Population of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
  (Redirected from List of population of Canada by years)
Jump to: navigation, search
Historical population of Canada since confederation, 1867–2009

The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced by several factors, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration, which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth.[1] Canadians make up about 0.5% of the world's total population.[2] An estimate in 2014 had the population at 35,344,962.[3]

Despite the fact that Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as Southern Ontario, have population densities higher than several European countries. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the carrying capacity. Therefore the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.

Historical population overview[edit]

Aboriginals[edit]




Circle frame.svg

National Aboriginal Populations
(2011 National Household Survey)[4]

  First Nations (61%)
  Métis (32%)
  Inuit (4%)
  Multiple and non-Canadian North American aboriginals (3%)

Scholars vary on the estimated size of the aboriginal population in what is now Canada prior to colonization and on the effects of European contact.[5] During the late 15th century is estimated to have been between 200,000[6] and two million,[7] with a figure of 500,000 currently accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health.[8] Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity),[9] combined with other effects of European contact, resulted in a twenty-five percent to eighty percent Aboriginal population decrease post-contact.[6] Roland G Robertson suggests that during the late 1630s, smallpox killed over half of the Wyandot (Huron), who controlled most of the early North American fur trade in the area of New France.[10] In 1871 there was an enumeration of the aboriginal population within the limits of Canada at the time, showing a total of only 102,358 individuals.[11] According to the 2011 Canadian Census, Aboriginal peoples (First Nations - 851,560, Inuit - 59,445 and Métis - 451,795) numbered at 1,400,685, or 4.3% of the country's total population.[12]

New France[edit]

The European population grew slowly under French rule,[13] thus remained relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births, rather than by immigration.[14] Most of the people were farmers, and the rate of population growth among the settlers themselves was very high.[15] The women had about 30 per cent more children than comparable women who remained in France.[16] Yves Landry says, "Canadians had an exceptional diet for their time.[16] The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in North America.[17] It was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and 1666.[17] According to Talon's census there were 3,215 people in New France, comprising 538 separate families.[18] The census showed a great difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women.[18] By the early 1700s the New France settlers were well established along the Saint Lawrence River and Acadian Peninsula with a population around 15,000 to 16,000.[19] Mainly due to natural increase and modest immigration from Northwest France (Brittany, Normandy, Île-de-France, Poitou-Charentes and Pays de la Loire) the population of New France increased to approximately 55,009 according to the last French census of 1754.[20] This was an increases from 42,701 in 1730.[20]

British Canada[edit]

Distribution of the population in Canada for the years 1851, 1871, 1901, 1921 and 1941

During the late l8th and early 19th century Canada under British rule experienced strong population growth. In the wake of the 1775 invasion of Canada by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, approximately 60,000 to 70,000 United Empire Loyalist had fled to British North America, a large portion of whom migrated to New Brunswick.[21] Lower Canada's population had reached approximately 553,000, with Upper Canada reaching about 237,000 individuals by 1831.[22] The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s had significantly increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, peaking in 1847 with 100,000 distressed individuals.[23] By 1851, the population of the Maritime colonies also reached roughly 533,000 (277,000 in Nova Scotia, 194,000 in New Brunswick and 62,000 in Prince Edward Island).[24] To the west British Columbia had about 55,000 individuals by 1851.[24] Beginning in late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.[25] By 1861, as a result of natural births and the Great Migration of Canada from the British Isles, the Province of Canada population increased to 2.5 million inhabitants.[24] Newfoundland's population by 1861 reached approximately 125,000 individuals.[24]

Post-confederation[edit]

The population has consistently risen every year since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867; however the population of Newfoundland and Labrador was not included in post-confederation tallies prior to its entry into confederation as Canada's tenth province in 1949.[26][27] The first national census of the country was taken in 1871, with a population count around 3,689,000.[28] The year with the least population growth (in real terms) was 1882–1883, when only 30,000 new individuals were enumerated.[27]

Births and immigration in Canada from 1850 to 2000

The 1911 census was a detailed enumeration of the population showing a count of 7,206,643 individuals.[29] This was an increase of 34% over the 1901 census of 5,371,315.[30] The year with the most population growth was during the peak of the Post-World War II baby boom in 1956–1957, when the population grew by over 529,000, in a single twelve-month period.[27] The Canadian baby boom defined from 1947 to 1966, saw more than 400,000 babies born.[31] The 1996 census attempted to count every person in the country, totaling a population count of 28,846,761.[32] This was a 5.7% increase over the 1991 census of 27,296,859.[32] The 2001 census had a total population count of 30,007,094.[33] In contrast, the official Statistics Canada population estimate for 2001 was 31,021,300.[34]

Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897.[35] This count was lower than the official 1 July 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.[35] Ninety-percent of the population growth between 2001 and 2006 was concentrated in the main metropolitan areas.[36] The 2011 census was the fifteenth decennial census with a total population count of 33,476,688 up 5.9% from 2006. On average, censuses have been taken every five years since 1905. Censuses are required to be taken at least every ten years as mandated in section 8 of the Constitution Act, 1867.[37]

Components of population growth[edit]

Canada's current annual population growth rate is 1.238%, or a daily increase of 1,137 individuals.[27] Between 1867 and 2009 Canada's population grew by 979%.[27] It will have taken 144 years to do so. Canada had the highest net migration rate (0.61%) of all G-8 member countries between 1994 and 2004.[27] Natural growth accounts for an annual increase of 137,626 persons, at a yearly rate of 0.413%.[27] Between 2001 and 2006, there were 1,446,080 immigrants and 237,418 emigrants, resulting in a net migration of just over 1.2 million persons.[27] Since 2001, immigration has ranged between 221,352 and 262,236 immigrants per annum.[38]

Population by years[edit]

Prior to Canadian confederation in 1867 the population counts reflected only the former colonies and settlements and not the country to be as a whole with Aboriginal nations separated.[39]

Ephemeral European settlements[edit]

YearArea/colonyPopulationNotes[40]
1000L'Anse aux Meadows
(Newfoundland)
30 to 160Archaeological evidence of a short-lived Norse settlement was found a L'Anse aux Meadows, on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland (carbon dating estimate 990 - 1050 CE.[41]) There is no record of how many men and women lived at the site at any given time, however archaeological evidence of the dwellings suggest it had the capacity of supporting 30 to 160 individuals.[42]
1541Cap-Rouge
(Quebec City)
400Jacques Cartier established Charlesbourg-Royal at Cap-Rouge on his third voyage. Even though scurvy was cured through the aboriginal remedy (Thuja occidentalis infusion), the impression left is of a general misery with the effort being abandoned.[43] During the winter 35 of Cartier’s men would perish.[43]
1543Cap-Rouge
(Quebec City)
200In 1542, Jean-François Roberval tried to re-invigorate the Charlesbourg-Royal colony at Cap-Rouge which Roberval renamed France-Roy, however after a set of disastrous winters the effort was abandoned.[44] En route to Charlesbourg-Royal, Roberval had abandoned his near-relative Marguerite de La Rocque with her lover on the "Isle of Demons" (now called Harrington Island), in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, as punishment for their affair.[45] The young man, their servant and baby died, but Marguerite survived to be rescued by fishermen and returned to France 2 years latter.[45]
1583St. John Bay
(Newfoundland)
260Humphrey Gilbert with 260 men planned a settlement, however during exploration of the coast line a ship was lost containing many of the prospective colonists and their provisions.[46]
1598Sable Island
(Nova Scotia)
50Marquis de La Roche-Mesgouez and 40 convicts (peasants and beggars) with 10 soldiers settled on Sable Island, but this colonization attempt failed, culminating in a revolt with only 11 survivors evacuated.[47][48]
1600Tadoussac
(Quebec)
16François Gravé Du Pont with 16 men built a fur trading post at Tadoussac, however only five of the men survived the winter returning to France.[48]
1604Saint Croix
(Maine)
79The St. Croix settlement of Maine was the first real attempt at a year round base of operation in New France. The expedition was lead by Pierre Du Gua de Monts with 79 settlers including François Gravé Du Pont, Royal cartographer Samuel de Champlain, the Baron de Poutrincourt, apothecary Louis Hébert, a priest Nicolas Aubry, and Mathieu de Costa a linguist.[49] The St. Croix settlement was abandoned the following summer for a new habitation at Port-Royal after 35 died of scurvy.[50]

Former colonies and territories[edit]

17th century[edit]

YearArea/colonyPopulation [51][52]Notes[39]
1605Port Royal
(Nova Scotia)
44The 44 colonist are surviving members of 79 from the now abandoned St. Croix settlement of Maine.[48] However, the habitation at Port-Royal was also abandoned and left in the care of the local Mi'kmaq.[50] The settlement was later moved upstream and to the south bank of the Annapolis River, keeping the name Port-Royal and becoming the capital of Acadia.[53]
1608Quebec City28Samuel de Champlain established the colony with 28 settlers.[48] Half of the men that wintered the first year died of scurvy or starvation.[54] Nevertheless, new settlers arrived resulting in Quebec City being the first permanent settlement also becoming the capital of Canada (New France).
1610Cuper's Cove
(Newfoundland)
40The Newfoundland Colony was established by John Guy his brother Phillip and his brother-in-law William Colston with 39 colonists who spend the winter of 1610–1611 at Cuper's Cove.[55] By the fall of 1613 sixteen structures were completed by 60 plus settlers on the site.[56][57] As England tried to create a foothold in the north, other settlements were established at Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon, an area that became known as the English Shore. However the majority of the population did not stay year round returning in the spring of each year. Over the next 100 years the English colonies of Newfoundland grew very slowly with only 3,000 permanent residents by the 1720s.[58]
1629Quebec city11790 wintering belonged to Kirke's English Expedition that had captured the city.[59] Under brief British control the city began to grow and be fortified.[60] Prior to 1632 only eight births were recorded among the 60 to 70 permanent European settlers.[60][61] The first European child born in Quebec had been Hélène Desportes, in 1620.[62]
1641New France240De facto population of Canada (New France) and Acadia now situated partly in the United States of America and partly in Canada.[61]
1642Fort Ville-Marie
(Old Montreal)
50New colony with the majority of immigrants coming directly from France lead by Paul de Chomedey and Jeanne Mance, a lay woman.[63]
1666Canada (New France)3,215The 1660s marked the only real "wave" of French settlers arriving until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.[64] Following the initial wave of French settlers natural growth was the main contributing factor to population growth.[65] Quebec city 2,100, Trois-Rivieres 455, Montreal 655. (Comprising 528 families with 2,034 men and 1,181 women. Professionals included 3 notaries, 3 schoolmasters, 3 locksmiths, 4 bailiffs, 5 surgeons, 5 bakers, 8 barrel makers, 9 millers, 18 official merchants, 27 joiners, and 36 carpenters.)[39]
1677Aboriginal
Nations
10,750Estimated Aboriginal population in and around New France territory 10,750, including 2,150 warriors. (Mohawks 5 villages, 96 lodges, 300 warriors - Oneidas 1 village, 100 lodges, 200 warriors - Onondagas 2 villages, 164 lodges, 350 warriors - Cayugas 3 villages, 100 lodges, 300 warriors - Senecas 4 villages, 324 lodges, 1,000 warriors).[11]
1679Acadia515Majority are French subjects from Pleumartin and Poitiers of west-central France the Vienne region.
1681New France9,677New France saw new settlements develop resulting in the loss of inhabitants from Quebec City 1,345 and Trois-Rivières 150 with Montreal gaining influence with a populace reaching 1,418.[39]
1687Newfoundland663French population only.
1695New France13,639Population of Saint John River New Brunswick 49.
1698New France15,355English population of Newfoundland at the time 1,500.

18th century[edit]

YearArea/colonyPopulation [52][66]Notes[39]
1705Newfoundland520French population only
1706New France16,417Covering territory that is now situated partly in the United States of America and partly in Canada.
1712New France18,440Married - men 2,786, women 2,588. Unmarried - males 6,716, females 6,350.[39]
1718New France22,983Married - men 3,662, women 3,926. Unmarried - males 7,911, females 7,484.[39]
1720St.John Island
(Prince Edward Island)
10017 families
1730New France33,682Married - men 6,050, women 5,728. Unmarried - males 11,314, females 10,590.[39]
1736Aboriginal
Nations
17,575Estimated population of First Nations in New France that are now within Canada - Abenakis 2,950 - Algonquins, Ottawas, Potawatomi, Saulteaux and Crees 11,475 - Wyandot-Huron 1,300 - Iroquois 1,850.[11]
1737New France39,970Married - men 7,378, women 6,804. Unmarried - males 13,330, females 12,458.[39]
1741Newfoundland6,000English population only.
1749Nova Scotia2,544Married - men, 509 ; women 509. Unmarried -men, 660 ; women, 3. Children-boys, 228 ; girls, 216. Servants-men, 277 ; women, 142.[39]
1749Île-Royale (New France) (Cape Breton)1,000French population only.
1749Acadian Peninsula13,000French population only.
1765Province of Quebec (1763–91)69,810French and English populations.
1775Province of Quebec (1763–91)90,000French and English populations.
1785Newfoundland10,244French and English populations.
1790Nova Scotia30,000French and English populations.
1797St. John Island
(Prince Edward Island)
4,500French and English populations.

19th century[edit]

YearArea/ProvincePopulation [67]
1806New Brunswick35,000
1806Prince Edward Island9,676
1806Upper Canada70,718
1806Lower Canada250,000
1806Newfoundland26,505
1807Nova Scotia65,000
1822Prince Edward Island24,600
1823Newfoundland52,157
1824Upper Canada150,066
1824New Brunswick74,176
1825Upper Canada157,923
1825Lower Canada479,288
1831Lower Canada553,134
1832Upper Canada263,554
1832Newfoundland59,280
1833Prince Edward Island32,292
1844Lower Canada697,084
1845Newfoundland96,295
1846Assiniboia (North-West Territories)4,871
1848Upper Canada725,879
1861Colony of Vancouver Island3,024
1869Newfoundland146,536
1871British Columbia36,247
1871Manitoba25,228
1871Ontario1,620,851
1871Quebec1,191,516
1871New Brunswick285,594
1871Nova Scotia387,800
1871Prince Edward Island94,021
1871Northwest Territories48,000
YearCanada as a wholePopulationProvinces/Area[11]
1871Aboriginals102,358Prince Edward Island 323 - Nova Scotia 1,666 - New Brunswick 1,403 - Quebec 6,988 - Ontario 12,978 - British Columbia 23,000 - Rupert's Land 33,500 - Manitoba 500 and Labrador and the Arctic Watersheds 22,000

Canada as a whole since confederation[edit]

Census data by years and projected data[edit]

Modern population distribution[edit]

By province and territory[edit]

Canada's population from the 2011 census by province and territory

By cities and municipalities[edit]

First Nations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Canadians in Context — Population Size and Growth". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  2. ^ "Environment — Greenhouse Gases (Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Person)". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  3. ^ "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Canadians in Context - Aboriginal Population". Statistics Canada. 2014. 
  5. ^ Michael R. Haines; Richard H. Steckel (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. 
  6. ^ a b Herbert C. Northcott; Donna Marie Wilson (2008). Dying And Death In Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-1-55111-873-4. 
  7. ^ Michael R. Haines; Richard H. Steckel (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. 
  8. ^ Garrick Alan Bailey; William C ... Sturtevant; Smithsonian Institution (U S ) (2008). Handbook Of North American Indians: Indians in Contemporary Society. Government Printing Office. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-16-080388-8. 
  9. ^ William G. Dean; Geoffrey J. Matthews (1998). Concise Historical Atlas of Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8020-4203-3. 
  10. ^ R. G. Robertson (2001). Rotting Face : Smallpox and the American Indian. University of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-87004-497-7. 
  11. ^ a b c d "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Aboriginal peoples". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  12. ^ "Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit". Statistics Canada. 2012. 
  13. ^ David L. Preston (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667-1783. U of Nebraska Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7. 
  14. ^ John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. 
  15. ^ Thomas F. McIlwraith; Edward K. Muller (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4616-3960-2. 
  16. ^ a b Yves Landry (1993). Fertility in France and New France: The Distinguishing Characteristics of Canadian Behavior in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Université de Montréal. pp. 577–592, quote p 586. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  17. ^ a b "North America's First Census". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  18. ^ a b "Ttables of census data collected in 1665 and 1666 by Jean Talon". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  19. ^ "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  20. ^ a b Louis Hartz (1969). The Founding of New Societies: Studies in the History of the United States, Latin America, South Africa, Canada, and Australia. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 231. ISBN 0-547-97109-5. 
  21. ^ John M. Murrin; Paul E. Johnson; James M. McPherson; Gary Gerstle, Emily S. Rosenberg (2008). Liberty, Equality, Power, A History of the American People: To 1877. Cengage Learning. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-495-56634-2. 
  22. ^ Elisée Reclus; Ernest George Ravenstein; Augustus Henry Keane (1893). The Earth and Its Inhabitants ...: British North America. D. Appleton. p. 479. 
  23. ^ Donald MacKay (2009). Flight from Famine: The Coming of the Irish to Canada. Dundurn. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-77070-506-7. 
  24. ^ a b c d Kenneth J. Rea (1991). A guide to Canadian economic history. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-921627-81-4. 
  25. ^ Patricia Wong Wong Hall; Hwang, Victor M. (2001). Anti-Asian Violence in North America: Asian American and Asian Canadian Reflections on Hate, Healing, and Resistance. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7425-0459-2. 
  26. ^ "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h "Canadians in Context — Population Size and Growth". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  28. ^ "History of the Census of Canada". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  29. ^ "OGSPI 1911 Census Menu". The Ontario Genealogical Society (OGS). 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  30. ^ "Canadian Immigration – Early 1900s". British immigrants in Montreal. 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  31. ^ "By definition: Boom, bust, X and why". Globe and Mail. 2006 -2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  32. ^ a b "Census of Canada, A population and dwelling counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 1997. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  33. ^ "2001 Census facts: did you know..." (PDF). Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  34. ^ "Population estimates". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  35. ^ a b "Differences between Statistics Canada’s census counts and population estimates" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  36. ^ "Population and dwelling counts A portrait of the Canadian population". Statistics Canada. 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  37. ^ "The Constitution Act, 1867". The Solon Law Archive. 2001. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  38. ^ "Immigration overview – Permanent and temporary residents". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Summaries of census information from 1605 to 1871" (PDF). Statistics of Canada. 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  40. ^ "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Early exploration (16th century)". Statcan.gc.ca. 2013. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  41. ^ Linda S. Cordell; Kent Lightfoot; Francis McManamon; George Milner (30 December 2008). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3. 
  42. ^ Annette Kolodny (2012). In Search of First Contact: The Vikings of Vinland, the Peoples of the Dawnland, and the Anglo-American Anxiety of Discovery. Duke University Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-8223-5286-9. 
  43. ^ a b Conrad Heidenreich; K. Janet Ritch (2010). Samuel de Champlain Before 1604: Des Sauvages and Other Documents Related to the Period. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-7735-3757-6. 
  44. ^ Rene Chartrand (2008). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84603-255-4. 
  45. ^ a b Alan Gordon (2010). The Hero and the Historians: Historiography and the Uses of Jacques Cartier. UBC Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7748-5920-2. 
  46. ^ Britannica Educational Publishing (2011). From Columbus to Colonial America: 1492 to 1763. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-61530-734-0. 
  47. ^ "Canadian Military Heritage". Cmhg.gc.ca. 2011. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  48. ^ a b c d Roger E. Riendeau (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3. 
  49. ^ John G. Reid (2004). The "conquest" of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions. University of Toronto Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8020-8538-2. 
  50. ^ a b Harald E. L. Prins (1996). The Miʼkmaq: resistance, accommodation, and cultural survival. Harcourt Brace College Pub. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-03-053427-0. 
  51. ^ "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Early French settlements (1605 to 1691)". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  52. ^ a b "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Early English settlements (1692 to 1749)". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  53. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2012). Almanac of American Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-59884-530-3. 
  54. ^ Ruben C. Bellan (2003). Canada's Cities: A History. Whitefield Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-9699686-1-0. 
  55. ^ Andrew Ross; Andrew Smith (2011). Canada's Entrepreneurs: From The Fur Trade to the 1929 Stock Market Crash: Portraits from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4426-6254-4. 
  56. ^ Shannon Lewis-Simpson; Peter E. Pope (2013). Exploring Atlantic Transitions: Archaeologies of Transience and Permanence in New Found Lands. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-84383-859-3. 
  57. ^ "The Governor General of Canada > 400th Anniversary of the town of Cupids". Gg.ca. 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  58. ^ Jerry Bannister (2003). The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom, and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. University of Toronto Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8020-8613-6. 
  59. ^ Census of Canada 1851/52-. Des presses a Vapeur de Lovell et Lamoureaux. 1876. p. 16. 
  60. ^ a b Michael R. Haines; Richard H. Steckel (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. 
  61. ^ a b Canada. Dept. of Public Works (1891). Annual Report. pp. 3–. 
  62. ^ Raymonde Litalien (2004). Champlain: The Birth of French America. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-7735-7256-0. 
  63. ^ Terence J. Fay (2002). History of Canadian Catholics. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7735-2313-5. 
  64. ^ James Pritchard (2004). In Search of Empire: The French in the Americas, 1670-1730. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-82742-3. 
  65. ^ Michael R. Haines; Richard H. Steckel (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. 
  66. ^ "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Upper Canada & Loyalists (1785 to 1797)". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  67. ^ "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: The 1800s (1806 to 1871)". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  68. ^ a b c "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. 2013. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  69. ^ "Canada Year Book 1932". Statistics Canada. 2009. p. 91. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  70. ^ "Canada Year Book 1955". Statistics Canada. 2009. p. 135. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  71. ^ "Canada Year Book 1967". Statistics Canada. 2009. p. 184. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  72. ^ Population and private dwellings occupied by usual residents and intercensal growth for Canada - 1971 to 2011. Statistics Canada. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014
  73. ^ Manitoba (Canada): Province & Major Cities - Statistics & Maps on City Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014
  74. ^ 1996 Census of Canada - Electronic Area Profiles. Statistics Canada. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014
  75. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 2006 and 2001 censuses. Statistics Canada. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014
  76. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 2011 and 2006 censuses. Statistics Canada. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014
  77. ^ "Population Projections for Canada - Components of population growth, high-growth scenario - 2009/2010 to 2060/2061". Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 91-520. 2006. Retrieved September 8, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]