
 Netherlands23-210.69
0.00486526625356192
 Belgium23-207.66
0.00479517255131133
 China1012-100.81
0.00232800572793996
  Switzerland14-42.50
0.000981488228379694
 Sweden12-26.73
0.000617356977635185
 Spain12-18.78
0.000433711798460211
 Israel11-15.93
0.000367867657201702
 Ukraine11-15.69
0.000362319173793167
 Bulgaria22-11.80
0.000272469021949177
 Malaysia11-10.88
0.000251349505622471
 South Korea11-10.88
0.000251333469543255
 South Africa11-9.89
0.000228433948423638
 Brazil11-9.89
0.000228305659789914
 Afghanistan11-8.85
0.000204395865679725
 Syria11-7.96
0.000183837612125559
 Czechoslovakia11-7.93
0.000183083916402434
 Austria11-7.93
0.000183003736006357
 Poland11-7.92
0.000182843375214203
 Slovakia11-7.91
0.00018274715873891
 India11-7.90
0.000182490581471463
 United Kingdom11-7.88
0.000182057607332647
 Hungary11-7.86
0.000181608597114615
 Cuba11-7.86
0.000181576524956185
 Romania11-7.86
0.000181560488876969
 Mongolia11-7.86
0.000181560488876969
 Vietnam11-7.86
0.000181560488876969
 Saudi Arabia11-7.07
0.00016321521425453
 Mexico11-6.88
0.000158821328549506
Table data accurate as of 2014-01-05 05:01 UTC
Astronauts currently in space (grouped by flight):
Soyuz TMA-11M: Richard Alan "Rick" Mastracchio United States, Mikhail Vladislavovich Tyurin Russia, Koichi Wakata Japan
Soyuz TMA-10M: Michael Scott Hopkins United States, Oleg Valeriyevich Kotov Russia, Sergei Nikolayevich Ryazansky Russia
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de - see table references).

Notable unmanned spaceflights[edit]

In reference to:SpacecraftEventCountryDate
EarthA-4(V-2)First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight)Germany GermanyJune 1944
EarthV-2 No. 20First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight)United States USA20 February 1947
EarthR-1V[16]First animals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recoveredSoviet Union USSR22 July 1951
EarthSputnik 1First satellite in orbit[11]Soviet Union USSR4 October 1957
EarthSputnik 2First animal in orbit, Laika the dogSoviet Union USSR3 November 1957
EarthVanguard 1Oldest satellite still in orbit— expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964United States USA17 March 1958
EarthJupiter AM-13First monkey in spaceUnited States USA13 December 1958
EarthLuna 1First spacecraft to reach Earth's escape velocitySoviet Union USSR4 January 1959
MoonLuna 1First flyby, dist. of 5,995 kmSoviet Union USSR4 January 1959
SunLuna 1First spacecraft in heliocentric orbitSoviet Union USSR4 January 1959
MoonLuna 2First impact[11]Soviet Union USSR14 September 1959
MoonLuna 3First image of lunar far-side[11]Soviet Union USSR7 October 1959
EarthDiscoverer 13First satellite recovered from orbit[11]United States USA11 August 1960
EarthKorabl-Sputnik 2First living beings recovered from orbit.[17]Soviet Union USSR19 August 1960
VenusVenera 1First flyby, dist. of 100,000 km (lost communication contact before)[11]Soviet Union USSR19 May 1961
VenusMariner 2First planetary flyby, dist. of 34,762 km (with communication contact)United States USA14 December 1962
MarsMariner 4First Mars flyby, first planetary imaging, dist. of 9,846 kmUnited States USA14 July 1965
MoonLuna 9First soft landing, first pictures from lunar surface[11]Soviet Union USSR3 February 1966
VenusVenera 3First impact[11]Soviet Union USSR1 March 1966
MoonLuna 10First orbiter[11]Soviet Union USSR3 April 1966
MoonZond 5First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth
First animals to circle the Moon
Soviet Union USSR15 September 1968
MoonLuna 16First automated sample returnSoviet Union USSR24 September 1970
MoonLuna 17First automated roving vehicle – Lunokhod 1Soviet Union USSR17 November 1970
VenusVenera 7First soft landingSoviet Union USSR15 December 1970
MarsMariner 9First orbiterUnited States USA14 November 1971
MarsMars 2First impactSoviet Union USSR27 November 1971
MarsMars 3First soft landing, telemetry signal for 20 seconds
before transmissions ceased
Soviet Union USSR2 December 1971
SunPioneer 10First spacecraft to reach Sun's escape velocityUnited States USA3 March 1972
JupiterPioneer 10First flyby, dist. of 130,000 kmUnited States USA4 December 1973
MercuryMariner 10First flyby, dist. of 703 kmUnited States USA29 March 1974
VenusVenera 9First orbiter
First surface-level imaging of another planet
Soviet Union USSR22 October 1975
SunHelios 2
  • Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the sun, 252,792 km/h.
  • Closest ever approach to the sun at a record distance of 0.29 AU (43 million km), slightly inside the orbit of Mercury. Record still unbeaten as of November 2009 but to be beaten by the future Solar Orbiter probe (0.23 AU / 33 million km).
West Germany West Germany17 April 1976
MarsViking 1First surface-level imaging of MarsUnited States USA20 July 1976
SaturnPioneer 11First flyby, dist. of 21,000 kmUnited States USA1 September 1979
VenusVenera 13First sound record on another planetSoviet Union USSR1 March 1982
Interstellar spacePioneer 10First extra-solar spacecraft (disputed because only according to some definitions)United States USA13 June 1983
VenusVega 1First helium balloon atmospheric probeSoviet Union USSR11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-ZinnerInternational Cometary Explorer (ICE)First flyby through comet tail, dist. of 7,800 km, no pictures.United States USA11 September 1985
UranusVoyager 2First flyby, dist. of 81,500 kmUnited States USA24 January 1986
Comet HalleyVega 1First comet flyby with pictures returned, dist. of 8,890 kmSoviet Union USSR6 March 1986
Orbital SpaceplaneBuranFirst fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing)Soviet Union USSR15 November 1988
PhobosPhobos 2First flyby, dist. of 860 kmSoviet Union USSR21 February 1989
NeptuneVoyager 2First flyby, dist. of 40,000 kmUnited States USA25 August 1989
951 GaspraGalileo probeFirst asteroid flyby, dist. of 1,600 kmUnited States USA29 October 1991
JupiterGalileo probeFirst impactUnited States USA7 December 1995
JupiterGalileo probeFirst orbiterUnited States USA8 December 1995
MarsMars PathfinderFirst automated roving vehicle – SojournerUnited States USA4 July 1997
433 ErosNEAR ShoemakerFirst asteroid orbiterUnited States USA14 February 2000
433 ErosNEAR ShoemakerFirst asteroid soft landingUnited States USA12 February 2001
SaturnCassini orbiterFirst orbiterEurope ESA
United States USA
1 July 2004
Solar windGenesisFirst sample return from farther than the MoonUnited States USA8 September 2004
TitanHuygens probeFirst soft landingEurope ESA
United States USA
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1Deep ImpactFirst comet impactUnited States USA4 July 2005
25143 ItokawaHayabusaFirst asteroid ascent
First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff
Japan JPN19 November 2005
81P/WildStardustFirst sample return from cometUnited States USA15 January 2006
Farthest distance from EarthVoyager 1At greatest distance from Earth, 18.8 billion kmUnited States USAAs of December 2013[18]
Longest time in operationPioneer 6Longest operating space probe, brief contact was
reestablished on 8 December 2000, after nearly 35 years in space.
United States USAAs of 2005
Earth to Venus trajectoryIKAROSFirst interplanetary solar sailJapan JPNset sail on 10 June 2010
25143 ItokawaHayabusaFirst sample return from asteroidJapan JPN13 June 2010
MercuryMESSENGERFirst orbiterUnited States USA17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian pointChang'e 2First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[19]China ChinaAugust 25, 2011
International Space StationSpaceX DragonFirst commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station.United States SpaceXMay 25, 2012
4179 ToutatisChang'e 2First object to reach asteroid directly from Sun-Earth Langrangian point
First probe to explore both Moon and asteroid.[20]
China ChinaDecember 13, 2012

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Astronaut Biography". NASA. 
  2. ^ a b NASA (2005). "Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Biography". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  3. ^ NASA (2005). "Krikalev Sets Time-in-Space Record". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  4. ^ NASA. "Peggy A. Whitson (Ph.D.)". Biographical Data. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  5. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2009-03-30). "Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  6. ^ Tariq Malik (2007). "Orbital Champ: ISS Astronaut Sets New U.S. Spacewalk Record". Space.com. 
  7. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Sunita Williams (5/2008)". NASA Logo National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  8. ^ "Astronautic World Records: Spacecraft with one astronaut - General category". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale.  This only counts the duration of solo flight within a mission, so a longer mission with solo flight, such as Apollo 17 at 12d+13h duration is surpassed because the solo undocked duration was only 3d+7h.)
  9. ^ "most spacewalk". 
  10. ^ Tariq Malik. "Orbital Finale: ISS Spacewalkers Free Stuck Cargo Ship Antenna". Space.com. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "MAJOR SPACE "FIRSTS'-AN AMERICAN ASSESSMENT" (PDF). Flight 91 (3028): 459. 1967-03-23. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  12. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts (sorted by "Time in Space")". spacefacts.de.  The current missions are listed but not included in day count.
  13. ^ Michael Foale holds dual U.S./British citizenship.
  14. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)". spacefacts.de.  The alphabetical list of astronauts provides the "Total Persons" "Total Person Flights" as well as the "Total person days", excepting the time of astronauts currently in orbit
  15. ^ "Manned spaceflights". spacefacts.de.  The flight list allows is searched to determine which flight is in orbit, and when it reached orbit. This allows determination of "Total in orbit (@ update) and update the "Total person days" accordingly.
  16. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/r1v.htm
  17. ^ Asif A. Siddiqi. "Challenge to Apollo". NASA. ; see page. 253
  18. ^ http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/where/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ "Ching'e 2 to reaches liberation point 2". 2011-08-27. 
  20. ^ "China's space probe flies by asteroid Toutatis". Chinadaily.com.cn.16 December 2012.

External links[edit]