List of rulers of Croatia

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The seal of the Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia was affixed in 1527 to the Cetin Charter that confirmed the Habsburg to be the rulers of Croatia
Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg at their height. The Habsburgs ruled the Kingdom of Croatia for just under 470 years, longer than any other dynasty

History[edit]

The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented: c.626, Croats migrate from White Croatia (around what is now Galicia) at the invitation of Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius. Between c. 641 and c. 689 Radoslav converts Croatia to Christianity.

Dukes of Croatia[edit]

During 8th century two principalities were formed - the Pannonian Croatia and the Dalmatian Croatia, with two parallel dukes on rule.

Dukes of the Pannonian Croatia[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Vojnomir790c. 800[1]
Ljudevit Posavskic. 810823
Ratimir829838
Braslav880887

Dukes of the Dalmatian Croatia[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Porga or Borkoc. 660c. 680
Višeslav (?)800810
Knez Borna (Croatia).JPGBornac. 810821Vassal of Frankish Emperor Charlemagne; son of Višeslav
VladislavFebruary 821c. 835son of Klonimir
Mislavc. 835c. 845
Trpimir Ic. 845864Founder of the Trpimirović dynasty
Zdeslav864864son of Trpimir I
Domagoj864876overthrows Zdeslav
Iljko (?)876878Iljko's name is disputed, an unnamed son of Domagoj succeeded to the throne, later killed during a civil war
Zdeslav878May 879restored, overthrows unnamed son of Domagoj
Dux Branimir of Croatia front.JPGBranimirmay 879c. 892killed Zdeslav in may 879
Muncimir892910son of Trpimir
Kralj Tomislav na prijestolju.JPGTomislav910925

Kings of Croatia[edit]

In his letter from 925, Pope John X refers to Tomislav as Rex Chroatorum - King of the Croatians. All Croatian rulers after Tomislav held the title of king.

House of Trpimirović[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Kralj Tomislav na prijestolju.JPGTomislav925928Probably son of Muncimir. After his death civil wars weakened the state and some territory, including Bosnia, was lost. His rank of "king" (rex) is based on two contemporary documents; a correspondence dated 925 where the Pope John X addresses him with that title and the transcript from the Synod conclusions in Split where he is also referred to as "rex". He was also addressed as "Princeps" ("Prince") and Duke (Dux) on other occasions. Nevertheless, in Croatia he is traditionally considered the first Croatian king.
No image.pngTrpimir II928935Younger brother or son of Tomislav
No image.pngKrešimir I
(Krešimir Stariji)
935945Son of Trpimir II
No image.pngMiroslav945949Son of Krešimir I
No image.pngMichael Krešimir II
(Mihovil Krešimir II)
and
Helen I
(Jelena Zadarska)
(co-rulers)
949969Younger brother of Miroslav. Michael Krešimir II ruled jointly with his wife Queen Helen I. Upon the King's death in 969 their son Stephen Držislav immediately took the throne alone, while the Queen Helen I died seven years later on 8 October 976. During their reign, the Croatian Kingdom regained previously lost territories, including Bosnia.
No image.pngStephen Držislav
(Stjepan Držislav)
969997Son of Michael Krešimir II. Queen Jelena of Zadar ruled as a regent for Stephen Držislav 969 - 8 November 975. He received royal insigia as an act of recognition from the Byzantine Emperor and was crowned by the Archbishop of Split in Biograd in 988. Thomas the Archdeacon's Historia Salonitana names him as the first King of Croatia (rex), regardless, he is considered the first crowned Croatian King.[2]
No image.pngSvetoslav Suronja9971000Son of Stephen Držislav. Detroned by his brothers Krešimir III and Gojslav
No image.pngKrešimir III
and
Gojslav
(co-rulers)
10001020Younger brothers of Svetoslav Suronja
No image.pngKrešimir III
(alone)
10201030Younger brother of Svetoslav Suronja
No image.pngStephen I
(Stjepan I)
10301058Son of Krešimir III
Kresimir's seal.jpgPeter Krešimir IV the Great
(Petar Krešimir IV Veliki)
10581074Son of Stephen I. During his reign the Croatian Kingdom reached its peak.
Demetrius Sunimirio.jpgDemetrius Zvonimir
(Dmitar Zvonimir)
10751089Cousin of Peter Krešimir IV. C. 1063 marries Princess Helen, daughter of King Bela I of Hungary.
No image.pngStephen II
(Stjepan II)
1089December 1090Son of Častimir, who was younger brother of King Peter Krešimir IV.
No image.pngHelen II
(Jelena Lijepa)
10901091Widow of King Demetrius Zvonimir and daughter of King Bela I of Hungary

House of Árpád[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Laszlo-ChroniconPictum.jpgLadislaus I of Hungary
(Ladislav I. Arpadović)
10911092Son of Hungarian king Béla I and brother of Croatian Queen Jelena Lijepa
No image.pngDuke Álmos
(herceg Almoš)
10911093Nephew of Ladislaus, rules as his proxy.

House of Svačić[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
No image.pngPetar Svačić10931097Elected by Croatian nobles. Struggles with Hungary for control of Croatia. From 1097 onwards, the Kings of Hungary were also Kings of Croatia, because of the political union of the two crowns.

After 1102[edit]

From 1102, the reigning King of Hungary is ruler of Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Dalmatia in agreement with the Croatian nobles.[3][4] Croatia is governed on his behalf by a Ban (viceroy) and a Sabor.

House of Árpád[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Kálmán Thuróczy.jpgColoman
(Koloman)
11023 February 1116Battle of Gvozd Mountain (modern Petrova Gora). Coloman, supported by Pannonian Croats, defeats an army of Croatian and Dalmatian nobles allied to Petar. Recognized as King of Croatia by a council (Sabor) of Croatian nobles.
Stefan II węgierski.jpgStephen III
(Stjepan II.)
3 February 11163 April 1131Son of Coloman
II Bela KK.jpgBéla I the Blind
(Bela II. Slijepi)
3 April 113113 February 1141grandson of Géza I, son of Álmos, Coloman's younger brother
Géza II.jpgGéza
(Gejza II.)
13 February 114131 May 1162son of Béla II
III Istvan koronazasa KK.jpgStephen IV
(Stjepan III.)
31 May 11624 March 1172son of Géza II
Chronicon Pictum P121 A korona elrablása.JPGLadislaus II
(Ladislav II.)
31 May 116214 January 1163rebel anti-king, younger brother of Géza II.
Stephen IV of Hungary.jpgStephen V
(Stjepan IV.)
14 January 1163June 1163rebel anti-king, younger brother of Géza II.
Bela3.jpgBéla II4 March 117213 April 1196younger brother of Stephen III.
Emeric of Hungary.jpgEmeric
(Emerik)
13 April 119630 November 1204son of Béla III.
III.László.jpgLadislaus III
(Ladislav III.)
30 November 12047 May 1205son of Emerik, crowned and died as a child
Andrew II of Hungary th.jpgAndrew I
(Andrija II.)
7 May 120521 September 1235brother of Emerik, in 1222 issued Golden Bull which established the rights of noblemen, including the right to disobey the King when he acted contrary to law (jus resistendi).
Kk ivb.jpgBéla III21 September 12353 May 1270son of Andrew II, ruled during First Mongol invasion (1241–42), in 1242 issued Golden Bull and proclaimed Zagreb and Samobor a Free Royal Borough (free and royal city)
V Istvan koronazasa.jpgStephen VI
(Stjepan V.)
3 May 12706 August 1272son of Béla IV.
Kun L szl Thuroczy.jpgLadislaus IV the Cuman
(Ladislav IV. Kumanac)
6 August 127210 July 1290son of Steven V.; unsuccessful Mongol invasion; lived with the nomad Cuman tribes
III Andras Thuroczy.jpgAndrew II
(Andrija III. Mlečanin)
4 August 129014 January 1301grandson of Andrew II, born in Venice; last of the Árpád dynasty

House of Anjou[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Martell károly.jpgCharles Martel of Anjou
(Karlo Martel)
12901295set up by Pope Nicholas IV and the ecclesiastical party as successor of his maternal uncle, the childless Ladislaus IV. Crowned as the King of Croatia but not as King of Hungary
Chronicon Pictum I Karoly Robert.jpgCharles I
(Karlo I. Robert)
14 January 130116 July 1342son of Charles Martel, established the royal Angevin dynasty.
Nuremberg Chronicles f 235r 2 Ladislaus rex.jpgLouis I the Great
(Ludovik I. Veliki)
16 July 134211 September 1382also became King of Poland (1370)
Mária Thuróczy.jpgMary I
(Marija Anžuvinska)
11 September 138217 May 1395married Sigismund of Luxemburg
Kis Karoly TK.jpgCharles II
(Karlo II. Drački)
31 December 138524 February 1386also King of Naples, in opposition to Mary. Assassinated on 7 February 1386 an died on 24 February

House of Luxembourg[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Zsigmond Thuroczy.jpgSigismund I
(Žigmund Luksemburški)
31 March 13879 December 1437later also Roman-German King (since 1410), King of Bohemia (since 1419), Holy Roman Emperor (since 1433)

House of Anjou[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Ladislas of Naples (head).jpgLadislaus of Naples
(Ladislav Napuljski)
5 August 14031409Son of Charles II. Claimed the Crown of Hungary and Croatia and opposed by King Sigismund of Luxemburg. Ladislas eventually sold his rights to the Venetian Republic for 100,000 ducats in 1409.

House of Habsburg[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpgAlbert I1 January 143827 October 1439son-in-law of Sigismund, also Roman-German King, King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria

Jagiellon dynasty[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Jagelló Ulászló.jpgVladislaus I
(Vladislav I. Jagelović)
15 May 144010 November 1444also King of Poland

House of Habsburg[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
VLaszlo.gifLadislaus V the Posthumus
(Ladislav V. Posmrtni)
10 November 144423 November 1457born in 1440 after his father's death, spent most of his life in captivity.

House of Hunyadi[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Matei Corvin Johannes de Thurocz f137.jpgMatthias I Corvinus
(Matija Korvin)
24 January 14586 April 1490son of John Hunyadi, also King of Bohemia

Jagiellon dynasty[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.jpgVladislaus II
(Vladislav II. Jagelović)
15 July 149013 May 1516also King of Bohemia
Hans Krell 001.jpgLouis II
(Ludovik II.)
13 May 151629 August 1526also King of Bohemia; killed in the Battle of Mohács

House of Zápolya[edit]

Kingship disputed between Ferdinand of Austria and John Zápolya during the Ottoman invasion

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Szapolyai János fametszet.jpgJohn I
(Ivan Zapolja)
10 November 152622 July 1540Also claimed the throne, with support of Hungarian nobles and later Suleiman the Magnificent.

House of Habsburg[edit]

On January 1, 1527 Croatian Parliament met in Cetin to elect Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria as the new king of Croatia.

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Kaiser Fernando.jpgFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Ferdinand Habsburški)
16 December 152625 July 1564claimed the throne according the agreement between the House of Jagiellon and the House of Habsburg
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpgMaximilian
(Maksimilijan I.)
8 September 156312 October 1576ruled during Battle of Szigetvár and Croatian peasant revolt
Joseph Heintz d. Ä. 002.jpgRudolf I25 September 157226 June 1608ruled during Battle of Sisak, abdicated in favor of his younger brother Matthias
Lucas van Valckenborch 003.jpgMatthias II
(Matija II.)
26 June 160820 March 1619brother of Rudolf II
Ferdinand II with insignia.jpgFerdinand II1 July 161815 February 1637In 1630 issued Statuta Valachorum in opposition to Croatian Parliament
Frans Luycx 002.jpgFerdinand III8 December 16252 April 1657 
Benjamin von Block 001.jpgLeopold I27 June 16575 May 1705Crushed Zrinski–Frankopan Conspiracy and abolished the right of Croatian Parliament to elect king. In 1669 founded University of Zagreb
Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor.pngJoseph I
(Josip I.)
5 May 170517 April 1711 
Johann Gottfried Auerbach 004.jpgCharles III
(Karlo III.)
11 April 171120 October 1740On 9 March 1712 Croatian Parliament voted its Pragmatic Sanction in which the Kingdom of Croatia accepted female inheritance of its crown after extinction of the male line and supporting her to become Queen of Croatia

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpgMaria II Theresa
(Marija Terezija)
20 October 174029 November 1780Division of Croatia on županije (counties) and in 1767 forms Croatian Royal Council (Consilium Regium) until 1779 when she abolishes it. Queen conducts military and economy reforms and especially serfdom.
Anton von Maron 006.pngJoseph II
(Josip II.)
29 November 178020 February 1790Abolished serfdom. Germanization of Croatian lands.
Johann Daniel Donat, Emperor Leopold II in the Regalia of the Golden Fleece (1806).pngLeopold II20 February 17901 March 1792 
Friedrich von Amerling 003a.jpgFrancis
(Franjo I.)
1 March 17922 March 1835 
Ferdinand I; Keizer van Oostenrijk.jpgFerdinand V28 September 18302 December 1848Being epileptic and mentally ill, abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph (son of his younger brother Franz Karl). Died in 1875.
Franz joseph1.jpgFrancis Joseph
(Franjo Josip I.)
2 December 184821 November 1916 
Emperor karl of austria-hungary 1917.pngCharles IV
(Karlo IV.)
21 November 191616 November 1918Reigned until 1918, when he "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate. He spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922.

Kings of Yugoslavia[edit]

Coat of arms of the Banovina of Croatia

House of Karađorđević[edit]

After the World War I and the break off of Austria-Hungary, Croatia joined a newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Following a brief period of self-rule, became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes under the Karađorđević dynasty. In 1918 the title "King of Croatia" was united with other South Slavic monarchical titles into "King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes". The name of the title was changed in 1929 amid unitarianist reforms to "King of Yugoslavia". Between 1939 - 1943 Croatia was an autonomous Banovina within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, ruled by King Peter II, and administered in the King's name by Ban (viceroy) Ivan Šubašić. During this period, in 1941 Croatia was occupied by the Axis powers along with the rest of Yugoslavia.

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
Peter I Karadjordjevic of Serbia.jpgPeter I
(Petar I.)
1 December 191816 August 1921Prince Alexander served as regent in his final years.
Kralj aleksandar1.jpgAlexander I
(Aleksandar I.)
16 August 19219 October 1934Changed title to "King of Yugoslavia" in 1929. Assassinated in Marseilles.
Peter II Karadordevic.jpgPeter II
(Petar II.)
9 October 193429 November 1945Succeeded while as a minor. Prince Paul of Yugoslavia served as regent until April 1941. Reigned from exile in London until deposed in November 1945. Ivan Šubašić served as Ban of the Banovina of Croatia (1939–43). The king was succeeded as Croatian head of state by Vladimir Nazor, the President of the ZAVNOH.

Independent State of Croatia[edit]

1941 - 1945: the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia was formed by the Axis powers on occupied Yugoslav territory, and was ruled by the Ustaše party led by Ante Pavelić. In May 1941 this state was made a formal kingdom (by agreement between Ante Pavelić and Benito Mussolini). Italian Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta was formally named as the king-designate under the name "Tomislav II", but refused to assume the kingship, and formally abdicated in 1943.

Post-monarchy[edit]

See:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mladjov, Ian. "Croatian Rulers". Retrieved 2007-10-05.
  2. ^ Thomas the Archdeacon: Historia Salonitana, caput 13.
  3. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
  4. ^ [1]

External links[edit]