List of sovereign states

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This list of sovereign states provides an overview of states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The 206 states listed are divided into:

  1. The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] two observer states, and 11 other states.
  2. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

List of states[edit]

Short and formal namesMembership within the UN System [Note 1]Sovereignty dispute [Note 2]Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 4]
A AAAA AAAA AAA
ZZZUN member states or observer statesA AAAZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → AbkhaziaA UN member stateA None
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of AfghanistanA UN member stateA None
 Albania – Republic of AlbaniaA UN member stateA None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaA UN member stateA None
 Andorra – Principality of AndorraA UN member stateA NoneAndorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
 Angola – Republic of AngolaA UN member stateA None
 Antigua and BarbudaA UN member stateA NoneAntigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 6][3]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[Note 7]A UN member stateA NoneArgentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
 Armenia – Republic of ArmeniaA UN member stateNot recognized by Pakistan[4][5][6]
 Australia – Commonwealth of AustraliaA UN member stateA NoneAustralia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of AustriaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Austria is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).
 Azerbaijan – Republic of AzerbaijanA UN member stateA NoneAzerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 6] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of the BahamasA UN member stateA NoneThe Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of BahrainA UN member stateA None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of BangladeshA UN member stateA None
 BarbadosA UN member stateA NoneBarbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Belarus – Republic of BelarusA UN member stateA None
 Belgium – Kingdom of BelgiumA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
 BelizeA UN member stateA NoneBelize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Benin – Republic of Benin[Note 8]A UN member stateA None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of BhutanA UN member stateA None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of BoliviaA UN member stateA None
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaA UN member stateA NoneBosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.[Note 9]

 Botswana – Republic of BotswanaA UN member stateA None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of BrazilA UN member stateA NoneBrazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of PeaceA UN member stateA None
 Bulgaria – Republic of BulgariaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Burkina Faso[Note 10]A UN member stateA None
 Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[Note 11][8]A UN member stateA None
 Burundi – Republic of BurundiA UN member stateA None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of CambodiaA UN member stateA None
 Cameroon – Republic of CameroonA UN member stateA None
 Canada[Note 12]A UN member stateA NoneCanada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo VerdeA UN member stateA None
 Central African RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Chad – Republic of ChadA UN member stateA None
 Chile – Republic of ChileA UN member stateA NoneEaster Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region.
 China – People's Republic of China[Note 13]A UN member stateNot recognized by 22 states. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliThe People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China is not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise Taiwan (the Republic of China).[Note 14]

China claims, but does not control, the de facto independent Taiwan.[Note 15]

China, Republic of → TaiwanA UN member stateA None
 Colombia – Republic of ColombiaA UN member stateA None
 Comoros – Union of the ComorosA UN member stateA NoneComoros is a federation of 3 islands.[Note 16][9]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the[Note 17]A UN member stateA None
 Congo, Republic of the[Note 18]A UN member stateA None
ZZZCook Islands → Cook IslandsA UN member stateA None
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa RicaA UN member stateA None
Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory CoastA UN member stateA None
 Croatia – Republic of CroatiaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Cuba – Republic of CubaA UN member stateA None
 Cyprus – Republic of CyprusA UN member stateNot recognised by Turkey and Northern CyprusMember of the EU.[Note 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of South Cyprus".[10]
 Czech Republic[Note 19]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, NorthA UN member stateA None
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of theA UN member stateA None
 Denmark – Kingdom of DenmarkA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]

The Danish Realm also includes two self-governing territories:

 Djibouti – Republic of DjiboutiA UN member stateA None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of DominicaA UN member stateA None
 Dominican RepublicA UN member stateA None
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[Note 20]A UN member stateA None
 Ecuador – Republic of EcuadorA UN member stateA None
 Egypt – Arab Republic of EgyptA UN member stateA None
 El Salvador – Republic of El SalvadorA UN member stateA None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial GuineaA UN member stateA None
 Eritrea – State of EritreaA UN member stateA None
 Estonia – Republic of EstoniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaA UN member stateA NoneEthiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of FijiA UN member stateA NoneFiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 6][11][12]
 Finland – Republic of FinlandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 France – French RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
 Gabon – Gabonese RepublicA UN member stateA None
Gambia  Gambia, The – Republic of the GambiaA UN member stateA None
 GeorgiaA UN member stateA NoneGeorgia contains two autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of GermanyA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Bundesländer).
 Ghana – Republic of GhanaA UN member stateA None
 Greece – Hellenic RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[13]
 GrenadaA UN member stateA NoneGrenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Guatemala – Republic of GuatemalaA UN member stateA None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[Note 22]A UN member stateA None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-BissauA UN member stateA None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of GuyanaA UN member stateA None
 Haiti – Republic of HaitiA UN member stateA None
Holy See → Vatican CityA UN member stateA None
 Honduras – Republic of HondurasA UN member stateA None
 HungaryA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Iceland – Republic of IcelandA UN member stateA None
 India – Republic of IndiaA UN member stateA NoneIndia is a federation of 28 states and seven union territories.
 Indonesia – Republic of IndonesiaA UN member stateA NoneIndonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 6]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of IranA UN member stateA None
 Iraq – Republic of IraqA UN member stateA NoneIraq is a federation[Note 16][14] of 18 governorates, three of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 6]
 Ireland[Note 23]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Israel – State of IsraelA UN member stateNot recognised by 32 statesIsrael exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[15] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[16] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered the occupying power under international law.[17][18][19][20][21] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
 Italy – Italian RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Italy has five autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 6]
 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'IvoireA UN member stateA None
 JamaicaA UN member stateA NoneJamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 JapanA UN member stateA None
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of JordanA UN member stateA None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of KazakhstanA UN member stateA None
 Kenya – Republic of KenyaA UN member stateA None
 Kiribati – Republic of KiribatiA UN member stateA None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of KoreaA UN member stateB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliNorth Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 24][22]
 Korea, South – Republic of KoreaA UN member stateB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliSouth Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 6][23] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 24]
ZZZKosovo → KosovoA UN member stateA None
 Kuwait – State of KuwaitA UN member stateA None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Latvia – Republic of LatviaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Lebanon – Lebanese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of LesothoA UN member stateA None
 Liberia – Republic of LiberiaA UN member stateA None
 Libya – State of LibyaA UN member stateA NoneLibya has one self-declared autonomous region:[24]
 Liechtenstein – Principality of LiechtensteinA UN member stateA None
 Lithuania – Republic of LithuaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of LuxembourgA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Macedonia – Republic of MacedoniaA UN member stateA NoneBecause of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
 Madagascar – Republic of MadagascarA UN member stateA None
 Malawi – Republic of MalawiA UN member stateA None
 MalaysiaA UN member stateA NoneMalaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
 Maldives – Republic of MaldivesA UN member stateA None
 Mali – Republic of MaliA UN member stateA None
 Malta – Republic of MaltaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall IslandsA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of MauritaniaA UN member stateA None
 Mauritius – Republic of MauritiusA UN member stateA NoneMauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 6]
 Mexico – United Mexican StatesA UN member stateA NoneMexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
 Micronesia, Federated States ofA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
 Moldova – Republic of MoldovaA UN member stateA NoneMoldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
 Monaco – Principality of MonacoA UN member stateA None
 MongoliaA UN member stateA None
 MontenegroA UN member stateA None
 Morocco – Kingdom of MoroccoA UN member stateA NoneMorocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
 Mozambique – Republic of MozambiqueA UN member stateA None
Myanmar → BurmaA UN member stateA None
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-KarabakhA UN member stateA None
 Namibia – Republic of NamibiaA UN member stateA None
 Nauru – Republic of NauruA UN member stateA None
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of NepalA UN member stateA NoneNepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the NetherlandsA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and his ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of its constituent country, the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 New ZealandA UN member stateA NoneNew Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[Note 5] and has the dependent territories of:

New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 39 and 8 UN members respectively.[25][26][27] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[28] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

 Nicaragua – Republic of NicaraguaA UN member stateA NoneNicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 6]
 Niger – Republic of NigerA UN member stateA None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of NigeriaA UN member stateA NoneNigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → NiueA UN member stateA None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern CyprusA UN member stateA None
North Korea → Korea, NorthA UN member stateA None
 Norway – Kingdom of NorwayA UN member stateA None

Norway has the dependent territories of:

 Oman – Sultanate of OmanA UN member stateA None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of PakistanA UN member stateA NonePakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[29][30] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[31][32] The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 25]
 Palau – Republic of PalauA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Palestine – State of PalestineA UN observer state; member of one UN specialized agencyB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliThe declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 134 states.[33] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed.[34] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[35] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[36] and an observer state in the UN.
 Panama – Republic of PanamaA UN member stateA None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New GuineaA UN member stateA NonePapua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 6]
 Paraguay – Republic of ParaguayA UN member stateA None
 Peru – Republic of PeruA UN member stateA None
 Philippines – Republic of the PhilippinesA UN member stateA NoneThe Philippines contains one autonomous region, Bangsamoro.[Note 6]
 Poland – Republic of PolandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Portugal – Portuguese RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 6]
Pridnestrovie → TransnistriaA UN member stateA None
 Qatar – State of QatarA UN member stateA None
Republic of Korea → Korea, SouthA UN member stateA None
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of theA UN member stateA None
 RomaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Russia – Russian FederationA UN member stateA NoneRussia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 6]
 Rwanda – Republic of RwandaA UN member stateA None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and NevisA UN member stateA NoneSaint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and is a federation[Note 16] of 14 parishes.
 Saint LuciaA UN member stateA NoneSaint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesA UN member stateA NoneSaint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Samoa – Independent State of SamoaA UN member stateA None
 San Marino – Republic of San MarinoA UN member stateA None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeA UN member stateA NoneSão Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 6]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaA UN member stateA None
 Senegal – Republic of SenegalA UN member stateA None
 Serbia – Republic of SerbiaA UN member stateA NoneSerbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 6] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of SeychellesA UN member stateA None
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra LeoneA UN member stateA None
 Singapore – Republic of SingaporeA UN member stateA None
 Slovakia – Slovak RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Slovenia – Republic of SloveniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
 Solomon IslandsA UN member stateA NoneThe Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Somalia – Federal Republic of SomaliaA UN member stateA NoneSomalia is presently divided with the official Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the FGS does not recognise),[37][need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → SomalilandA UN member stateA None
 South Africa – Republic of South AfricaA UN member stateA None
South Korea → Korea, SouthA UN member stateA None
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South OssetiaA UN member stateA None
 South Sudan – Republic of South SudanA UN member stateA NoneSouth Sudan is a federation of 10 states.
 Spain – Kingdom of SpainA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 6]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri LankaA UN member stateA NoneFormerly known as Ceylon.
 Sudan – Republic of the SudanA UN member stateA NoneSudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.
ZZZSudan, South → South SudanA UN member stateA None
 Suriname – Republic of SurinameA UN member stateA None
 Swaziland – Kingdom of SwazilandA UN member stateA None
 Sweden – Kingdom of SwedenA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3]
  Switzerland – Swiss ConfederationA UN member stateA NoneSwitzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab RepublicA UN member stateA NoneThe Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.
ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → TaiwanA UN member stateA None
 Tajikistan – Republic of TajikistanA UN member stateA NoneTajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 6]
 Tanzania – United Republic of TanzaniaA UN member stateA NoneTanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 6]
 Thailand – Kingdom of ThailandA UN member stateA None
Timor-Leste → East TimorA UN member stateA None
 Togo – Togolese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Tonga – Kingdom of TongaA UN member stateA None
ZZZTransnistria → TransnistriaA UN member stateA None
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and TobagoA UN member stateA NoneTrinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 6]
 Tunisia – Republic of TunisiaA UN member stateA None
 Turkey – Republic of TurkeyA UN member stateA None
 TurkmenistanA UN member stateA None
 TuvaluA UN member stateA NoneTuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Uganda – Republic of UgandaA UN member stateA None
 UkraineA UN member stateA None
 United Arab EmiratesA UN member stateA NoneThe United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[Note 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of AmericaA UN member stateA NoneThe United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of UruguayA UN member stateA None
 Uzbekistan – Republic of UzbekistanA UN member stateA NoneUzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 6]
 Vanuatu – Republic of VanuatuA UN member stateA None
  Vatican City – Vatican City StateA UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEAA NoneAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 179 states.[38] The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[35] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaA UN member stateA NoneVenezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of VietnamA UN member stateA None
 Yemen – Republic of YemenA UN member stateA None
 Zambia – Republic of ZambiaA UN member stateA None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of ZimbabweA UN member stateA None
ZZZUN member states and observer statesA ZZZZZZ
ZZZABB
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓D AAAZZZ
 Abkhazia – Republic of AbkhaziaD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliRecognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela,[39] Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[40] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Cook IslandsD Member of seven UN specialized agenciesA NoneA state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands has relations with 41 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[28] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Kosovo – Republic of KosovoD Member of two UN specialized agenciesB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliKosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has received diplomatic recognition from 107 UN member states and Taiwan. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliA de facto independent state,[41][42][43] recognised only by Abkhazia,[44] South Ossetia[44] and Transnistria.[44][45] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[46]
 NiueD Member of five UN specialized agenciesA NoneA state in free association with New Zealand, Niue has relations with nine other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[28] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusD No membershipClaimed by CyprusRecognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[47]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliRecognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 39 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of SomalilandD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliA de facto independent state,[41][48][49][50][51] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[52]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South OssetiaD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliA de facto independent state,[53] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[39] Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Transnistria.[40] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[54]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 13]D Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliA state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 26] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[55] The Republic of China is recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See as of 2013. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 15] The Republic of China participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.
 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by MaliA de facto independent state,[41] recognised only by Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and South Ossetia.[40] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[56]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑D ZZZZZZ
ZZZZZZZZZZZZ
Legend "Membership within the UN system" column
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN system
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

or

Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[57][Note 27]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.[7]
  4. ^ Information is included on:
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  7. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  8. ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  9. ^ For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  10. ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  11. ^ Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  12. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  13. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  14. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  15. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  16. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  17. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  18. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  19. ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  20. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  21. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  22. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  23. ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  24. ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  25. ^ Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  26. ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  27. ^ The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006). "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  2. ^ "Andorra country profile". BBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  4. ^ Pakistan Worldview – Report 21 – Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008[dead link]
  5. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] – Today.Az
  6. ^ "Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy". News.Az. February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014. "We are the only country not recognizing Armenia as a state." 
  7. ^ Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  9. ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  10. ^ See Republic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  11. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10. [dead link]
  12. ^ Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  13. ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  14. ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  15. ^ Knesset website, Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
  16. ^ "Disputes – International". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  17. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  18. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  19. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  20. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  21. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  22. ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  23. ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  24. ^ "East Libya declares self-government". Al Jazeera. November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  25. ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  26. ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  27. ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  28. ^ a b c http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  29. ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  30. ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). 
  31. ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9. 
  32. ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9. 
  33. ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  34. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  35. ^ a b "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  36. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  37. ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0. 
  38. ^ "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  39. ^ a b "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  40. ^ a b c "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  41. ^ a b c Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53. "...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland." 
  42. ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9. 
  43. ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  44. ^ a b c Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он."
  45. ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  46. ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  47. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  48. ^ "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession". Minnesota Journal of International Law 19:2: 380–381. 2010. "Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood." 
  49. ^ International Crisis Group (23 May 2006). "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership". Africa Report (110): 10–13. Retrieved 2011-04-19 
  50. ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland". ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8. Retrieved 2011-04-19 
  51. ^ Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland". Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved 2011-04-17 
  52. ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  53. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm". Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3 
  54. ^ "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  55. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. 
  56. ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  57. ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography[edit]