List of science fiction films of the 1970s

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A list of science fiction films released in the 1970s. These films include core elements of science fiction, but can cross into other genres. They have been released to a cinema audience by the commercial film industry and are widely distributed with reviews by reputable critics.

During the 1970s, blockbuster science fiction films, which reached a much larger audience than previously, began to make their appearance. The financial success of these movies resulted in heavy investment in special effects by the American film industry, leading to big-budget, heavily marketed science fiction film releases during the 1990s.[1] Collectively, the science fiction films from the 1970s received 11 Academy Awards, 10 Saturn Awards, six Hugo Awards, three Nebula Awards and two Grammy Awards. Two of these movies, Star Wars (1977) and Superman (1978), were the highest grossing films of their respective years of release.


1970197119721973197419751976197719781979

1970
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
Beneath the Planet of the ApesTed PostJames Franciscus, Kim Hunter, Maurice EvansUnited States
CleopatraOsamu Tezuka, Eiichi YamamotoChinatsu Nakayama, Kotoe Hatsui, Tsubame YanagiyaJapanAnime film
Colossus: The Forbin ProjectJoseph SargentEric Braeden, Susan Clark, Gordon PinsentUnited States[nb 1]
Crimes of the FutureDavid CronenbergRonald Mlodzik, Jon Lidolt, Tania ZoltyCanada
Gamera vs. JigerNoriyaki YuasaTsutomu Takakuwa, Kelly Varis, Katherine MurphyJapan
Gas-s-s-sRoger CormanRobert Corff, Elaine Giftos, Bud CortUnited States
I Killed Einstein, GentlemenOldřich LipskýJiří Sovák, Jana Brejchová, Lubomír LipskýCzechoslovakia
The Mind of Mr. SoamesAlan CookeTerence Stamp, Robert Vaughn, Nigel Davenport
No Blade of GrassCornel WildeNigel Davenport, Jean Wallace, John Hamill
On the CometKarel ZemanEmil Horváth, Magda Vášáryová, František FilipovskýCzechoslovakia
Scream and Scream AgainGordon HesslerVincent Price, Christopher Lee, Peter Cushing
Signals - A Space AdventureGottfried KolditzPiotr Pawłowski, Evgeniy Zharikov, Gojko MitićEast Germany PolandGerman title: Signale - Ein Weltraumabenteuer[2]
SkullduggeryGordon DouglasBurt Reynolds, Susan Clark, Roger C. CarmelUnited States
Space AmoebaIshirō HondaAkira Kubo, Atsuko Takahashi, Yukiko KobayashiJapanAlternate title: Yog, Monster from Space
ToomorrowVal GuestOlivia Newton-John, Benny Thomas, Vic CooperUnited Kingdom
1971
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
The Andromeda StrainRobert WiseJames Olson, Arthur Hill, David WayneUnited States
The Big MessAlexander KlugeVinzenz Sterr, Maria Sterr, Sigi GraueWest GermanyGerman title: Der große Verhau[3]
A Clockwork OrangeStanley KubrickMalcolm McDowell, Patrick Magee, Michael Bates[nb 2]
Escape from the Planet of the ApesDon TaylorRoddy McDowall, Kim Hunter, Bradford DillmanUnited States
Gamera vs. ZigraNoriyaki YuasaKoji Fujiyama, Daigo Inoue, Reiko KasaharaJapan
Glen and RandaJim McBrideSteven Curry, Shelley Plimpton, Woody ChamblissUnited States
Godzilla vs. HedorahYoshimitsu BannoAkira Yamauchi, Toshie Kimura, Hiroyuki KawaseJapan
HaytaboUlli Lommel, Peter MolandEddie Constantine, Katrin Schaake, Uschi ObermaierWest Germany[4]
The Incredible 2-Headed TransplantAnthony LanzaBruce Dern, Patricia Ann Priest, Casey KasemUnited States
The Omega ManBoris SagalCharlton Heston, Anthony Zerbe, Rosalind CashUnited States
Out of the DarknessChatrichalerm YukolSorapong ChatreeThailand
Quest for LoveRalph ThomasJoan Collins, Tom Bell, Denholm ElliotUnited Kingdom
THX 1138George LucasRobert Duvall, Donald Pleasence, Don Pedro ColleyUnited States
You Are a Widow, SirVáclav VorlíčekIva Janžurová, Olga Schoberová, Eduard CupákCzechoslovakia
1972
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
Beware! The BlobLarry HagmanRobert Walker, Jr., Gwynne Gilford, Richard StahlUnited States
Conquest of the Planet of the ApesJ. Lee ThompsonRoddy McDowall, Don Murray, Ricardo MontalbanUnited States
Doomsday MachineHerbert J. LederBobby Van, Ruta Lee, Mala PowersUnited StatesVideo title: Escape from Planet Earth
DoomwatchPeter SasdyIan Bannen, Judy Geeson, John PaulUnited KingdomBased on the BBC television series
EolomeaHerrmann ZschocheCox Habbema, Ivan Andonov, Rolf HoppeEast Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria
Godzilla vs. GiganJun FukudaHiroshi Ishikawa, Yuriko Hishimi, Minoru TakashimaJapan
The Happiness CageBernard GirardChristopher Walken, Joss Ackland, Ralph MeekerUnited States Denmark
The Man with the Transplanted BrainJacques Doniol-ValcrozeMathieu Carrière, Jean-Pierre Aumont, Nicoletta MachiavelliFrance Italy West GermanyFrench title: L'homme au cerveau greffé[5]
Night of the LepusWilliam F. ClaxtonStuart Whitman, Janet Leigh, Rory CalhounUnited States
Now You See Him, Now You Don'tRobert ButlerKurt Russell, Cesar Romero, Joe FlynnUnited States
Silent RunningDouglas TrumbullBruce Dern, Cliff Potts, Ron RifkinUnited States
Slaughterhouse FiveGeorge Roy HillMichael Sacks, Ron Leibman, Eugene RocheUnited States[nb 3]
SolarisAndrei TarkovskyNatalya Bondarchuk, Donatas Banionis, Jüri JärvetSoviet Union[nb 4]
The Thing with Two HeadsLee FrostRosey Grier, Ray Milland, Don MarshallUnited States
Z.P.G.Michael CampusOliver Reed, Geraldine Chaplin, Don Gordon
1973
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
Battle for the Planet of the ApesJ. Lee ThompsonRoddy McDowall, Claude Akins, Natalie TrundyUnited States
Beyond AtlantisEddie RomeroPatrick Wayne, John Ashley, Leigh ChristianUnited States
Digby, the Biggest Dog in the WorldJoseph McGrathJim Dale, Spike Milligan, Angela Douglas
The Day of the DolphinMike NicholsGeorge C. Scott, Trish Van Devere, Paul SorvinoUnited States
Fantastic PlanetRené LalouxJennifer Drake, Eric Baugin, Jean TopartFranceCzechoslovakiaAnimated film
The Final ProgrammeRobert FuestJon Finch, Jenny Runacre, Sterling HaydenUnited Kingdom
Godzilla vs. MegalonJun FukudaKatsuhiko Sasaki, Hiroyuki Kawase, Yutaka HayashiJapan
Idaho TransferPeter FondaKelly Bohanon, Kevin Hearst, Caroline HildebrandUnited States
Invasion of the Bee GirlsDenis SandersWilliam Smith, Anitra Ford, Victoria VetriUnited States
Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the FutureLeonid GaidaiYury Yakovlev, Leonid Kuravlyov, Aleksandr DemyanenkoSoviet Union
The Neptune FactorDaniel PetrieBen Gazzara, Walter Pidgeon, Ernest BorgnineCanada
SleeperWoody AllenWoody Allen, Diane Keaton, John BeckUnited States[nb 5]
Soylent GreenRichard FleischerCharlton Heston, Edward G. Robinson, Leigh Taylor-YoungUnited States[nb 6]
WestworldMichael CrichtonYul Brynner, Richard Benjamin, James BrolinUnited States
1974
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
Chosen SurvivorsSutton RoleyJackie Cooper, Alex Cord, Richard JaeckelUnited States Mexico
Dark StarJohn CarpenterDan O'Bannon, Dre Pahich, Brian NarelleUnited States[nb 7]
ESPYJun FukudaHiroshi Fujioka, Kaoru Yumi, Masao KusakariJapan
Flesh GordonMichael Benveniste, Howard ZiehmJason Williams, Suzanne Fields, Joseph HudginsUnited States
France, IncorporatedAlain CorneauMichel Bouquet, Allyn Ann McLerie, Roland DubillardFrance[6][7]
Godzilla vs. MechagodzillaJun FukudaMasaaki Daimon, Kazuya Aoyama, Reiko TajimaJapan
Invasion from Inner EarthBill RebanePaul Bentzen, Debbi Pick, Nick HoltUnited States
The Island at the Top of the WorldRobert StevensonDavid Hartman, Donald Sinden, Jacques MarinUnited States
The Little PrinceStanley DonenRichard Kiley, Steven Warner, Joss Ackland
Morel's InventionEmidio GrecoGiulio Brogi, Anna Karina, John SteinerItaly
Moscow-CassiopeiaRichard ViktorovInnokenty Smoktunovsky, Misha Yershov, Aleksandr GrigoryevSoviet Union
The MutationsJack CardiffDonald Pleasence, Tom Baker, Brad Harris
Phase IVSaul BassNigel Davenport, Michael Murphy, Lynne Frederick
Prophecies of NostradamusToshio MasudaTetsuro Tamba, Toshio Kurosawa, Kaoru YumiJapan
Space Is the PlaceJohn ConeyBarbara Deloney, Sun Ra, Raymond JohnsonUnited States
The Terminal ManMike HodgesGeorge Segal. Joan Hackett, Richard DysartUnited States
UFO: Target EarthMichael A. DeGaetanoNick Plakias, Cynthia Cline, LaVerne LightUnited States
ZardozJohn BoormanSean Connery, Charlotte Rampling, Sara Kestelman
1975
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
A Boy and his DogL.Q. JonesDon Johnson, Jason Robards, Susanne BentonUnited States[nb 2]
Black MoonLouis MalleCathryn Harrison, Therese Giehse, Alexandra StewartFrance West Germany
BugJeannot SzwarcBradford Dillman, Joanna Miles, Richard GillilandUnited States
Death Race 2000Paul BartelDavid Carradine, Sylvester Stallone, Simone GriffethUnited States
Escape to Witch MountainJohn HoughEddie Albert, Ray Milland, Donald PleasenceUnited States
Footprints on the MoonLuigi BazzoniFlorinda Bolkan, Peter McEnery, Nicoletta ElmiItaly
The Giant Spider InvasionBill RebaneSteve Brodie, Barbara Hale, Robert EastonUnited States
Hu-manJérôme LaperrousazTerence Stamp, Jeanne Moreau, Agnès SteveninFrance
HyperionMircea VeroiuAdela Marculescu, George Motoi, Emmerich SchäfferRomania[8]
The Land That Time ForgotKevin ConnorDoug McClure, John McEnery, Susan Penhaligon
Love and EnergyPasquale Festa CampanileGigi Proietti, Agostina Belli, Eleonora GiorgiItaly
The NoahDaniel BourlaRobert Strauss, Geoffrey Holder, Sally KirklandUnited States
The Rocky Horror Picture ShowJim SharmanTim Curry, Susan Sarandon, Barry Bostwick
RollerballNorman JewisonJames Caan, John Houseman, Maud Adams[nb 8]
ShiversDavid CronenbergPaul Hampton, Joe Silver, Lynn LowryCanada
The Stepford WivesBryan ForbesKatharine Ross, Paula Prentiss, Peter MastersonUnited States
The Strongest Man in the WorldVincent McEveetyKurt Russell, Joe Flynn, Eve ArdenUnited States
The Super InframanHua-ShanDanny Lee, Terry Lee, Hsieh WangHong KongSuperhero film
Teens in the UniverseRichard ViktorovMisha Yershov, Aleksandr Grigoryev, Vladimir SavinSoviet Union
Terror of MechagodzillaIshirō HondaKatsuhiko Sasaki, Tomoko Ai, Akihiko HirataJapan
The Ultimate WarriorRobert ClouseYul Brynner, Max von Sydow, Joanna MilesUnited States
1976
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
Any Day NowRoeland KerboschAnsje van Brandenberg, Huib Broos, Ton van DuinhovenNetherlands
At the Earth's CoreKevin ConnorDoug McClure, Peter Cushing, Caroline Munro
EmbryoRalph NelsonRock Hudson, Barbara Carrera, Diane LaddUnited States
FutureworldRichard T. HeffronPeter Fonda, Blythe Danner, Arthur HillUnited States
God Told Me ToLarry CohenTony Lo Bianco, Deborah Raffin, Sandy DennisUnited States
In the Dust of the StarsGottfried KolditzJana Brejchová, Alfred Struwe, Ekkehard SchallEast Germany
Logan's RunMichael AndersonMichael York, Jenny Agutter, Richard JordanUnited States[nb 9]
The Man Who Fell to EarthNicolas RoegDavid Bowie, Rip Torn, Candy ClarkUnited Kingdom[nb 10]
The Rat SaviorKrsto PapićIvica Vidović, Mirjana Majurec, Relja BašićSocialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Tomorrow's ChildrenJean PourtaléNiels Arestrup, Brigitte Roüan, Michel EspositoFranceFrench title: Demain les mômes[9]
1977
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
Alien PreyNorman J. WarrenBarry Stokes, Sally Faulkner, Glory Annen ClibberyUnited Kingdom
Capricorn OnePeter HyamsElliott Gould, James Brolin, Brenda VaccaroUnited States
Close Encounters of the Third KindSteven SpielbergRichard Dreyfuss, François Truffaut, Teri GarrUnited States[nb 11]
Cosmos: War of the PlanetsAlfonso BresciaJohn Richardson, Yanti Somer, West BuchananItaly
Damnation AlleyJack SmightJan-Michael Vincent, George Peppard, Dominique SandaUnited States
Demon SeedDonald CammellJulie Christie, Fritz Weaver, Gerrit GrahamUnited States
Empire of the AntsBert I. GordonJoan Collins, Robert Lansing, John David CarsonUnited States
End of the WorldJohn HayesChristopher Lee, Sue Lyon, Kirk ScottUnited States
The GlitterballHarley CocklissBen Buckton, Keith Jayne, Ron PemberUnited Kingdom
Great Plates of MalikovJaromil JirešVlastimil Brodský, Jan Tříska, Iva JanžurováCzechoslovakia
Kingdom of the SpidersJohn CardosWilliam Shatner, Tiffany Bolling, Woody StrodeUnited States
The Incredible Melting ManWilliam SachsAlex Rebar, Burr de Benning, Myron HealeyUnited States
The Island of Dr. MoreauDon TaylorBurt Lancaster, Michael York, Nigel DavenportUnited States
Legend of Dinosaurs & Monster BirdsJunji KurataTsunehiko Watase, Nobiko Sawa, Shotaro HayashiJapan
A Nice Plate of SpinachVáclav VorlíčekVladimír Menšík, Jiří Sovák, Iva JanžurováCzechoslovakia
The People That Time ForgotKevin ConnorPatrick Wayne, Doug McClure, Sarah Douglas, Dana Gillespie
Planet of DinosaursJames K. SheaMary Appleseth, Harvey Shain, Derna WyldeUnited States
PolygonAnatoly PetrovAlexander Beliavsky, Anatoly KuznetsovSoviet UnionAnimated short film
Space Battleship YamatoToshio MasudaGorô Naya, Kei Tomiyama, Shūsei NakamuraJapanAnime film
Star WarsGeorge LucasMark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie FisherUnited States[nb 12]
Starship InvasionsEd HuntRobert Vaughn, Christopher Lee, Daniel PilonCanada
Tomorrow I'll Wake Up and Scald Myself with TeaJindřich PolákPetr Kostka, Jiří Sovák, Vladimír MenšíkCzechoslovakia
The War in SpaceJun FukudaKensaku Morita, Yuko Asano, Ryo IkebeJapan
Welcome to Blood CityPeter SasdyJack Palance, Keir Dullea, Samantha EggarCanada United Kingdom
WizardsRalph BakshiJesse Welles, Bob Holt, Richard RomanusUnited StatesAnimated film
1978
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
The Alien FactorDonald M. DohlerDon Leifert, Tom Griffith, Richard DyszelUnited States
The Alpha IncidentBill RebaneRalph Meeker, Stafford Morgan, John F. GoffUnited States
Blue ChristmasKihachi OkamotoHiroshi Katsuno, Keiko Takeshita, Eiji OkadaJapan
The Boys from BrazilFranklin J. SchaffnerGregory Peck, Laurence Olivier, James Mason
The Cat from Outer SpaceNorman TokarKen Berry, Sandy Duncan, Harry MorganUnited States
DeathsportAllan Arkush, Nicholas Niciphor, Roger CormanDavid Carradine, Claudia Jennings, Richard LynchUnited States
Farewell to Space Battleship Yamato: In the Name of LoveToshio Masuda, Leiji MatsumotoKei Tomiyama, Yôko Asagami, Gorô NayaJapanAnime film
Gatchaman: The MovieHisayuki ToriumiKatsuji Mori, Isao Sasaki, Kazuko SugiyamaJapanAnime film
Hardware WarsErnie FosseliusFrank Robertson, Scott Mathews, Jeff HaleUnited StatesSpoof short.
Invasion of the Body SnatchersPhilip KaufmanDonald Sutherland, Brooke Adams, Jeff Goldblum, Veronica CartwrightUnited States[nb 13]
LaserblastMichael RaeKim Milford, Cheryl Smith, Gianni RussoUnited States
Message from SpaceKinji FukasakuVic Morrow, Sonny Chiba, Philip CasnoffJapan
Return from Witch MountainJohn HoughBette Davis, Christopher Lee, Kim RichardsUnited States
StarcrashLuigi CozziMarjoe Gortner, Caroline Munro, Christopher Plummer
SupermanRichard DonnerChristopher Reeve, Margot Kidder, Gene Hackman[nb 14]
Warlords of AtlantisKevin ConnorDoug McClure, Peter Gilmore, Shane RimmerUnited Kingdom
1979
TitleDirectorCastCountrySub-Genre/Notes
AlienRidley ScottSigourney Weaver, Tom Skerritt, John Hurt[nb 15]
The Black HoleGary NelsonMaximilian Schell, Anthony Perkins, Robert ForsterUnited States
The BroodDavid CronenbergOliver Reed, Samantha Eggar, Art HindleCanada
Buck Rogers in the 25th CenturyDaniel HallerGil Gerard, Erin Gray, Pamela HensleyUnited States
The FortressMiklós SzinetárBella Tanay, Sándor Oszter, József MadarasHungary
Galaxy Express 999RintaroMasako Nozawa, Masako Ikeda, Yôko AsagamiJapanAnime film
G.I. SamuraiKosei SaitoSonny Chiba, Jun Etô, Moeko EzawaJapan
GoldengirlJoseph SargentSusan Anton, James Coburn, Curd JürgensUnited States
H. G. Wells' The Shape of Things to ComeGeorge McCowanJack Palance, Carol Lynley, Barry MorseCanada
The HumanoidAldo LadoRichard Kiel, Corinne Cléry, Leonard MannItaly
Island of the FishmenSergio MartinoBarbara Bach, Claudio Cassinelli, Richard JohnsonItaly
I viaggiatori della seraUgo TognazziUgo Tognazzi, Ornella Vanoni, Roberta PaladiniItaly Spain
Little Orbit the Astrodog and the Screechers from Outer SpaceJean ImageFrance
Mad MaxGeorge MillerMel Gibson, Joanne Samuel, Hugh Keays-ByrneAustralia
MeteorRonald NeameSean Connery, Natalie Wood, Karl MaldenUnited States Hong Kong
MoonrakerLewis GilbertRoger Moore, Lois Chiles, Michel LonsdaleFrance United Kingdom
PlagueEdward HuntDaniel Pilon, Kate Reid, Céline LomezCanada
QuintetRobert AltmanPaul Newman, Vittorio Gassman, Fernando ReyUnited States
RavagersRichard ComptonRichard Harris, Ernest Borgnine, Ann TurkelUnited States
Spaced OutNorman J. WarrenBarry Stokes, Tony Maiden, Glory Annen ClibberyUnited Kingdom
StalkerAndrei TarkovskyAlisa Freindlich, Alexander Kaidanovsky, Anatoli SolonitsynSoviet Union
Star Trek: The Motion PictureRobert WiseWilliam Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, DeForest KelleyUnited States
Test pilota PirxaMarek PiestrakSergei Desnitsky, Bolesław Abart, Vladimir IvashovPoland Soviet Union
The Thing in the CastleGottfried KolditzErwin Geschonneck, Vlastimil Brodský, Jaecki SchwarzEast GermanyGerman title: Das Ding im Schloß[10]
ThirstRod HardyChantal Contouri, Shirley Cameron, Max PhippsAustralia
Time After TimeNicholas MeyerMalcolm McDowell, Mary Steenburgen, David WarnerUnited States
Unidentified Flying OddballRuss MayberryDennis Dugan, Jim Dale, Ron Moody

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Won a Golden Scroll of Merit in 1979 for theatrical motion picture production.
  2. ^ a b Winner of a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.
  3. ^ Won a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and a Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
  4. ^ Winner of the Grand Prize of the Jury and the FIPRESCI Prize at the Cannes Film Festival.
  5. ^ Won a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and a Nebula Award for Best Script.
  6. ^ Winner of a Nebula Award for Best Script and a Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
  7. ^ Won a Golden Scroll for Best Special Effects in 1976.
  8. ^ Winner of a BAFTA for Best Art Direction.
  9. ^ Winner of an Academy Award for Visual Effects (Special Achievement Award) and a Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
  10. ^ Won a Nebula Award for Best Script and a Saturn Award for Best Actor in a film.
  11. ^ Winner of Academy Awards for Cinematography and Sound Editing (Special Achievement Award) and a Grammy Award for Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or a Television Special and Best Instrumental Composition (1979). It was also the second highest grossing film of 1977.
  12. ^ Won Academy Awards for Art Direction, Costume Design, Film Editing, Original Score, Sound (Special Achievement Award), Visual Effects; a Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film, and a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. It was also the highest grossing film of 1977.
  13. ^ Remake. Winner of Saturn Awards for Best Director and Best Sound.
  14. ^ Won the Academy Award for Visual Effects (Special Achievement Award), Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film, Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and the Grammy Award for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or a Television Special and Best Instrumental Composition. It was also the highest grossing film of the year.
  15. ^ Winner of the Academy Award for Visual Effects, Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film and Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ King, Geoff; Krzywinska, Tanya (2000). Science fiction cinema: from outerspace to cyberspace. Short cuts 3. Wallflower Press. pp. 4–7. ISBN 1-903364-03-5. 
  2. ^ Heiduschke, Sebastian (2013). East German Cinema: DEFA and Film History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 72. ISBN 978-1137322319. 
  3. ^ Fisher, Jaimey (2013). Generic Histories of German Cinema: Genre and Its Deviations (Screen Cultures: German Film and the Visual). Camden House. p. 79. ISBN 978-1571135704. 
  4. ^ Reimer, Robert C.; Reimer, Carol J. (2010). The A to Z of German Cinema (The A to Z Guide Series). Scarecrow Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0810876118. 
  5. ^ Hardy, Phil (1995). The Overlook Film Encyclopedia: Science Fiction (The Overlook Film Encyclopedia Series). The Overlook Press. p. 306. ISBN 0879516267. 
  6. ^ Stone, Judy (1997). Eye on the World: Conversations with International Filmmakers. Silman-James Press. p. 169. ISBN 1879505363. 
  7. ^ Sullivan, Monica (1997). Videohounds Independent Film Guide (Videohound Guides). Visible Ink Press. p. 49. ISBN 1578590183. 
  8. ^ Cowie, Peter (1978). International Film Guide 1979. The Tantivy Press. p. 279. ISBN 0498022412. 
  9. ^ Willis, Donald C. (1985). Variety's Complete Science Fiction Reviews. Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 311. ISBN 0824087127. 
  10. ^ Fritzsche, Sonja (Fall 2010), "A Natural and Artificial Homeland: East German Science-Fiction Film Responds to Kubrick and Tarkovsky", Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Film and Television Studies 40.2: 80–101, doi:10.1353/flm.2010.0002 
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