List of sky deities

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Jupiter, the sky father of Greco-Roman mythology

The sky has important religious significance. Most polytheistic religions have a deity or deities whose portfolio includes or is even limited to the sky or the heavens. While there are often multiple sky deities, sometimes this position is reserved for a deity who is conceived as reigning over the others, or at least is one of the most powerful. When the main sky deity was seen as feminine, she often held the title of the "Queen of Heaven." Ancient sky goddesses who held the title "Queen of Heaven" included Isis, Astarte, Ishtar, and Inanna. (The title was later applied to the Virgin Mary, along with various other features and attributes of ancient pagan goddesses.)

Another common conception is that of a complementary polarity between Earth and sky that may be ascribed genders as a mated pair. In some religions this takes the form of a Sky father and an Earth mother, while in other religions the mated couple are a sky goddess and an earth god. (For example, Nut and Geb in ancient Egypt.) In still other religions, there is a main pair of deities who rule the sky as husband and wife (for example, Zeus and Hera in ancient Greece), while a different pair of deities (e.g., Hades and Persephone) rule the Earth and/or chthonic realms. Along similar lines, some scholars of religion hold that Jehovah or Yahweh, the monotheistic deity of the Jewish bible, originally had a wife who was most likely the sky goddess Asherah. (See The Hebrew Goddess.) In some contemporary religions, the divine pair of sky deities are known as the "Heavenly Father" and the "Heavenly Mother."



Egyptian mythology

Sub Saharan mythology

Ancient Near East

Ancient Semitic religion

Hurrian mythology

Mesopotamian mythology

Armenian mythology


Basque mythology

Celtic mythology

Etruscan mythology

Finnish mythology

Greek mythology

Roman mythology

Sami mythology

Slavic mythology

Thracian mythology

South Asia

East and Southeast Asia

Chinese mythology

Japanese mythology

Māori mythology

Thai and Lao Mythology

Central Asia

Turkic mythology

Udmurt mythology



Aztec mythology

Inca Mythology

Maya mythology

Native American mythology

Australia and Oceania


Oceania mythology

See also