List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human spaceflight.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit


Manufacturers of space vehicles

Crew and cargo transport vehicles

Company nameCraft nameCraft typeLauncher
Craft statusNotes
Romania ARCAHaas 2bcapsuleHaas 2brocketsub-orbit2development[1]
Romania ARCASuper HaascapsuleSuper Haasrocketorbit2development[2]
United States Armadillo AerospaceBlack Armadillorocketself-poweredself-poweredsub-orbit1-3testing[3]
Bigelow Aerospace and BoeingCST-100capsuleAtlas V[4]rocketLEO7testingFirst use is planned for 2015[5]
Bigelow Aerospace and Lockheed MartinOrion LitecapsuleFalcon 9rocketLEO6-7cancelled[6]
United States Blue OriginNew Shepardrocketself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit3testing[7]
Denmark Copenhagen SuborbitalsTycho Braherocketself-poweredself-poweredsub-orbit1testing[8]
EADS Astriumunnamed craftspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit4development[9]
Excalibur AlmazTKS derivativecapsulemultiplerocketLEO3development[10][11]
da Vinci ProjectWild Firecapsule-balloonsub-orbit3cancelled[12]
United States Interorbital SystemsSolaris Xcapsuleself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit6cancelled[13]
United States Interorbital SystemsCrew ModulecapsuleNeptune TSAAHTOrocketlunar orbit6development[14]
Japanese Rocket SocietyKankoh-marurocketself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO50proposedSponsors needed[15]
Orbital Sciences Corp.CygnuscapsuleAntares (rocket)rocketLEO-testingFirst use planned for 2012
Orbital Sciences Corp.PrometheusspaceplaneAtlas VrocketLEO4development[16]
PlanetSpaceCanadian Arrowrocketself-poweredself-poweredsub-orbit3testing
PlanetSpaceSilver DartspaceplaneCanadian ArrowrocketLEO8development[17]
Reaction Engines Ltd.HOTOLspaceplaneself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO-cancelled[18][full citation needed]
Reaction Engines Ltd.HOTOL 2spaceplaneAn 225airplaneLEO-proposed[19]
Reaction Engines Ltd.Skylonspaceplaneself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO5-20development[19]
Rocketplane KistlerK-1rocketself-powered (TSTO)self-powered (TSTO)LEO-cancelled[20][full citation needed]
Rocketplane KistlerRocketplane XPspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit6cancelled[21][full citation needed]
Rotary RocketRotonrocketself-powered (SSTO)self-powered (SSTO)LEO2cancelled[22]
Scaled CompositesSpaceShipOnespaceplaneWhiteKnightOneairplanesub-orbit2retired (3/3)[23]
Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipThreespaceplaneWhiteKnightTwoairplaneLEO (or suborbital passenger-delivery) ?proposed[25]
Space Adventures and Myasishchev Design BureauExplorer (Cosmopolis XXI, C-21)spaceplaneM-55Xairplanesub-orbit5development[26]
Space Transport Corp.Rubicon Irocketself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit3cancelled[27]
SpaceDevDream ChaserspaceplaneAtlas VrocketLEO7testing[28]
SpaceXDragoncapsuleFalcon 9rocketLEO7operational (2/2)2 spacecraft have been launched into orbit and returned to earth[29]
Starchaser IndustriesNOVAcapsuleStarchaser 4rocketsub-orbit-testing[30]
Starchaser IndustriesThunderstarcapsuleStarchaser 5rocketsub-orbit3development[31]
Starchaser IndustriesThunderbirdcapsuleStarchaser 5rocketsub-orbit6development[31]
Truax Engineering, Inc.X-3 VolksrocketcapsulePrivate Enterpriserocketsub-orbit1cancelled[citation needed]
t/SpaceCXVcapsuleQuickReachrocketLEO and lunar orbit6development[32]
Venturer AerospaceS-550capsuleFalcon 9rocketLEO6cancelled[33]
XCORXerusspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit2cancelled[34]
XCOR and RocketShip ToursLynxspaceplaneself-powered (SSTSO)self-powered (SSTSO)sub-orbit1development[35]

Space stations

Private Company nameSpace Craft nameSpace Craft typeInternal
Craft statusRef
Bigelow AerospaceGenesis IInflatable module11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[36]unmannedcurrently in LEO[37]
Bigelow AerospaceGenesis IIInflatable module11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[38]unmannedcurrently in LEO[39]
Bigelow AerospaceGalaxyInflatable module16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[40]unmannedcancelled[41]
Bigelow AerospaceSundancerInflatable module180 m3 (6,357 cu ft)3cancelled[42]
Bigelow AerospaceBA 330Inflatable module330 m3 (11,654 cu ft)6development[43]
Bigelow AerospaceBA 2100Inflatable module2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft)16proposed
Excalibur AlmazAlmaz derivativeRigid module ?3development[10][11]
Galactic Suite Ltd.Galactic SuiteRigid module ?6proposed[44]
Orbital Technologies/RSC EnergiaOrbital Technologies Commercial Space StationRigid ModuleThe first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³.7development[45]

Launch vehicles

Company nameLauncher
No. of
AirLaunch LLCQuickReachrocket2LEOdevelopment ?[46]
ARCAHaas 2bsmall rocket1suborbitdevelopment ?[1]
ARCASuper Haasmedium rocket2LEOdevelopment ?[2]
Beal AerospaceBA-2medium rocket3GTOcancelled ?[47]
Canadian ArrowCanadian Arrowrocket2LEOtesting ?[citation needed]
DIRECTLeviathan-140rocket2GTOdevelopment ?[48]
Galaxy ExpressGXmedium rocket2SSOcancelled ?[49]
Interorbital SystemsSea Star TSAAHTOlight rocketLEOdevelopment ?[50]
Interorbital SystemsNeptune 30light rocketmultiLEOproposed ?[14]
Interorbital SystemsNeptune 1000medium rocketmultilunar orbitproposed ?[14]
Interorbital SystemsNeptune TSAAHTOheavy rocketlunar orbitproposed ?[14]
Lockheed MartinVentureStarmedium rocket1LEOcancelled ?[51]
Orbital Sciences Corp.Taurus Ilight rocket4LEOoperational (6/9)1989[52]
Orbital Sciences Corp.Antaresmedium rocket3LEOdevelopment2012 (planned) ?
Orbital Transport & Raketen AGOTRAGmedium rocketvariableLEOretired1977[citation needed]
Rocket LabATEA-1light rocket2suborbitoperational (1/1)2009[53][54]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
SR-Mlight rocket1suborbitoperational ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Spritelight rocket--testing ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Libertylight rocket--development ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Exodusmedium rocket--development ?[55]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Space Freightermedium rocket--proposed ?[55]
Space Services Inc. of AmericaPercheronlight rocket1suborbitcancelled ?[56]
Space Services Inc. of AmericaConestoga 1620medium rocket4LEOcancelled ?[56]
Space Transport Corp.Spartanlight rocket3suborbitcancelled ?
SpaceXFalcon 1light rocket2LEOoperational (2/5)2008[57]
SpaceXFalcon 1elight rocket2LEOtesting2011 (planned)[57]
SpaceXFalcon 5medium rocket2GTOcancelled ?[58]
SpaceXFalcon 9medium rocket2GTOoperational (3/3)2010[59]
SpaceXFalcon Heavyheavy rocket2+boosterslunar orbitdevelopment2013 (planned)[59]
Texas Spacelines Inc / TSI.Sol Cazadorlight rocket7HEO/lunar/escapedevelopment ?[60]

Landers, rovers and probes

Company nameCraft nameCraft typeCraft statusRef
Armadillo Aerospaceunnamed craftrocket moduletesting[61]
BlastOff! CorporationLunar 1rovercancelled[62]
Odyssey MoonMoonOne (M-1)roverdevelopment[63]
Astrobotic TechnologyArtemis Landerlanderdevelopment[64]
Astrobotic TechnologyRed Roverroverdevelopment[65]
Team Italiaroverdevelopment[66]
Micro Spacedevelopment[67]
Next Giant Leapdevelopment[68]
Team FREDNETdevelopment[69]
TransOrbitalTrailBlazerlunar orbitercancelled[70]
ARCASPACEELElunar orbiterdevelopment[71]
Omega Envoydevelopment[77]
SYNERGY MOONdevelopment[79]
Team SeleneLuRoCa 1rocket cardevelopment[81]
Puli Space TechnologiesPuliroverfundraising[84]

Research craft and tech demonstrators

Company nameCraft nameCraft purposeCraft statusRef
ARCADemonstrator 2bdemonstrate reusable monopropellant engineretired
Armadillo AerospaceQuaddemonstrate VTOLoperational
Blue OriginGoddarddemonstrate VTOLoperational
Interorbital SystemsNeutrinosystems testingoperational
Interorbital SystemsTachyonsystems testingoperational[85]
Lockheed MartinX-33demonstrate SSTOcancelled
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1demonstrate VTOLretired
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1BLunar Lander Challenge Level 1operational
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1ELunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flightsoperational
Masten Space SystemsXA-0.1E2commercial flightsdevelopment
McDonnell DouglasDC-Xdemonstrate VTOLretired (11 test flights)
Rotary RocketRoton ATVdemonstrate VTOLretired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc.Conestoga Isystems testingretired (1 test)[56]
SpaceXGrasshopperdemonstrate VTOLdevelopment[86]
Swedish Space Corp.Maxuspayload to 700 kmoperational
Swedish Space Corp.Maserpayload to 300 kmoperational
UP AerospaceSpaceLoft XLpayload to 140 kmoperational[87]

Space mining

Company nameBody to be minedMining craftMining statusRef
Shackleton Energy CompanyMoonUnknownUnknown
Moon ExpressMoonUnknownUnknown
Planetary ResourcesUnknownArkyd Series 100, 200, 300development[88]

Propulsion manufacturers

Company nameEngineEngine typeApplicationsRef
Ad Astra Rocket CompanyVASIMRmagnetoplasmamay be used for future Mars missions[citation needed]
AE AerospaceHIRE[89][90]hybrid ion rocket
AE AerospaceScearamjet[91][full citation needed]Electric Scramjet
American Rocket Companyhybrid rocketThe company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCAExecutor (rocket engine)Liquid Oxygen/RP-1IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
The Elwing CompanyElectrodeless Plasma ThrusterElectric Propulsionmay be used for future explorations missions[92][full citation needed]
Firestar Technologies[93]
Reaction Engines Ltd.SABREprecooled air-breathing rocketplanned to be used in Skylon[94]
Sierra Nevada CorporationRocketMotorTwohybrid rocketSpaceShipTwo
SpaceDevhybrid rocketSpaceShipOne[citation needed]
SpaceXKestrel (rocket engine)Liquid Oxygen/RP-1Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceXMerlin (rocket engine)Liquid Oxygen/RP-1Falcon 1,[95] Falcon 9,[96] Falcon 9 Heavy first stage[citation needed]
SpaceXMerlin VacuumLiquid Oxygen/RP-1Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Heavy second stage[citation needed]
SpaceXRaptor (rocket stage)Liquid Oxygen/Liquid HydrogenAs of July 2009, some preliminary concept work was being done.[97]

Satellite launchers

Spaceliner companies

Company nameContracts forCraft utilisedStatus
Benson Space CompanySpaceDevDream Chaserwaiting for hardware[citation needed]
MirCorpnoneSoyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mirdefunct, Mir deorbited
Space AdventuresnoneSoyuz and the ISSactive (6 tourists sent)
RocketShip ToursXCORLynx rocketplanewaiting for hardware
Virgin GalacticScaled CompositesSpaceShipTwowaiting for hardware

Spacecraft component manufacturers

See also


  1. ^ a b Haas2b specifications ARCA
  2. ^ a b Super haas Specifications ARCA
  3. ^ Armadillo Aerospace Armadillo Aerospace
  4. ^ "Boeing Selects Atlas V Rocket for Initial Commercial Crew Launches". 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2011=10=29. 
  5. ^ Boeing: Boeing CST-100 Spacecraft to Provide Commercial Crew Transportation Services
  6. ^ Klamper, Amy (2009-08-14). "Company pitches 'lite' spaceship to NASA : Stripped down version of NASA's future spaceship could be ready 2013". Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  7. ^ Blue's Rocket Clues (MSNBC's Cosmic Log, June 24, 2006)
  8. ^ Copenhagen Suborbitals Copenhagen Suborbitals
  9. ^ Spaceplane – Rocketing into the future EADS-Astrium
  10. ^ a b Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Beating swords into plough shares with Soviet Almaz
  11. ^ a b Excalibur Almaz to Pioneer Private Orbital Manned Space Flight In cooperation with NPOM of Russia | OnOrbit
  12. ^ Second team goes for space prize BBC News
  13. ^ Space racers set sights on orbital frontier MSNBC
  14. ^ a b c d Interorbital Systems Neptune Interorbital Systems
  15. ^ 準軌道宇宙旅行 宇宙丸プロジェクト Kankoh-maru
  16. ^ Orbital’s Cygnus debut mission to the ISS outlined
  17. ^ Space tourism company still aiming for space station New Scientist
  18. ^ BAe Hotol Cutaway - Pictures & Photos on FlightGlobal Airspace
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^ NASA Gives Rocketplane Kistler Termination Notice |
  21. ^ Rocketplane XP spec and description
  22. ^ Roton Encyclopedia Astronautica
  23. ^ SpaceShipOne Makes Historiy With First Private Spaceflight
  24. ^ Virgin Galactic in Space Ship Three talks New York Times
  25. ^ Entrepreneur Unveils New Tourist Spacecraft Your Industry News
  26. ^ New group to Develop Passenger Spacecraft MSNBC
  27. ^ . [dead link]
  28. ^ Dream Chaser begins test flights SEN TV LIMITED
  29. ^ Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Dragon
  30. ^ NOVA Armadillo Aerospace NOVA
  31. ^ a b Industries Starchaser Industries
  32. ^ NASA - Taking the Vision to the Next Step
  33. ^ Venturer Aerospace pursues NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services contract
  34. ^ XCOR Aerospace Unveils Rocket-Powered Lynx Vehicle Design FlightGlobal
  35. ^ "XCOR Unveils New Suborbital Rocketship". 
  36. ^ Untitled Document
  37. ^ Untitled Document
  38. ^ Untitled Document
  39. ^ Untitled Document
  40. ^ WebCite query result
  41. ^ Knapp, George (2007-08-17). "I-Team: Bigelow Aerospace Makes Giant Leap Towards Commercial Space Travel". Las Vegas Now. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  42. ^ "Bigelow Aerospace Expediting BA 330 Development". July 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  43. ^ The Five-Billion-Star Hotel, 1 Mar 2005
  44. ^ Staff (2007-08-10). "Spanish venture aims to build space hotel". Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  45. ^ Tariq Malik (2010-09-29). Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  46. ^ New Satellite Lift Tech Studied National Space Symposium 31-MAR-2009
  47. ^ Man With a Mission D Magazine
  48. ^ Leviathan-140 Product Information DIRECT Launcher 15-AUG-2011
  49. ^ "IHI to liquidate GX rocket venture after govt pullout". iStock Analyst. 2010-01-16. Retrieved 2010-04-01. 
  50. ^ Interorbital Systems Sea Star Interorbital Systems
  51. ^ X-33/VentureStar – What really happened |
  52. ^ Taurus
  53. ^ "NZ's first space launch saved by $6 replacement part". The New Zealand Herald. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  54. ^
  55. ^ a b c d e Scorpius Space Launch Company - Products and Services
  56. ^ a b c TSE - Conestoga
  57. ^ a b Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Falcon 1
  58. ^ Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Press
  59. ^ a b Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Falcon 9
  60. ^ Spaceflight
  61. ^ Armadillo Aerospace: Scaling Up for Modularized Spaceships Space News
  62. ^ Blast Off The unauthroized top-secret website of Peter H. Diamandis
  63. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  64. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  65. ^ Astrobotic reveals moon mission plans
  66. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  67. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  68. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  69. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  70. ^ [1] BBC News: Moon opens for business
  71. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  72. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  73. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  74. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  75. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  76. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  77. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  78. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  79. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  80. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  81. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  82. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  83. ^ The Teams | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  84. ^ Team Puli | Google Lunar X PRIZE
  85. ^ Advantages of using White Fuming Nitric Acid (WFNA) as an oXidizer in rockets []
  86. ^ Klotz, Irene (2011-09-27). "A rocket that lifts off — and lands — on launch pad". MSNBC. Retrieved 2011-11-23. 
  87. ^ Private rocket launches ashes of Star Trek's Scotty, astronaut to suborbital space []
  88. ^ "Technology". Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  89. ^ HIRE 2009
  90. ^ Hybrid Ion Rocket Engine/AE Aerospace owner Andrew Edwards 2010
  91. ^ Scearamjet 2009
  92. ^ [2] 2010
  93. ^ Firestar
  94. ^ "The SABRE Engine". Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  95. ^ Clark, Stephen (2008-09-28). "Sweet success at last for Falcon 1 rocket". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  96. ^ Whitesides, Loretta Hidalgo (2007-11-12). "SpaceX Completes Development of Rocket Engine for Falcon 1 and 9". Wired Science. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  97. ^ "Long term SpaceX vehicle plans". Retrieved 2009-07-13.