List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human spaceflight.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Contents

Manufacturers of space vehicles

Crew and cargo transport vehicles

Company nameCraft nameCraft typeLauncher
name
Launcher
type
Maximum
reach
Passenger
capacity
Craft statusNotes
Romania ARCAHaas 2bcapsuleHaas 2brocketsub-orbit2development[1]
Romania ARCASuper HaascapsuleSuper Haasrocketorbit2development[2]
United States Armadillo AerospaceBlack Armadillorocketself-poweredself-poweredsub-orbit1-3testing[3]
Bigelow Aerospace and BoeingCST-100capsuleAtlas V[4]rocketLEO7testingFirst use is planned for 2015[5]
Bigelow Aerospace and Lockheed MartinOrion LitecapsuleFalcon 9rocketLEO6-7cancelled[6]
United States Blue OriginNew Shepardrocketself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit3testing[7]
Denmark Copenhagen SuborbitalsTycho Braherocketself-poweredself-poweredsub-orbit1testing[8]
EADS Astriumunnamed craftspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit4development[9]
Excalibur AlmazTKS derivativecapsulemultiplerocketLEO3development[10][11]
da Vinci ProjectWild Firecapsule-balloonsub-orbit3cancelled[12]
United States Interorbital SystemsSolaris Xcapsuleself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit6cancelled[13]
United States Interorbital SystemsCrew ModulecapsuleNeptune TSAAHTOrocketlunar orbit6development[14]
Japanese Rocket SocietyKankoh-marurocketself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO50proposedSponsors needed[15]
Orbital Sciences Corp.CygnuscapsuleAntares (rocket)rocketLEO-testingFirst use planned for 2012
Orbital Sciences Corp.PrometheusspaceplaneAtlas VrocketLEO4development[16]
PlanetSpaceCanadian Arrowrocketself-poweredself-poweredsub-orbit3testing
PlanetSpaceSilver DartspaceplaneCanadian ArrowrocketLEO8development[17]
Reaction Engines Ltd.HOTOLspaceplaneself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO-cancelled[18][full citation needed]
Reaction Engines Ltd.HOTOL 2spaceplaneAn 225airplaneLEO-proposed[19]
Reaction Engines Ltd.Skylonspaceplaneself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO5-20development[19]
Rocketplane KistlerK-1rocketself-powered (TSTO)self-powered (TSTO)LEO-cancelled[20][full citation needed]
Rocketplane KistlerRocketplane XPspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit6cancelled[21][full citation needed]
Rotary RocketRotonrocketself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO2cancelled[22]
Scaled CompositesSpaceShipOnespaceplaneWhiteKnightOneairplanesub-orbit2retired (3/3)[23]
Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipTwospaceplaneWhiteKnightTwoairplanesub-orbit8testing[24]
Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipThreespaceplaneWhiteKnightTwoairplaneLEO (or suborbital passenger-delivery) ?proposed[25]
Space Adventures and Myasishchev Design BureauExplorer (Cosmopolis XXI, C-21)spaceplaneM-55Xairplanesub-orbit5development[26]
Space Transport Corp.Rubicon Irocketself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit3cancelled[27]
SpaceDevDream ChaserspaceplaneAtlas VrocketLEO7testing[28]
SpaceXDragoncapsuleFalcon 9rocketLEO7operational (2/2)2 spacecraft have been launched into orbit and returned to earth[29]
Starchaser IndustriesNOVAcapsuleStarchaser 4rocketsub-orbit-testing[30]
Starchaser IndustriesThunderstarcapsuleStarchaser 5rocketsub-orbit3development[31]
Starchaser IndustriesThunderbirdcapsuleStarchaser 5rocketsub-orbit6development[31]
Truax Engineering, Inc.X-3 VolksrocketcapsulePrivate Enterpriserocketsub-orbit1cancelled[citation needed]
t/SpaceCXVcapsuleQuickReachrocketLEO and lunar orbit6development[32]
Venturer AerospaceS-550capsuleFalcon 9rocketLEO6cancelled[33]
XCORXerusspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit2cancelled[34]
XCOR and RocketShip ToursLynxspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit1development[35]

Space stations

Private Company nameSpace Craft nameSpace Craft typeInternal
volume
Passenger
capacity
Craft statusRef
Bigelow AerospaceGenesis IInflatable module11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[36]unmannedcurrently in LEO[37]
Bigelow AerospaceGenesis IIInflatable module11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[38]unmannedcurrently in LEO[39]
Bigelow AerospaceGalaxyInflatable module16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[40]unmannedcancelled[41]
Bigelow AerospaceSundancerInflatable module180 m3 (6,357 cu ft)3cancelled[42]
Bigelow AerospaceBA 330Inflatable module330 m3 (11,654 cu ft)6development[43]
Bigelow AerospaceBA 2100Inflatable module2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft)16proposed
Excalibur AlmazAlmaz derivativeRigid module ?3development[10][11]
Galactic Suite Ltd.Galactic SuiteRigid module ?6proposed[44]
Orbital Technologies/RSC EnergiaOrbital Technologies Commercial Space StationRigid ModuleThe first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³.7development[45]

Launch vehicles

Company nameLauncher
name
Launcher
type
No. of
stages
Maximum
reach
Launcher
status
Maiden
flight
Ref
AirLaunch LLCQuickReachrocket2LEOdevelopment ?[46]
ARCAHaas 2bsmall rocket1suborbitdevelopment ?[1]
ARCASuper Haasmedium rocket2LEOdevelopment ?[2]
Beal AerospaceBA-2medium rocket3GTOcancelled ?[47]
Canadian ArrowCanadian Arrowrocket2LEOtesting ?[citation needed]
DIRECTLeviathan-140rocket2GTOdevelopment ?[48]
Galaxy ExpressGXmedium rocket2SSOcancelled ?[49]
Interorbital SystemsSea Star TSAAHTOlight rocketLEOdevelopment ?[50]
Interorbital SystemsNeptune 30light rocketmultiLEOproposed ?[14]
Interorbital SystemsNeptune 1000medium rocketmultilunar orbitproposed ?[14]
Interorbital SystemsNeptune TSAAHTOheavy rocketlunar orbitproposed ?[14]
Lockheed MartinVentureStarmedium rocket1LEOcancelled ?[51]
Orbital Sciences Corp.Taurus Ilight rocket4LEOoperational (6/9)1989[52]
Orbital Sciences Corp.Antaresmedium rocket3LEOdevelopment2012 (planned) ?
Orbital Transport & Raketen AGOTRAGmedium rocketvariableLEOretired1977[citation needed]
Rocket LabATEA-1light rocket2suborbitoperational (1/1)2009[53][54]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
SR-Mlight rocket1suborbitoperational ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Spritelight rocket--testing ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Libertylight rocket--development ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Exodusmedium rocket--development ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Space Freightermedium rocket--proposed ?[55]
Space Services Inc. of AmericaPercheronlight rocket1suborbitcancelled ?[56]
Space Services Inc. of AmericaConestoga 1620medium rocket4LEOcancelled ?[56]
Space Transport Corp.Spartanlight rocket3suborbitcancelled ?
SpaceXFalcon 1light rocket2LEOoperational (2/5)2008[57]
SpaceXFalcon 1elight rocket2LEOtesting2011 (planned)[57]
SpaceXFalcon 5medium rocket2GTOcancelled ?[58]
SpaceXFalcon 9medium rocket2GTOoperational (3/3)2010[59]
SpaceXFalcon Heavyheavy rocket2+boosterslunar orbitdevelopment2013 (planned)[59]
Texas Spacelines Inc / TSI.Sol Cazadorlight rocket7HEO/lunar/escapedevelopment ?[60]

Landers, rovers and probes

Company nameCraft nameCraft typeCraft statusRef
Armadillo Aerospaceunnamed craftrocket moduletesting[61]
BlastOff! CorporationLunar 1rovercancelled[62]
Odyssey MoonMoonOne (M-1)roverdevelopment[63]
Astrobotic TechnologyArtemis Landerlanderdevelopment[64]
Astrobotic TechnologyRed Roverroverdevelopment[65]
Team Italiaroverdevelopment[66]
Micro Spacedevelopment[67]
Next Giant Leapdevelopment[68]
Team FREDNETdevelopment[69]
TransOrbitalTrailBlazerlunar orbitercancelled[70]
ARCASPACEELElunar orbiterdevelopment[71]
Lunatrexdevelopment[72]
Chandahdevelopment[73]
Advaerosdevelopment[74]
STELLARdevelopment[75]
JURBANdevelopment[76]
Omega Envoydevelopment[77]
Independence-Xdevelopment[78]
SYNERGY MOONdevelopment[79]
EurolunaROMITdevelopment[80]
Team SeleneLuRoCa 1rocket cardevelopment[81]
SCSGcancelled[82]
Quantum3cancelled[83]
Puli Space TechnologiesPuliroverfundraising[84]

Research craft and tech demonstrators

Company nameCraft nameCraft purposeCraft statusRef
ARCADemonstrator 2bdemonstrate reusable monopropellant engineretired
Armadillo AerospaceQuaddemonstrate VTOLoperational
Blue OriginGoddarddemonstrate VTOLoperational
Interorbital SystemsNeutrinosystems testingoperational
Interorbital SystemsTachyonsystems testingoperational[85]
Lockheed MartinX-33demonstrate SSTOcancelled
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1demonstrate VTOLretired
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1BLunar Lander Challenge Level 1operational
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1ELunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flightsoperational
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1E2commercial flightsdevelopment
McDonnell DouglasDC-Xdemonstrate VTOLretired (11 test flights)
Rotary RocketRoton ATVdemonstrate VTOLretired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc.Conestoga Isystems testingretired (1 test)[56]
SpaceXGrasshopperdemonstrate VTOLdevelopment[86]
Swedish Space Corp.Maxuspayload to 700 kmoperational
Swedish Space Corp.Maserpayload to 300 kmoperational
UP AerospaceSpaceLoft XLpayload to 140 kmoperational[87]

Space mining

Company nameBody to be minedMining craftMining statusRef
Shackleton Energy CompanyMoonUnknownUnknown
Moon ExpressMoonUnknownUnknown
Planetary ResourcesUnknownArkyd Series 100, 200, 300development[88]

Propulsion manufacturers

Company nameEngineEngine typeApplicationsRef
Ad Astra Rocket CompanyVASIMRmagnetoplasmamay be used for future Mars missions[citation needed]
AE AerospaceHIRE[89][90]hybrid ion rocket
AE AerospaceScearamjet[91][full citation needed]Electric Scramjet
American Rocket Companyhybrid rocketThe company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCAExecutor (rocket engine)Liquid Oxygen/RP-1IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
The Elwing CompanyElectrodeless Plasma ThrusterElectric Propulsionmay be used for future explorations missions[92][full citation needed]
Firestar Technologies[93]
Reaction Engines Ltd.SABREprecooled air-breathing rocketplanned to be used in Skylon[94]
Sierra Nevada CorporationRocketMotorTwohybrid rocketSpaceShipTwo
SpaceDevhybrid rocketSpaceShipOne[citation needed]
SpaceXKestrel (rocket engine)Liquid Oxygen/RP-1Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceXMerlin (rocket engine)Liquid Oxygen/RP-1Falcon 1,[95] Falcon 9,[96] Falcon 9 Heavy first stage[citation needed]
SpaceXMerlin VacuumLiquid Oxygen/RP-1Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Heavy second stage[citation needed]
SpaceXRaptor (rocket stage)Liquid Oxygen/Liquid HydrogenAs of July 2009, some preliminary concept work was being done.[97]

Satellite launchers

Spaceliner companies

Company nameContracts forCraft utilisedStatus
Benson Space CompanySpaceDevDream Chaserwaiting for hardware[citation needed]
MirCorpnoneSoyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mirdefunct, Mir deorbited
Space AdventuresnoneSoyuz and the ISSactive (6 tourists sent)
RocketShip ToursXCORLynx rocketplanewaiting for hardware
Virgin GalacticScaled CompositesSpaceShipTwowaiting for hardware

Spacecraft component manufacturers

See also

References

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