This is a
list of republics. For Antiquity (or later in the case of societies that did not refer to a Western terminology to qualify their form of government) the assessment of whether a state organisation is a republic is based on retrospective analysis by historians and political theorists. For more recent systems of government, worldwide organisations with a broad political acceptance (such as the United Nations), can provide information on whether or not a sovereign state is referred to as a republic. List of republics by period [edit ] Antiquity [edit ] Middle Ages and Renaissance [edit ] Early modern [edit ] 19th century [edit ] 20th century [edit ] 21st century and later [edit ] List of republics by type [edit ]
In modern usage, a republican form of government is applied loosely to any state which claims this designation.
So for example the [10 ] Dominican Republic under Rafael Trujillo is considered a republic, as is the Republic of Iraq under Saddam Hussein and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics under Joseph Stalin. The Kingdom of Sweden (which in 2006 ranked highest in the Economist's index of democracy) is not a republic, but the [11 ] Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (which ranks lowest in the same survey) is. Unitary republics [edit ]
Unitary republics are
unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature. Republic of Acre (1st: 1899–1900; 2nd: 1900; 3rd: 1903) Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (republic since 1973) Republic of Albania (since 1946) People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Republic of Armenia (1st: May 28, 1918; Current: December 25, 1991) Republic of Azerbaijan (1st: 28 May 1918; Re-established: 18 October 1991) People's Republic of Bangladesh Republic of Benin Plurinational State of Bolivia Republic of Botswana Republic of Bulgaria (since 1946) Union of Myanmar (Burma) Burkina Faso Republic of Burundi (since 1966) Republic of Cameroon (unitary republic 1960–1961 and 1972–present; federal republic 1961-1972)} Republic of Cape Verde Central African Republic (1958–1976; restored 1979) Republic of Chad Republic of Chile People's Republic of China Republic of China Republic of Colombia (unitary republic since 1886) Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Corsican Republic (1755–1769) [4 ] Cospaia (1440–1826) Republic of Costa Rica Republic of Croatia Republic of Cuba Republic of Cyprus Czech Republic Republic of Djibouti Commonwealth of Dominica Dominican Republic (1801–1861, 1844–present) Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Republic of Ecuador Arab Republic of Egypt (since 1953) Republic of El Salvador (1821–present) Republic of Equatorial Guinea State of Eritrea Republic of Estonia (1918–present) Republic of Ezo (1868–1869) Republic of the Fiji Islands (since 1987) Finnish Democratic Republic (1 December 1939 to 12 March 1940) Republic of Finland (since 1919) Republic of Formosa (1895) Independent Commune of Franceville (1889) [7 ] French Republic ( 1st: 1792–1804; 2nd: 1848–1852; 3rd: 1870–1940; 4th: 1945–1958 and 5th, since 1958) Gabonese Republic Republic of the Gambia (since 1970) Georgia Republic of Ghana (since 1960) Goust (since 1648) Hellenic Republic ( 1st: 1822–1832; 2nd: 1924–1935; 3rd: since 1974) Republic of Guatemala Republic of Guinea Republic of Guinea-Bissau Co-operative Republic of Guyana (since 1970) is a "Co-operative Republic" Republic of Haiti (1806–1849; restored 1859) Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898) Republic of Honduras Republic of Hungary (since 1946) Republic of Iceland (republic since 1944) Republic of Indonesia (Unitary republic since August 1950) Islamic Republic of Iran (since 1979) Republic of Iraq (since 1958) Ireland (republic since 1949) Israel (since 1948) [12 ] Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) [13 ] Italian Republic (since 1946) Republic of Ivory Coast Republic of Kazakhstan Republic of Kenya (since 1964) Republic of Kiribati Kyrgyz Republic Lao People's Democratic Republic (since 1975) Republic of Latvia Republic of Lebanon (November 22, 1943) Republic of Liberia Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1969–2011) Republic of Lithuania Lokot Republic (1941–1943) Republic of Macedonia (since 1991) Republic of Madagascar Republic of Malaŵi (since 1966) Republic of Maldives (since 1968) Republic of Mali (since 1960) Republic of Malta (since 1974) Republic of the Marshall Islands Islamic Republic of Mauritania Republic of Mauritius (since 1992) Menton and Roquebrune (1848–1861) Republic of Moldova Mongolia (since 1924) Republic of Montenegro (since 2006) Republic of Mozambique State of Muskogee (1799–1803) Republic of Namibia Republic of Nauru Republic of Nicaragua Republic of Niger Democratic People's Republic of Korea (since 1948) Republic of Palau Republic of Panama Republic of Paraguay Republic of Peru Republic of the Philippines (thrice, two overlapping: First Philippine Republic (1898–1901), Commonwealth of the Philippines to the Fifth Republic of the Philippines (1934–present), Second Philippine Republic (1943–1945)) [14 ] [15 ] [16 ] Republic of Poland Portuguese Republic (since 1910) Romania (since 1947) Republic of Rwanda (since 1961) Russian Republic (from September 14, 1917 up to November 7, 1917; ; since de facto February Revolution up to October Revolution) Independent State of Samoa (since 2007) Most Serene Republic of San Marino (since 301) Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe Republic of Senegal Republic of Serbia Republic of Seychelles Republic of Sierra Leone (since 1971) Republic of Singapore (since 1965) Slovak Republic (1939–1945) [17 ] Republic of Slovenia Republic of Somalia Republic of South Africa (since 1961) Republic of Korea (since 1948) Spain (Twice: First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)) Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (since 1972) Republic of Suriname Syrian Arab Republic Republic of China (Taiwan) ( established 1912, current Constitution since 1947) Republic of Tajikistan United Republic of Tanzania Republic of Texas (1836–1845) [18 ] Togolese Republic Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (since 1976) Tunisian Republic (since 1957) Republic of Turkey (republic since 1923) [19 ] Republic of Turkmenistan Republic of Uganda (since 1963) Ukraine Oriental Republic of Uruguay Republic of Uzbekistan Republic of Vanuatu Vermont Republic (1777–1791) [5 ] Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of West Florida (1810) Republic of Yemen (former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and Yemen Arab Republic) Republic of Zambia Republic of Zimbabwe, formerly Republic of Rhodesia (1970–1979) Federal republics [edit ] Federal republics are federal states in which the administrative divisions (states or provinces) theoretically retain a degree of autonomy which is constitutionally protected, and cannot be revoked unilaterally by the national government. Republic of Argentina (since 1852) Republic of Austria Federative Republic of Brazil (since November 15, 1889) [20 ] Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1995) Federal Republic of Cameroon (1961–1972) Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) Czechoslovakia ( Czech and Slovak Federative Republic) (1969–1992) Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (unitary republic 1974–1994; federal republic since 1994) Federal Republic of Germany (since 1918) Republic of Colombia (1819–1886), known as Great Colombia from 1819 to 1831, when it included present-day Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Republic of India (since January 26, 1950) United States of Indonesia (1949–1950) Second Federal Republic of Mexico (1846–1864) United Mexican States (since 1917) [21 ] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (since 2007) [22 ] Federal Republic of Nigeria (1963 – 66: 1st Republic, 1979 – 83: 2nd Republic, 1993: 3rd Republic, 1999 – present: 4th Republic) Islamic Republic of Pakistan (since 1956; declaration of the ) Islamic Republic Russian Federation (since November 7, 1917; up to 1991 it was named Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ) [23 ] [24 ] State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Swiss Confederation ( since 1848) Republic of Sudan (since 1 January 1956) Republic of South Sudan (since 9 July 2011) United Provinces of Central America (1823–1840) United States of America (since 1789) [25 ] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Yugoslavia: Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1963), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992), Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003) Confederal republics [edit ] Confederal republics are associations of sovereign states, usually having power over critical common issues such as defense and foreign affairs: Arab Republics [edit ] Islamic Republics [edit ]
Republics governed in accordance with Islamic law:
Democratic Republics [edit ]
These are republics that use the word "democratic" in their official name. Their actual political systems can vary considerably.
Socialist Republics [edit ]
These are republics that use the word "socialist" in their official name.
People's Republics [edit ]
People's republics were meant to be governed by the people, but the name is most often (but not always) used by
Former People's Republics:
See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ Jagdish P. Sharma, , Republics in ancient India, c. 1500 B.C.– 500 B.C. Brill Publishers, 1968, p. 82. ^ Sharma (1968): p. 104: "[...] 7.707 was the number of the Licchavi Khattiyas, all calling themselves rājās, who formed the General Assembly. They normally met once a year for important and grave public business." ^ "Brief history of Novgorod". WayToRussia.Net . Retrieved 2007-12-26. ^ a b Carrington, Dorothy, "The Corsican Constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755-1769)," The English Historical Review, July 1973, pp 481-503 ^ a b Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. ^ Comité de Salud Pública en Motril durante la Revolución Cantonalde 1873. Actas de Creación. Motril, 1989. ^ a b "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p. 1. ^ Joseph Lee, , Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 300. Ireland, 1912–1985: Politics and Society ^ Henry St. Amant Bradsher, , Duke University Press, 1983. Afghanistan and the Soviet Union ^ Republic, Oxford English Dictionary, SECOND EDITION 1989 ^ Laza Kekic, The Economist Intelligence Units Index of democracy, The Economist: The World in 2007 ^ Shapiro, Allan E. "Taking Space Seriously, Law, Space and Society in Contemporary Israel" 2004. < http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/rosen-zvi904.htm> (accessed May 19, 2008). ^ Quartermaine, Luisa (2000). Mussolini's last republic: propaganda and politics in the Italian Social Republic (R.S.I.) 1943-45. Intellect Books. p. 21ff. ISBN 9781902454085. ^ Corpus Juris, 1897 Biac-na-Bato Constitution December 27, 2008 ^ Corpus Juris, 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines December 27, 2008 ^ Corpus Juris, 1943 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines December 27, 2008 ^ Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1996). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 201, and others. ISBN 9780312161255. ^ "The Republic of Texas",'Handbook of Texas', http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/RR/mzr2.html ^ Is found in Article 1 of their Constitution ^ ___."The Formation of the Brazilian Republic in 1889." < http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/history110b/brarep.html> (accessed May 19, 2008). ^ "Mexico". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. ^ "Nepal declared republican state - Gorkhapatra Sansthan - State Owned Newspaper". ^ Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR approved the Law of the RSFSR #2094-I of December 25, 1991 "Name Change for the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" // News of the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR and Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR. – 1992. – № 2. – Art. 62 ^ Article 1 of the Russian Constitution ^ "United States". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. ^ "Algeria". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. ^ "Bangladesh". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. ^ "China". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. ^ "Laos". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. ^ "Korea, North". . The World Factbook CIA. 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-21. External links [edit ] Media related to Republics at Wikimedia Commons