List of popes

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Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St Peter's (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes.[1]

The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.[2]

The term pope (Latin: papa "father") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.[3]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes.

Chronological list of popes[edit]

1st–5th centuries[edit]

1st century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
133 – 64/67Pope-peter pprubens.jpgSt Peter
PETRUS
Simon Peter
CΙΜΗΟΝ ΚΗΦΑC (contemporary Greek)
(modern Greek: Σίμων (or Συμεών) Κηφᾶς)

ܫܶܡܥܽܘܢ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ
Bethsaida, Galilea, Roman EmpireApostle of Jesus Christ from whom he received the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 16:18–19. Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. Recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.[4]
264/67(?) – 76/79(?)Linus2.jpgSt Linus
LINUS
LinusTusciaFeast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
376/79(?) – 88/92Popeanacletus.JPGSt Anacletus
(Cletus)
ANACLETUS
AnacletusRomeMartyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus[5]
488/92 – 97San Clemente de Roma.jpgSt Clement I
CLEMENS
ClementRomeFeast day 23 November. Issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
597/99 – 105/107Evaristus.jpgSt Evaristus
EVARISTUS
AristusBethlehem, JudeaSaid to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.

2nd century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
6105/107 – 115/116Pope Alexander I.jpgSt Alexander I
ALEXANDER
AlexanderRomeAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
7115/116 – 125SixtusI.jpgSt Sixtus I
XYSTUS
XystusRomeFeast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
8125 – 136/138Telesphorus.JPGSt Telesphorus
TELESPHORUS
TelesphorusTerranova da Sibari, Calabria 
9136/138 – 140/142Hyginus.jpgSt Hyginus
HYGINUS
HyginusAthens, GreeceTraditionally martyred; feast day 11 January
10140/142 – 155Pope Pius I.jpgSt Pius I
PIUS
PiusAquileia, FriuliMartyred by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
11155–166Papa Aniceto cropped.jpgSt Anicetus
ANICETUS
AnicitusEmesa, SyriaTraditionally martyred; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
12c. 166 – 174/175Soter.jpgSt Soter
SOTERIUS
SoterFondi, LatiumTraditionally martyred; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
13174/175 – 24 May 189Eleutherius.jpgSt Eleuterus
ELEUTHERIUS
EleutherNicopoli, EpirusTraditionally martyred; feast day 6 May
14189 – 198/199Victor I..jpgSt Victor I
VICTOR
VictorRoman AfricaKnown for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
15199–217Saintz05.jpgSt Zephyrinus
ZEPHYRINUS
ZephyrinusRome 

3rd century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
16c. 217 – 222/223CalixtusI.jpgSt Callixtus I
CALLISTUS
CallistusIberian PeninsulaMartyred; feast day 14 October
17222/223 – 230UrbanI.jpgSt Urban I
URBANUS
UrbanRomeAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
1821 July 230
– 28 September 235
(5 years, 69 days)
Pope Pontian.jpgSt Pontian
PONTIANUS
PontianusRomeFirst to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his death on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.[6][7]
1921 November 235
– 3 January 236
(0 years, 43 days)
Anterus.jpgSt Anterus
ANTERUS
AnterusPetilia Policastro - CalabriaAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
2010 January 236
– 20 January 250
(14 years, 10 days)
Saint Fabian1.jpgSt Fabian
FABIANUS
FabianusRomeFeast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
216/11 March 251
– June 253
(2 years+)
Heiliger Cornelius.jpgSt Cornelius
CORNELIUS
Cornelius Died a martyr, through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September
2225 June 253
– 5 March 254
(256 days)
Lucius I.jpgSt Lucius I
LUCIUS
LuciusRomeFeast day 4 March
2312 May 254
– 2 August 257
(3 years, 82 days)
Stephen I.jpgSt Stephen I
STEPHANUS
StephanusRomeMartyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
2430/31 August 257
– 6 August 258
(340/341 days)
Sandro Botticelli - Sixte II.jpgSt Sixtus II
XYSTUS Secundus
SixtusGreeceMartyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
2522 July 259
– 26 December 268
(9 years, 157 days)
Pope Dionysius.jpgSt Dionysius
DIONYSIUS
DionysiusGreeceFeast day 26 December
265 January 269
– 30 December 274
(5 years, 890 days)
PopeFelixI.jpgSt Felix I
FELIX
FelixRome 
274 January 275
– 7 December 283
(8 years, 337 days)
Eutychian.jpgSt Eutychian
EUTYCHIANUS
Eutychianus  
2817 December 283
– 22 April 296
(12 years, 127 days)
PCaius.jpgSt Caius
CAIUS
GaiusSalona, DalmatiaMartyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
2930 June 296
– 1 April 304
(7 years, 276 days)
Marcellinus.jpgSt Marcellinus
MARCELLINUS
MarcellinusRomeFeast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
30308–309Papa Marcelo I.jpgSt Marcellus I
MARCELLUS
  Banished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
3118 April – 17 August 309 or 310PopeEusebius.jpgSt Eusebius
EUSEBIUS
 SardiniaBanished by the emperor Maxentius and died in exile.
322 July 311
– 10 January 314
(2 years, 192 days)
Pope miltiades.jpgSt Miltiades
(Melchiades)
MILTIADES
 AfricaFirst pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
3331 January 314
– 31 December 335
(21 years, 334 days)
Sylvester I.jpgSt Sylvester I
SILVESTER
 Sant'Angelo a Scala, AvellinoFeast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea (325). Under him was built: the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St. Peter's Basilica. Donation of Constantine.
3418 January 336
– 7 October 336
(263 days)
Marcus (papa).jpgSt Mark
MARCUS
 RomeFeast day 7 October
356 February 337
– 12 April 352
(15 years, 66 days)
Iulius I.jpgSt Julius I
IULIUS
 RomeArian controversy. Credited with splitting the birth of Christ into two distinct celebrations: The Epiphany stayed on the traditional date, and the Nativity was added on 25 December.
3617 May 352
– 24 September 366
(14 years, 130 days)
Liberio papa1.gifLiberius
LIBERIUS
  Earliest pope not yet canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.[8]
371 October 366
– 11 December 384
(18 years, 71 days)
Damasoc.jpgSt Damasus I
DAMASUS
 Idanha-a-Velha, PortugalPatron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Council of Rome (382).
3811 December 384
– 26 November 399
(14 years, 350 days)
Siricius.jpgSt Siricius
Papa SIRICIUS
  
3927 November 399
– 19 December 401
(2 years, 22 days)
Pope Anastasius I.jpgSt Anastasius I
Papa ANASTASIUS
 RomeInstructed priests to stand and bow their head as they read from the Gospels.

5th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
4022 December 401
– 12 March 417
(15 years, 80 days)
Pope Innocent I.jpgSt Innocent I
Papa INNOCENTIUS
 Albano, LatiumVisigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric
4118 March 417
– 26 December 418
(1 year, 283 days)
Pope Zosimus.jpgSt Zosimus
Papa ZOSIMUS
 Mesoraca - Calabria 
4228/29 December 418
– 4 September 422
(3 years+)
Pope Boniface I Illustration.jpgSt Boniface I
Papa BONIFATIUS
   
4310 September 422
– 27 July 432
(9 years, 321 days)
Pope Celestine I.jpgSt Celestine I
Papa COELESTINUS
 Rome, Western Roman EmpireAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
4431 July 432
– March/August 440
(~8 years)
Pope Sixtus III.jpgSt Sixtus III
Papa SIXTUS Tertius
   
4529 September 440
– 10 November 461
(21 years, 43 days)
Herrera mozo San León magno Lienzo. Óvalo. 164 x 105 cm. Museo del Prado.jpgSt Leo I
(Leo the Great)
Papa LEO MAGNUS
 RomeConvinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
4619 November 461
– 29 February 468
(6 years, 102 days)
Nuremberg chronicles - Hilarius, Pope (CXXXVIv).jpgSt Hilarius
Papa HILARIUS
HilariusSardinia 
473 March 468
– 10 March 483
(15 years, 7 days)
Sansimpliciopapa.jpgSt Simplicius
Papa SIMPLICIUS
SimpliciusTivoli 
4813 March 483
– 1 March 492
(8 years, 354 days)
Felix3.jpgSt Felix III (Felix II)
Papa FELIX Tertius (Secundus)
FeliceRomeSometimes called Felix II
491 March 492
– 21 November 496
(4 years, 265 days)
Pope Gelasius I.jpgSt Gelasius I
Papa GELASIUS
GelasiusAfricaTo date, the last pope to have been born on the continent of Africa.
5024 November 496
– 19 November 498
(1 year, 360 days)
Pope Anastasius II.jpgAnastasius II
Papa ANASTASIUS Secundus
AnastasiusRomeTried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism.
5122 November 498
– 19 July 514
(15 years, 239 days)
Simmaco - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpgSt Symmachus
Papa SYMMACHUS
SimmacoSardinia 

6th–15th centuries[edit]

6th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
5220 July 514
– 19 July 523
(8 years, 364 days)
Pope Hormisdas Illustration.jpgSt Hormisdas
Papa HORMISDAS
HormisdasFrosinone, Southern LatiumFather of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
5313 August 523
– 18 May 526
(2 years, 278 days)
Papa Ioannes I.jpgSt John I
Papa IOANNES
GiovanniToscana 
5413 July 526
– 22 September 530
(4 years, 71 days)
Mosaic of Felix IV (III) in Santi Cosma e Damiano, Rome, Italy (527–530).jpgSt Felix IV (Felix III)
Papa FELIX Quartus (Tertius)
FeliceSamniumSometimes called Felix III. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
5522 September 530
– 17 October 532
(2 years, 25 days)
Pope Boniface II.jpgBoniface II
Papa BONIFATIUS Secundus
BonifacioRome to Ostrogoth parents 
562 January 533
– 8 May 535
(2 years, 126 days)
Pope John II.jpgJohn II
Papa IOHANNES Secundus
MercurioRomeFirst pope to not use his personal name. This was due to Mercury being a Roman god.
5713 May 535
– 22 April 536
(346 days)
Agapitus I.jpgSt Agapetus I
Papa AGAPITUS
AgapitoRome, Ostrogothic KingdomFeast days 22 April 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
581 June 536
– 11 November 537
(1 year, 163 days)
Silverius2.jpgSt Silverius
Papa SILVERIUS
Silverius Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas
5929 March 537
– 7 June 555
(18 years, 70 days)
Pope Vigilius.jpgVigilius
Papa VIGILIUS
 Rome 
6016 April 556
– 4 March 561
(4 years, 322 days)
Pope Pelagius I Illustration.jpgPelagius I
Papa PELAGIUS
 RomeCredited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
6117 July 561
– 13 July 574
(12 years, 361 days)
Pope John III.jpgJohn III
Papa IOANNES Tertius
CatelinusRome, Eastern Roman Empire 
622 June 575
– 30 July 579
(4 years, 58 days)
Pope Benedict I.jpgBenedict I
Papa BENEDICTUS
   
6326 November 579
– 7 February 590
(10 years, 73 days)
Pope Pelagius II.jpgPelagius II
Papa PELAGIUS Secundus
 RomeOrdered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
643 September 590
– 12 March 604
(13 years, 191 days)
Gregorythegreat.jpgSt Gregory I
(Gregory the Great)
Papa GREGORIUS MAGNUS
Gregorio
O.S.B.
RomeThe first to formally employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St. Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.

7th Century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
6513 September 604
– 22 February 606
(1 year, 162 days)
Pope Sabinian.jpgSabinian
Papa SABINIANUS
 Blera 
6619 February 607
– 12 November 607
(267 days)
Pope Boniface III.jpgBoniface III
Papa BONIFATIUS Tertius
BonifacioRome 
6725 August 608
– 8 May 615
(6 years, 256 days)
Pope Boniface IV.jpgSt Boniface IV
Papa BONIFATIUS Quartus
Bonifacio
O.S.B.
MarsiFirst pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
6819 October 615
– 8 November 618
(3 years, 20 days)
Adeodatus I (Deusdedit I).jpgSt Adeodatus I
(Deusdedit)
Papa ADEODATUS sive DEUSDEDIT
 RomeSometimes called Deusdedit, as a result Pope Adeodatus II is sometimes called Pope Adeodatus without a number. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called Papal bulls.
6923 December 619
– 25 October 625
(5 years, 306 days)
Pope Boniface V.jpgBoniface V
Papa BONIFATIUS Quintus
BonifacioNaples 
7027 October 625
– 12 October 638
(12 years, 350 days)
Onorio I - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpgHonorius I
Papa HONORIUS
OnorioCampania, Byzantine EmpireNamed a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople (680)
71October 638
– 2 August 640
(1 year+)
Pope Severinus.jpgSeverinus
Papa SEVERINUS
SeverinoRome 
7224 December 640
– 12 October 642
(1 year, 292 days)
Pope John IV.jpgJohn IV
Papa IOANNES Quartus
 Zadar, Dalmatia, Byzantine Empire
7324 November 642
– 14 May 649
(6 years, 171 days)
Pope Theodore I.jpgTheodore I
Papa THEODORUS
 JerusalemThe last Israeli pope. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but died before it could open.
7421 July 649
– 16 September 655
(6 years, 57 days)
Pope Martin I.jpgSt Martin I
Papa MARTINUS
MartinoNear Todi, Umbria, Byzantine EmpireFeast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
7510 August 654
– 1 June 657
(2 years, 295 days)
Pope Eugene I.jpgSt Eugene I
Papa EUGENIUS
EugenioRome 
7630 July 657
– 27 January 672
(14 years, 181 days)
Pope Vitalian Illustration.jpgSt Vitalian
Papa VITALIANUS
 Segni, Byzantine Empire 
7711 April 672
– 17 June 676
(4 years, 67 days)
Pope Adeodatus II Illustration.jpgAdeodatus II
Papa ADEODATUS Secundus
unknown
O.S.B.
Rome, Byzantine EmpireSometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) in reference to Pope Adeodatus I sometimes being called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
782 November 676
– 11 April 678
(1 year, 160 days)
Dono I.jpgDonus
Papa DONUS
 Rome, Byzantine Empire 
7927 June 678
– 10 January 681
(2 years, 197 days)
Pope Agatho.jpgSt Agatho
Papa AGATHO
 SicilyAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
8017 August 682
– 28 June 683
(315 days)
Pope Leo II.jpgSt Leo II
Papa LEO Secundus
LeoSicilyFeast day 3 July
8126 June 684
– 8 May 685
(317 days)
Pope Benedict II.jpgSt Benedict II
Papa BENEDICTUS Secundus
BenedettoRome, Byzantine EmpireFeast day 7 May
8212 July 685
– 2 August 686
(1 year, 21 days)
Pope John V.jpgJohn V
Papa IOANNES Quintus
 Syria 
8321 October 686
– 22 September 687
(335 days)
Pope Conon.jpgConon
Papa CONON
 Sicily 
8415 December 687
– 8 September 701
(13 years, 267 days)
Pope Sergius I.jpgSt Sergius I
Papa SERGIUS
 Sicily 

8th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
8530 October 701
– 11 January 705
(3 years, 73 days)
Pope John VI.jpgJohn VI
Papa IOANNES Sextus
ΙωάννηςGreeceThe last Greek pope.
861 March 705
– 18 October 707
(2 years, 231 days)
Byzantinischer Mosaizist um 705 002.jpgJohn VII
Papa IOANNES Septimus
ΙωάννηςRossano - CalabriaThe second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
8715 January 708
– 4 February 708
(21 days)
Pope Sisinnius.jpgSisinnius
Papa SISINNIUS
 Syria 
8825 March 708
– 9 April 715
(7 years, 15 days)
Pope Constantine.jpgConstantine
Papa COSTANTINUS sive CONSTANTINUS
 SyriaLast pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001.
8919 May 715
– 11 February 731
(15 years, 268 days)
Pope Gregory II.jpgSt Gregory II
Papa GREGORIUS Secundus
GregorioRome, Byzantine EmpireFeast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
9018 March 731
– 28 November 741
(10 years, 255 days)
Pope Gregory III Illustration.jpgSt Gregory III
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius
 SyriaThe third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Was previously the last pope to have been born outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
913 December 741
– 14/22 March 752
(10 years+)
Pope Zachary Illustration.jpgSt Zachary
Papa ZACHARIAS
 Santa Severina - CalabriaFeast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
(never consecrated)23 March 752
– 25 March 752
(Never took office as pope)
Pope-elect Stephen.jpgPope-elect Stephen
Papa Electus STEPHANUS
  Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election; never receiving episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
9226 March 752
– 26 April 757
(5 years, 31 days)
Pope Stephen II.jpgStephen II (Stephen III)
Papa STEPHANUS Secundus (Tertius)
 RomeSometimes called Stephen III. The Donation of Pepin.
9329 May 757
– 28 June 767
(10 years, 30 days)
Pope Paul I.jpgSt Paul I
Papa PAULUS
PaoloRome 
941/7 August 767
– 24 January 772
(4 years+)
Pope Stephen III.jpgStephen III (Stephen IV)
Papa STEPHANUS Tertius (Quartus)
StefanoSicilySometimes called Stephen IV. The Lateran Council (769).
951 February 772
– 26 December 795
(23 years, 328 days)
Pope Adrian I Illustration.jpgAdrian I
Papa HADRIANUS
AdrianoRome 
9626 December 795
– 12 June 816
(20 years, 169 days)
Leo III.jpgSt Leo III
Papa LEO Tertius
LeoRomeCrowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy.

9th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at election / death or resigned# years as popeNotes
9712 June 816
– 24 January 817
(0 years, 226 days)
Pope Stephen IV.jpgStephen IV (Stephen V)
Papa STEPHANUS Quartus (Quintus)
StephanusRome <1Sometimes called Stephen V.
9825 January 817
– 11 February 824
(7 years, 17 days)
Apsis - Paschalis I..gifSt Paschal I
Papa PASCHALIS
PasqualeRome 7Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
998 May 824
– August 27 827
(3 years, 111 days)
Pope Eugene II.jpgEugene II
Papa EUGENIUS Secundus
EugenioRome 3 
10030/31 August 827 – 9/10 September 827Pope Valentine.jpgValentine
Papa VALENTINUS
ValentinoRome <1 
101December 827 – 25 January 844Pope Gregory IV.jpgGregory IV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus
GregorioRome 17Rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter’s Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory I.
10225 January 844
– 7 January 847
(2 years, 347 days)
Pope Sergius II Illustration.jpgSergius II
Papa SERGIUS Secundus
 Rome 3 
10327 January 847
– 17 July 855
(8 years, 171 days)
Pope St. Leo IV.jpgSt Leo IV
Papa LEO Quartus
Leo
O.S.B.
Rome 8Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
10429 July 855
– 7 April 858
(2 years, 252 days)
Pope Benedict III Illustration.jpgBenedict III
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius
BenedettoRome   
10524 April 858
– 13 November 867
(9 years, 203 days)
NicholasI.jpgSt Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
Papa NICOLAUS MAGNUS
NiccolòRome 9 
10614 December 867
– 14 December 872
(5 years, 0 days)
Pope Adrian II.jpgAdrian II
Papa HADRIANUS Secundus
AdrianoRome 5 
10714 December 872 – 16 December 882 (10 years, 2 days)Pope John VIII Illustration.jpgJohn VIII
Papa IOANNES Octavus
GiovanniRome 10 
10816 December 882
– 15 May 884
(1 year, 151 days)
Pope Marinus I.jpgMarinus I
Papa MARINUS
MarinoGallese, Rome 1 
10917 May 884 – c.September 885Papa Adriano III.jpgSt Adrian III
Papa HADRIANUS Tertius
AdrianoRome   
110July/August 885 – 14 September 891Pope Stephen V.jpgStephen V (Stephen VI)
Papa STEPHANUS Quintus (Sextus)
StefanoRome  Sometimes called Stephen VI.
11119 September 891
– 4 April 896
(4 years, 198 days)
Pope Formosus.jpgFormosus
Papa FORMOSUS
FormosoOstia 4Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod.
1124 April 896 – 19 April 896 (15 days)Pope Boniface VI.jpgBoniface VI
Papa BONIFATIUS Sextus
BonifacioRome <1 
11322 May 896
– 14 August 897
(1 year, 84 days)
Pope Stephen VI.jpgStephen VI (Stephen VII)
Papa STEPHANUS Sextus (Septimus)
Stefano  1Sometimes called Stephen VII. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
114August 897 – November 897Pope Romanus Illustration.jpgRomanus
Papa ROMANUS
RomanoGallese, Rome <1 
115December 897 - 20 December 897Pope Theodore II.jpgTheodore II
Papa THEODORUS Secundus
TeodoroRome <1 
116January 898 – January 900Pope John IX.jpgJohn IX
Papa IOANNES Nonus
Giovanni
O.S.B.
Tivoli  Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
117May 900 – July 903Pope Benedict IV Illustration.jpgBenedict IV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus
BenedettoRome   

10th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at election / death or resigned# years as popeNotes
118July 903 – September 903Pope Leo V Illustration.jpgLeo V
Papa LEO Quintus
LeoArdea <1 
11929 January 904
– 14 April 911
(7 years, 75 days)
SergiusIII.jpgSergius III
Papa SERGIUS Tertius
SergioRome 7"Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
120April 911 – June 913Pope Anastasius III Illustration.jpgAnastasius III
Papa ANASTASIUS Tertius
 Rome 2 
121July/August 913 – February/March 914Pope Lando.jpgLando
Papa LANDUS
LandoSabina <1 
122March 914 – May 928Pope John X Illustration.jpgJohn X
Papa IOANNES Decimus
GiovanniRomagna 14 
123June 928 – February 929Pope Leo VI Illustration.jpgLeo VI
Papa LEO Sextus
LeoRome <1 
124February 929 – 15 March 931Pope Stephen VII.jpgStephen VII (Stephen VIII)
Papa STEPHANUS Septimus (Octavus)
StefanoRome 2Sometimes called Stephen VIII.
125February/March 931 – December 935Ioannes XI.jpgJohn XI
Papa IOANNES Undecimus
GiovanniRome 4 
1263 January 936
– 13 July 939
(3 years, 191 days)
Pope Leo VII.jpgLeo VII
Papa LEO Septimus
Leo
O.S.B.
  3Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
12714 July 939 – October 942Pope Stephen VIII.jpgStephen VIII (Stephen IX)
Papa STEPHANUS Octavus (Nonus)
StephanRome 3Sometimes called Stephen IX.
12830 October 942
– 10 May 946
(3 years, 192 days)
Pope Marinus II.jpgMarinus II
Papa MARINUS Secundus
MarinoRome 3 
12910 May 946
– 8 December 955
(9 years, 212 days)
Pope Agapetus II Illustration.jpgAgapetus II
Papa AGAPITUS Secundus
AgapitoRome 9 
13016 December 955
– 14 May 964
(8 years, 150 days)
Pope John XII.jpgJohn XII
Papa IOANNES Duodecimus
OctavianRome 8Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
13122 May 964
– 23 June 964
(0 years, 32 days)
Pope Benedict V.jpgBenedict V
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus
 Rome <1Elected by the people of Rome, in opposition to the Antipope Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo VIII as the sole pope.
132July 964 – 1 March 965Pope Leo VIII.jpgLeo VIII
Papa LEO Octavus
 Rome <1Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. He became the true pope after Benedict V was deposed.
1331 October 965
– 6 September 972
(6 years, 341 days)
Pope John XIII.jpgJohn XIII
Papa IOANNES Tertius Decimus
 RomeChronicled after his death as "the Good".6 
13419 January 973 – June 974Pope Benedict VI.jpgBenedict VI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus
 Rome, Papal States 1Deposed and murdered.
135October 974 – 10 July 983Pope Benedict VII Illustration.jpgBenedict VII
Papa BENEDICTUS Septimus
 Rome 8 
136December 983 – 20 August 984Pope John XIV Illustration.jpgJohn XIV
Papa IOANNES Quartus Decimus
Pietro CampanoraPavia <1 
137August 985 – March 996Pope John XV Illustration.jpgJohn XV
Papa IOANNES Quintus Decimus
JohnRome 10 
1383 May 996
– 18 February 999
(2 years, 291 days)
Pope Gregory V.jpgGregory V
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus
Bruno of CarinthiaGermany, Holy Roman Empire 2First German Pope
1392 April 999
– 12 May 1003
(4 years, 40 days)
Silvester II.JPGSylvester II
Papa SILVESTER Secundus
Gerbert d'AurillacAuvergne region of France 4The first French pope.

11th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
140June 1003
– 6 December 1003
Pope John XVII.jpgJohn XVII
Papa IOANNES Septimus Decimus
SicconeRome, Papal States 
14125 December 1003
– July 1009
(5 years+)
Pope John XVIII.jpgJohn XVIII
Papa IOANNES Duodevicesimus
Giovanni Fasano; PhasianusRapagnano, Papal States 
14231 July 1009
– 12 May 1012
(2 years, 286 days)
Sergius IV.jpgSergius IV
Papa SERGIUS Quartus
Pietro BoccapecoraRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
14318 May 1012
– 9 April 1024
(11 years, 327 days)
Pope Benedict VIII.jpgBenedict VIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Octavus
Theophylactus II, Conti di TusculumRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
144April/May 1024
– 20 October 1032
(8 years+)
Pope John XIX.jpgJohn XIX
Papa IOANNES Undevicesimus
Romanus, Conti di TusculumRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
14520 October 1032 – 31 December 1044

(12 years, 72 days)

Pope Benedict IX.jpgBenedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Theophylactus III, Conti di TusculumRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire1st Term
1461 January 1045 - 31 March 1045

(0 years, 89 days)

Silvestro3.jpgSylvester III
Papa SILVESTER Tertius
John, Bishop of SabinaRome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireValidity of election questioned; considered Anti-Pope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
1471 April 1045–10 November 1045

(0 years, 223 days)

Pope Benedict IX.jpgBenedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Theophylactus III, Conti di TusculumRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire2nd Term; deposed at the Council of Sutri
14810 November 1045– 23 December 1046

(1 year, 43 days)

B Gregor VI.jpgGregory VI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus,
Johannes GratianusRome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireDeposed at the Council of Sutri
14924 December 1046
– 9 October 1047

(0 years, 289 days)

ClemensII.jpgClement II
Papa CLEMENS Secundus
SuidgerHornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman EmpireAppointed by Henry III at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor.
150November 1047 – 17 July 1048Pope Benedict IX.jpgBenedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Theophylactus III, Conti di TusculumRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire3rd Term; deposed and excommunicated
15117 July 1048
– 9 August 1048
(0 years, 23 days)
Pope Damasus II.jpgDamasus II
Papa DAMASUS Secundus
PoppoPildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire 
15212 February 1049
– 19 April 1054
(5 years, 66 days)
Leon IX.jpgSt Leo IX
Papa LEO Nonus
Bruno, Count of DagsbourgEguisheim, Swabia, Holy Roman EmpireIn 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.[9]
15313 April 1055
– 28 July 1057
(2 years, 106 days)
Pope Victor II.jpgVictor II
Papa VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and HirschbergKingdom of Germany, Holy Roman Empire 
1542 August 1057
– 29 March 1058
(0 years, 241 days)
B Stephan IX.jpgStephen IX (Stephen X)
Papa STEPHANUS Nonus (Decimus)
Frédéric de Lorraine, O.S.B.Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman EmpireSometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
1556 December 1058
– 27 July 1061
(2 years, 233 days)
Papa Nicolau II.jpgNicholas II
Papa NICOLAUS Secundus
Gérard de BourgogneChâteau de Chevron, Kingdom of ArlesIn 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in he document In nomine Domini. (Papal conlave).
15630 September 1061
– 21 April 1073
(11 years, 203 days)
Papa Alexandre II.jpgAlexander II
Papa ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da BaggioMilan, Italy, Holy Roman EmpireAuthorised the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
15722 April 1073
– 25 May 1085
(12 years, 33 days)
Pope Gregory VII.jpgSt Gregory VII
Papa GREGORIUS Septimus
Hildebrand
O.S.B.
Sovana, Italy, Holy Roman EmpireInitiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the title "Papa" to the Bishop of Rome.[4] Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with German Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
15824 May 1086
– 16 September 1087
(1 year, 115 days)
Pope Victor III.jpgBl. Victor III
Papa VICTOR Tertius
Desiderio; Desiderius; Dauferius
O.S.B.
Benevento, Duchy of BeneventoMember of the Order of Saint Benedict.
15912 March 1088
– 29 July 1099
(11 years, 139 days)
Pope Urban II.jpgBl. Urban II
Papa URBANUS Secundus
Odo of Lagery, O.S.B.Lagery, County of Champagne, FrancePreached and started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
16013 August 1099
– 21 January 1118
(18 years, 161 days)
Pope Paschal II.jpgPaschal II
Papa PASCHALIS Secundus
Raniero
O.S.B.
Bleda, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireMember of the Order of Saint Benedict. Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.

12th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
16124 January 1118
– 28 January 1119
(1 year, 4 days)
Pope Gelasius II.jpgGelasius II
Papa GELASIUS Secundus
Giovanni Coniulo, O.S.B.Gaeta, Principality of CapuaMember of the Order of Saint Benedict.
1622 February 1119
– 13 December 1124
(5 years, 315 days)
Pope Callixtus II.jpgBl. Callixtus II
Papa CALLISTUS Secundus
Guido, Comte de BourgogneQuingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman EmpireOpened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123
16315 December 1124
– 13 February 1130
(5 years, 60 days)
Pope Honorius II.jpgHonorius II
Papa HONORIUS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can.Reg.Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireCanon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno. Approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.
16414 February 1130
– 24 September 1143
(13 years, 222 days)
B Innozenz II.jpgInnocent II
Papa INNOCENTIUS Secundus
Gregorio Papareschi, Can.Reg.Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireCanon Regular of Lateran; Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139
16526 September 1143
– 8 March 1144
(0 years, 164 days)
Pope Celestine II.jpgCelestine II
Papa COELESTINUS Secundus
GuidoCittà di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
16612 March 1144
– 15 February 1145
(0 years, 340 days)
B Lucius II.jpgLucius II
Papa LUCIUS Secundus
Gerardo Caccianemici dal Orso, Can.Reg.Bologna, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireCanon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca
16715 February 1145
– 8 July 1153
(8 years, 143 days)
B Eugen III.jpgBl. Eugene III
Papa EUGENIUS Tertius
Bernardo da Pisa, O.Cist.Pisa, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman EmpireMember of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
1688 July 1153
– 3 December 1154
(1 year, 148 days)
B Anastasius IV.jpgAnastasius IV
Papa ANASTASIUS Quartus
Corrado Demetri della SuburraRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
1694 December 1154
– 1 September 1159
(4 years, 271 days)
Pope Adrian IV.jpgAdrian IV
Papa HADRIANUS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear, Can.Reg.Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of EnglandFirst and only English pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Canon Regular of St. Rufus Monastery .
1707 September 1159
– 30 August 1181
(21 years, 357 days)
B-Alexander III1.jpgAlexander III
Papa ALEXANDER Tertius
RolandoSiena, Italy, Holy Roman EmpireConvened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179
1711 September 1181
– 25 November 1185
(4 years, 85 days)
Pope Lucius III.pngLucius III
Papa LUCIUS Tertius
UbaldoLucca, Italy, Holy Roman Empire 
17225 November 1185
– 19 October 1187
(1 year, 328 days)
B Urban III.jpgUrban III
Papa URBANUS Tertius
Uberto CrivelliCuggiono, Italy, Holy Roman Empire 
17321 October 1187
– 17 December 1187
(0 years, 57 days)
B Gregor VIII.jpgGregory VIII
Papa GREGORIUS Octavus
Alberto di Morra, Can.Reg.Benevento, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireCanon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade
17419 December 1187
– 20 March 1191[10]
(3 years, 91 days)
B Clemens III.jpgClement III
Papa CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo ScolariRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
17521 March 1191
– 8 January 1198
(6 years, 293 days)
Celestin III.jpgCelestine III
Papa COELESTINUS Tertius
Giacinto BoboneRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
176 C o a Innocenzo III.svg8 January 1198
– 16 July 1216
(18 years, 190 days)
Innozenz3.jpgInnocent III
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius
Lothario dei Conti di SegniGavignano, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireConvened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade.

13th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
177C o a Onorio IV.svg18 July 1216
– 18 March 1227
(10 years, 243 days)
B Honorius III3.jpgHonorius III
Papa HONORIUS Tertius
Cencio SavelliRome, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireInitiated the Fifth Crusade.
178C o a Innocenzo III.svg19 March 1227
– 22 August 1241
(14 years, 156 days)
PopeGregoryIX.jpgGregory IX
Papa GREGORIUS Nonus
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.SAnagni, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireCanonized Elisabeth of Hungary, 1235. Initiated the Inquisition in France.
179C o a Celestino IV.svg25 October 1241
– 10 November 1241
(0 years, 16 days)
B Colestin IV.jpgCelestine IV
Papa COELESTINUS Quartus
Goffredo CastiglioniMilan, Italy, Holy Roman EmpireDied before coronation.
180C o a Adriano V.svg25 June 1243
– 7 December 1254
(11 years, 165 days)
Inocenc IV.jpgInnocent IV
Papa INNOCENTIUS Quartus
Sinibaldo FieschiGenoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman EmpireConvened the First Council of Lyons, 1245
181C o a Innocenzo III.svg12 December 1254
– 25 May 1261
(6 years, 164 days)
B Alexander IV.jpgAlexander IV
Papa ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di JenneJenne, Papal States 
182C o a Urbano IV.svg29 August 1261
– 2 October 1264
(3 years, 34 days)
Pope Urban IV.jpgUrban IV
Papa URBANUS Quartus
Jacques PantaléonTroyes, County of Champagne, France 
183C o a Clemente IV.svg5 February 1265
– 29 November 1268
(3 years, 298 days)
Papst Clemens IV.jpgClement IV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus
Gui FaucoiSaint-Gilles, Languedoc, France 
N/A29 November 1268
– 1 September 1271
Sede vacante.svgInterregnumAlmost 3 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184C o a Gregorio X.svg1 September 1271
– 10 January 1276
(4 years, 131 days)
B Gregor X.jpgBl. Gregory X
Papa GREGORIUS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.SPiacenza, Italy, Holy Roman EmpireConvened the Second Council of Lyons, 1274.
185C o a Innocenzo V.svg21 January 1276
– 22 June 1276
(0 years, 153 days)
InnocenzoV.jpgBl. Innocent V
Papa INNOCENTIUS Quintus
Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P.County of Savoy, Holy Roman EmpireMember of the Dominican Order.
186C o a Adriano V.svg11 July 1276
– 18 August 1276
(0 years, 38 days)
Papa Adriano V.jpgAdrian V
Papa HADRIANUS Quintus
Ottobuono FieschiGenoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire 
187C o a Giovanni XXI.svg8 September 1276
– 20 May 1277
(0 years, 254 days)
B Johannes XXI.jpgJohn XXI
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano)Lisbon, PortugalDue to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, there was no John XX. There has never been a John XX, because the 20th pope of this name formerly when elected, decided to skip the number XX and be counted as John XXI instead. He wanted to correct what in his time was believed to be an error in the counting of his predecessors John XV to XIX
188C o a Niccolo III.svg25 November 1277
– 22 August 1280
(2 years, 271 days)
NicholasIII.jpgNicholas III
Papa NICOLAUS Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano OrsiniRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
189C o a Martino IV.svg22 February 1281
– 28 March 1285
(4 years, 34 days)
B Martin IV.jpgMartin IV
Papa MARTINUS Quartus
Simon de BrionMeinpicien, Touraine, France 
190C o a Onorio IV.svg2 April 1285
– 3 April 1287
(2 years, 1 day)
PopeOnorioIV.jpgHonorius IV
Papa HONORIUS Quartus
Giacomo SavelliRome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 
191C o a Niccolo IV.svg22 February 1288
– 4 April 1292
(4 years, 42 days)
NicholasIV.jpgNicholas IV
Papa NICOLAUS Quartus
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M.Lisciano, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireMember of the Franciscan Order.
N/A4 April 1292
– 5 July 1294
Sede vacante.svgInterregnum2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
192C o a Celestino V.svg5 July 1294
– 13 December 1294
(0 years, 161 days)
Celestinus quintus.jpgSt Celestine V
Papa COELESTINUS Quintus
Pietro da Morrone, O.S.B.Sant'Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of SicilyOne of the few popes who resigned. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
193C o a Bonifacio VIII.svg24 December 1294
– 11 October 1303
(8 years, 291 days)
Bonifatius viii papst.jpgBoniface VIII
Papa BONIFATIUS Octavus
Benedetto CaetaniAnagni, Papal States, Holy Roman EmpireFormalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued the 1302 bull, Unam Sanctam, which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.

14th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthNotes
194C o a Benedetto XI.svg22 October 1303
– 7 July 1304
(0 years, 259 days)
B Benedikt XI.jpgBl. Benedict XI
Papa BENEDICTUS Undecimus
Niccolò Boccasini, O.P.TrevisoMember of the Dominican Order. Reverted Unam Sanctam.
195C o a Clemente V.svg5 June 1305
– 20 April 1314
(8 years, 319 days)
Papa Clemens Quintus.jpgClement V
Papa CLEMENS Quintus
Bertrand de GotVillandraut, Gascony, FrancePope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne, 1311–1312. Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip IV of France.
N/A20 April 1314
– 7 August 1316
Sede vacante.svgInterregnum2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196C o a Giovanni XXII.svg7 August 1316
– 4 December 1334
(18 years, 119 days)
John22.jpgJohn XXII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques DuèseCahors, Quercy, FrancePope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on Beatific Vision.
197C o a Benedetto XII.svg20 December 1334
– 25 April 1342
(7 years, 126 days)
Papa Benedictus Duodecimus.jpgBenedict XII
Papa BENEDICTUS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier, O.Cist.Saverdun, County of Foix, FrancePope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336).
198C o a Gregorio XI.svg7 May 1342
– 6 December 1352
(10 years, 213 days)
Clemens VI.gifClement VI
Papa CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger, O.S.B.Maumont, Limousin, FrancePope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who died of it of their sins.
199C o a Innocenzo VI.svg18 December 1352
– 12 September 1362
(9 years, 268 days)
Innozenz VI.gifInnocent VI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Sextus
Étienne AubertLes Monts, Limousin, FrancePope at Avignon
200C o a Urbano V.svg28 September 1362
– 19 December 1370
(8 years, 82 days)
Urban V.gifBl. Urban V
Papa URBANUS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B.Grizac, Languedoc, FrancePope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
201C o a Gregorio XI.svg30 December 1370
– 27 March 1378
(7 years, 87 days)
Papa Gregorius Undecimus.jpgGregory XI
Papa GREGORIUS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de BeaufortMaumont, Limousin, FrancePope at Avignon; returns to Rome; the last French pope.
202C o a Urbano VI.svg8 April 1378
– 15 October 1389
(11 years, 190 days)
Urbanus VI.jpgUrban VI
Papa URBANUS Sextus
Bartolomeo PrignanoNaples, Kingdom of NaplesWestern Schism.
203C o a Bonifacio IX.svg2 November 1389
– 1 October 1404
(14 years, 334 days)
IX.Bonifac.jpgBoniface IX
Papa BONIFATIUS Nonus
Pietro TomacelliNaples, Kingdom of NaplesWestern Schism

15th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
204C o a Innocenzo VII.svg17 October 1404
– 6 November 1406
(2 years, 20 days)
Innocent VII.jpgInnocent VII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Septimus
Cosimo Gentile MiglioratiSulmona, Kingdom of Naples65 / 67 [B]Western Schism
205C o a Gregorio XII.svg30 November 1406
– 4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
Gregory XII cropped.pngGregory XII
Papa GREGORIUS Duodecimus
Angelo CorrerVenice, Republic of Venice[R]Western Schism; abdicated during the Council of Constance, which had been called by his opponent John XXIII.
N/A4 July 1415
– 11 November 1417
Sede vacante.svgInterregnumTwo-year period without a valid pope elected.
206C o a Martino V.svg11 November 1417
– 20 February 1431
(13 years, 101 days)
Pisanello, copia da Ritratto di Martino V (Galleria Colonna).jpgMartin V
Papa MARTINUS Quintus
Oddone Colonna, O.F.SGenazzano, Papal States48 / 62Convened the Council of Basel, 1431
207C o a Eugenio IV.svg3 March 1431
– 23 February 1447
(15 years, 357 days)
PapstEugen.jpgEugene IV
Papa EUGENIUS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A.Venice, Republic of Venice47 / 63 [B]Member of the Augustinian Order. Crowned Sigismund emperor at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.
208Escudo del papa Nicolás V.svg6 March 1447
– 24 March 1455
(8 years, 18 days)
Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens.jpgNicholas V
Papa NICOLAUS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli, O.P.Sarzana, Republic of Genoa49 / 57Member of the Dominican Order. Held the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Frederick III emperor at Rome (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana.
209Coat of Arms of Pope Callixtus III.svg8 April 1455
– 6 August 1458
(3 years, 120 days)
Alfonso de Borja, obispo de Valencia y papa Calixto III.jpgCallixtus III
Papa CALLISTUS Tertius
Alfonso de BorgiaXàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon76 / 79The first Spanish pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated.
210C o a Pio II.svg19 August 1458
– 15 August 1464
(5 years, 362 days)
Pintoricchio 012.jpgPius II
Papa PIUS Secundus
Enea Silvio PiccolominiCorsignano, Republic of Siena52 / 58Displayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
211Coat of arms of Pope Paul II.png30 August 1464
– 26 July 1471
(6 years, 330 days)
Pietrobarbo.jpgPaul II
Papa PAULUS Secundus
Pietro BarboVenice, Republic of Venice47 / 54The nephew of Eugene IV. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia).
212CoA della Rovere popes.svg9 August 1471
– 12 August 1484
(13 years, 3 days)
Pope Sixtus IV (head).jpgSixtus IV
Papa XYSTUS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M.Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa57 / 70Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel. Authorized an Inquisition targeting converted (Jewish) Christians in Spain, at the request of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.
213C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg29 August 1484
– 25 July 1492
(7 years, 331 days)
Innocent VIII 1492.JPGInnocent VIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Octavus
Giovanni Battista CyboGenoa, Republic of Genoa51 / 59 [B]Appointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in Malleus Maleficarum (1487).
214C o a Alessandro VI.svg11 August 1492
– 18 August 1503
(11 years, 7 days)
Pope Alexander Vi.jpgAlexander VI
Papa ALEXANDER Sextus
Rodrigo de Lanzol-BorgiaXàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon61 / 72Nephew of Callixtus III. Father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493). No Alexander V due to Antipope Alexander V.

16th–20th centuries[edit]

16th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
215C o a Pio II.svg22 September 1503
– 18 October 1503
(0 years, 26 days)
PiusIII.jpgPius III
Papa PIUS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini PiccolominiSiena, Republic of Siena64 / 64Nephew of Pius II. Founded the Piccolomini Library adjourning the Siena Cathedral.
216CoA della Rovere popes.svg31 October 1503
– 21 February 1513
(9 years, 113 days)
Raffaello - Papa Giulio II - Uffizi.jpgJulius II
Papa IULIUS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M.Albisola, Republic of Genoa59 / 69Nephew of Sixtus IV; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took effective control of all territory of the Papal States for the first time. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Proposed plans for rebuilding St Peter's Basilica.
217C o a Papas Medicis.svg9 March 1513
– 1 December 1521
(8 years, 267 days)
Pope-leo10.jpgLeo X
Papa LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' MediciFlorence, Republic of Florence37 / 45The son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica. Excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal.
218C o a Adriano VI.svg9 January 1522
– 14 September 1523
(1 year, 248 days)
Hadrian VI.jpgAdrian VI
Papa HADRIANUS Sextus

Patere et sustine
("Respect and wait")[11]

Adriaan Floriszoon BoeyensUtrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (now the Netherlands)62 / 64The only Dutch pope. Due to the Netherlands being a part of the Holy Roman Empire at the time, he is occasionally referred to as a "German", but not in an ethnic sense. Last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. Tutor of Emperor Charles V.
219C o a Papas Medicis.svg26 November 1523
– 25 September 1534
(10 years, 303 days)
Angelo Bronzino - Portrait of Pope Clement VII - WGA3272.jpgClement VII
Papa CLEMENS Septimus

Candor illæsus
("He without injury")[12]

Giulio di Giuliano de' MediciFlorence, Republic of Florence45 / 56Cousin of Leo X. Rome plundered by imperial troops (1527). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII and crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530). His niece Catherine de' Medici was married to the future Henry II of France. Ordered Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.
220C o a Paulo III.svg13 October 1534
– 10 November 1549
(15 years, 28 days)
Portrait du pape Paul III.jpgPaul III
Papa PAULUS Tertius
Alessandro FarneseCanino, Lazio, Papal States66 / 81Opened the Council of Trent (1545). His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of King Henry VIII. Appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St. Peter's Basilica (1546).
221C o a Giulio III.svg7 February 1550
– 29 March 1555
(5 years, 50 days)
Julius III.jpgJulius III
Papa IULIUS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del MonteRome, Papal States62 / 67Established the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent.
222C o a Marcello II.svg9 April 1555
– 30 April or 1 May 1555
(0 years, 21/22 days)
Pope Marcellus II.jpgMarcellus II
Papa MARCELLUS Secundus
Marcello CerviniMontefano, Marche, Papal States53 / 53The last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures.
223C o a Paulo IV.svg23 May 1555
– 18 August 1559
(4 years, 87 days)
Pope Paul IV.PNGPaul IV
Papa PAULUS Quartus

Dominus mihi adjutor
("The Lord is my helper")[13]

Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R.Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples78 / 83Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555). Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment more modestly.
224C o a Papas Medicis.svg26 December 1559
– 9 December 1565
(5 years, 348 days)
Pius IV 2.jpgPius IV
Papa PIUS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo MediciMilan, Duchy of Milan60 / 66Reopened the Council of Trent (1562) which concluded in 1563. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
225C o a Pio V.svg7 January 1566
– 1 May 1572
(6 years, 115 days)
El Greco 050.jpgSt Pius V
Papa PIUS Quintus

Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas
("It binds us to keep")[14]

Michele Ghislieri, O.P.Bosco, Duchy of Milan61 / 68Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Elizabeth I of England (1570). Victory of Lepanto (1571). Instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Promulgated the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal.
226C o a Gregorio XIII.svg13 May 1572
– 10 April 1585
(12 years, 332 days)
Gregory XIII.jpgGregory XIII
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius Decimus
Ugo BoncompagniBologna, Papal States70 / 83Reform of the calendar (1582). The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as Patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579).
227C o a Sisto V.svg24 April 1585
– 27 August 1590
(5 years, 125 days)
Sixtus5.jpgSixtus V
Papa XYSTUS Quintus
Felice Peretti, O.F.M. Conv.Grottammare, Marche, Papal States63 / 68Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to only 70 in number.
228C o a Urbano VII.svg15 September 1590
– 27 September 1590
(0 years, 12 days)
Urban VII.jpgUrban VII
Papa URBANUS Septimus
Giovanni Battista CastagnaRome, Papal States69 / 69Shortest-reigning pope; died before coronation. Set the worldwide smoking ban.
229C o a Gregorio XIV.svg5 December 1590
– 15/16 October 1591
(0 years, 314/315 days)
GregorioPPXVI.jpgGregory XIV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò SfondratiSomma Lombardo, Duchy of Milan55 / 56Modified the Apostolic Constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus V (1588) so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591).
230C o a Innocenzo IX.svg29 October 1591
– 30 December 1591
(0 years, 62 days)
Innocent IX 2.jpgInnocent IX
Papa INNOCENTIUS Nonus
Giovanni Antonio FacchinettiBologna, Papal States72 / 72Supported the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
231C o a Clemente VIII.svg30 January 1592
– 3 March 1605
(13 years, 32 days)
Papst Clemens VIII Italian 17th century.jpgClement VIII
Papa CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito AldobrandiniFano, Marche, Papal States55 / 69Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace.[15]

17th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
232C o a Papas Medicis.svg1 April 1605
– 27 April 1605
(0 years, 26 days)
Leo XI 2.jpgLeo XI
Papa LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' MediciFlorence, Duchy of Florence69 / 69The nephew of Leo X. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief reign.
233C o a Paulo V.svg16 May 1605
– 28 January 1621
(15 years, 257 days)
Paul V Caravaggio.jpgPaul V
Papa PAULUS Quintus

Absit nisi in te gloriari
("Far, but in your glory")[16]

Camillo BorgheseRome, Papal States52 / 68Known for building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605).
234C o a Gregorio XV.svg9 February 1621
– 8 July 1623
(2 years, 149 days)
Pope Gregory XV.jpgGregory XV
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro LudovisiBologna, Papal States67 / 69Established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the papal bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed papal elections to be by secret ballot. Issued the Apostolic constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
235C o a Urbano VIII.svg6 August 1623
– 29 July 1644
(20 years, 358 days)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII.jpgUrban VIII
Papa URBANUS Octavus
Maffeo BarberiniFlorence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany55 / 76Trial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 papal bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
236C o a Innocenzo X.svg15 September 1644
– 7 January 1655
(10 years, 114 days)
Diego Velázquez - Portrait of Innocent X - WGA24443.jpgInnocent X
Papa INNOCENTIUS Decimus
Giovanni Battista PamphiljRome, Papal States70 / 80The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander VI. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Issued the bull Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.
237C o a Alessandro VII.svg7 April 1655
– 22 May 1667
(12 years, 45 days)
Alexander VII.jpgAlexander VII
Papa ALEXANDER Septimus

Montium custos
("Mountain guardian")[17]

Fabio ChigiSiena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany56 / 68Great-nephew of Paul V. Commissioned St. Peter's Square. Issued the Apostolic constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum which laid out the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to those utilized by Pius IX centuries later.
238C o a Clemente IX.svg20 June 1667
– 9 December 1669
(2 years, 172 days)
Clemens IX.jpgClement IX
Papa CLEMENS Nonus
Giulio RospigliosiPistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany67 / 69Commissioned the colonnade of St. Peter's Square. Mediated in the 1668 peace of Aachen.
239C o a Clemente X.svg29 April 1670
– 22 July 1676
(6 years, 84 days)
Clement X.jpgClement X
Papa CLEMENS Decimus
Emilio Bonaventura AltieriRome, Papal States79 / 86Canonized the first saint from the Americas, Saint Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels; the two fountains which adorn the piazza of St. Peter's near the tribune.
240C o a Innocenzo XI.svg21 September 1676
– 12 August 1689
(12 years, 325 days)
Inocencius XI.jpgBl. Innocent XI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Undecimus
Benedetto OdescalchiComo, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan65 / 78Suspected to have secretly funded William III of Orange's Glorious Revolution to overthrow James II of England. Known as the "Saviour of Hungary".
241C o a Alessandro VIII.svg6 October 1689
– 1 February 1691
(1 year, 118 days)
Alexander VIII 1.jpgAlexander VIII
Papa ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito OttoboniVenice, Republic of Venice79 / 80Condemned the so-called philosophical sin.
242C o a Innocenzo XII.svg12 July 1691
– 27 September 1700
(9 years, 77 days)
Pope Innocent XII.PNGInnocent XII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.SSpinazzola, Kingdom of Naples76 / 85Issued Romanum decet Pontificem (1692).

18th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
243C o a Clemente XI.svg23 November 1700
– 19 March 1721
(20 years, 116 days)
Clement XI.jpgClement XI
Papa CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco AlbaniUrbino, Marche, Papal States51 / 71The Chinese Rites controversy. Patronised the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs.
244C o a Innocenzo XIII.svg8 May 1721
– 7 March 1724
(2 years, 304 days)
InnocientXIII.jpgInnocent XIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo de’ ContiPoli, Lazio, Papal States65 / 68Prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China and ordered that no new members should be received into the order.
245C o a Benedetto XIII.svg29 May 1724
– 21 February 1730
(5 years, 268 days)
Benedict XIII.jpgServant of God Benedict XIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius Decimus
Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P.Gravina in Puglia, Kingdom of Naples75 / 81Member of the Dominican Order. Third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called himself Benedict XIV due to Antipope Benedict XIII but reverted back to XIII. Repealed the worldwide smoking ban imposed by Urban VII in 1590.
246C o a Clemente XII.svg12 July 1730
– 6 February 1740
(9 years, 209 days)
Pope Clement XII, portrait.jpgClement XII
Papa CLEMENS Duodecimus
Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.SFlorence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany78 / 87Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In Eminenti (1738).
247C o a Benedetto XIV.svg17 August 1740
– 3 May 1758
(17 years, 259 days)
Pierre Subleyras Portrait of Benedict XIV 1746. Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpgBenedict XIV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus Decimus
Prospero Lorenzo LambertiniBologna, Papal States65 / 83Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas. Wrote the famous De Canonizione; founded academies of art, religion and science. Reign was considered a superb success as the Papal States reached another apex under him.
248C o a Clemente XIII.svg6 July 1758
– 2 February 1769
(10 years, 211 days)
ClementXIII.jpegClement XIII
Papa CLEMENS Tertius Decimus

Rosa umbriæ
("Umbrian rose")[18]

Carlo della Torre RezzonicoVenice, Republic of Venice65 / 75Provided the famous fig leaves on male statues in the Vatican. Defended the Society of Jesus in Apostolicum pascendi (1765).
249C o a Clemente XIV.svg19 May 1769
– 22 September 1774
(5 years, 126 days)
Portrait du pape Clément XIV Ganganelli.jpgClement XIV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus Decimus

Ursus velox
("Quick Bear")[19]

Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, O.F.M. Conv.Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna, Papal States63 / 68Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Jesuit Order in the brief Dominus ac Redemptor (1773).
250C o a Pio VI.svg15 February 1775
– 29 August 1799
(24 years, 195 days)
Pompeo Batoni - Ritratto di Papa Pio VI (National Gallery of Ireland).jpgPius VI
Papa PIUS Sextus

Floret in domo domini
("It blossoms in the house of God")[20]

Count Giovanni Angelo BraschiCesena, Papal States57 / 81Condemned the French Revolution; expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death. The last pontiff to be a major patron of baroque and Renaissance art in the Papal States. Papacy viewed as a success until his expulsion in 1798.
N/A29 August 1799
–14 March 1800
Sede vacante.svgInterregnumSix-month period without a valid pope elected. This was due to unique logistical problems (the old pope died a prisoner and the conclave was in Venice) and a deadlock among cardinals voting.

19th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
251C o a Pio VII.svg14 March 1800
– 20 August 1823
(23 years, 159 days)
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpgServant of God Pius VII
Papa PIUS Septimus

Aquila Rapax
("Twany Eagle")[21]

Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, O.S.B.Cesena, Papal States57 / 81Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Briefly expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
252C o a Leone XII.svg28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
(5 years, 135 days)
Pope Leo XII.PNGLeo XII
Papa LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della GengaGenga or Spoleto, Papal States63 / 68Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia (1824). Condemned the bible societies.
253C o a Pio VIII.svg31 March 1829
– 30 November 1830
(1 year, 244 days)
Pope Pius VIII.PNGPius VIII
Papa PIUS Octavus
Francesco Saverio CastiglioniCingoli, Marche, Papal States67 / 69Accepted Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations in the brief Litteris altero (1830).
254C o a Gregorio XVI.svg2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
(15 years, 119 days)
GregorioXVI.jpgGregory XVI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B. Cam.Belluno, Republic of Venice65 / 80Member of the Camaldolese Order. The last non-bishop to be elected to the papacy. Opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States.
255Pio Nono.svg16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
(31 years, 236 days)
Popepiusix.jpgBl. Pius IX
Papa PIUS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, O.F.S.Senigallia, Marche, Papal States54 / 85Opened the First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and defined papal infallibility. Issued the controversial Syllabus of Errors. Longest serving pope in history.
256C o a Leone XIII.svg20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
(25 years, 150 days)
Leo-xiii-sm.jpgLeo XIII
Papa LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, O.F.S.Carpineto Romano, Lazio, Papal States67 / 93Issued the encyclical Rerum Novarum and supported Christian democracy as being against communism; fourth-longest reign after Pius IX, St Peter and John Paul II. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars. First pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix.

20th century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Motto
Latin (English)
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
257Pius X COA.svg4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
(11 years, 16 days)
Pius10.jpgSt Pius X
Papa PIUS Decimus

Instaurare Omnia in Christo
("Restore all things in Christ")

Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, O.F.S.Riese, Treviso, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire68 / 79Encouraged and expanded reception of Holy Communion. Combatted Modernistic theology and instituted the oath against Modernism. Advocated the Gregorian Chant; reformed the Roman Breviary. Most recent pope canonized since Pius V.
258CoA Benedetto XV.svg3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
(7 years, 141 days)
Benedictus XV.jpgBenedict XV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus Decimus

In te, Domine, speravi:
non confundar in aeternum.

("In thee, o Lord, have I trusted: let me not be confounded for evermore.")

Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista Della Chiesa, O.F.S.Genoa, Pegli, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia59 / 67Credited for intervening for peace during World War I and promulgating the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Dubbed the "Pope of Missions" due to his support of missionaries in Maximum Illud. Remembered by Pope Benedict XVI as a "prophet of peace".
259C o a Pio XI.svg6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
(17 years, 4 days)
Pio111922.jpgPius XI
Papa PIUS Undecimus

Pax Christi in Regno Christi
("The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ")

Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti, O.F.S.Desio, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire64 / 81Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) which established Vatican City as a sovereign state. Created the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and inaugurated Vatican Radio. Spoke out against Communism, Nazism and Fascism. Created the feast of Christ the King.
260Pius 12 coa.svg2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
(19 years, 221 days)
PiusXII12.jpgVen. Pius XII
Papa PIUS Duodecimus

Opus Justitiae Pax
("The work of justice [shall be] peace")

Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, O.F.S.Rome, Lazio, Kingdom of Italy63 / 82Invoked papal infallibility in the encyclical Munificentissimus Deus; defined the dogma of the Assumption. Eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals. Credited with intervening for peace during World War II. Controversial for his actions or inactions in saving the lives of Jews during the Holocaust.
261John 23 coa.svg28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
(4 years, 218 days)
JohnXXIII, photo.jpgBd. John XXIII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius

Obedientia et Pax
("Obedience and peace")

Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, O.F.S.Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Kingdom of Italy76 / 81Convoked and opened the Second Vatican Council; called "Good Pope John". Issued the encyclical Pacem in Terris (1963) on peace and nuclear disarmament; intervened for peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).
262Coat of Arms of Pope Paul VI.svg21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
(15 years, 46 days)
Pope Paul VI portrait.jpgVen. Paul VI
Papa PAULUS Sextus

Cum Ipso in Monte
("With Him on the mount")

Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria MontiniConcesio, Brescia, Kingdom of Italy65 / 80Last pope to be crowned in a Papal Coronation with the Papal Tiara. First pope to travel to the USA and Australia. First pope since 1870 to travel outside of Italy. Closed the Second Vatican Council and implemented its reforms. Issued the encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968) on married love and contraception.
263John paul 1 coa.svg26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
(0 years, 33 days)
Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani).jpgServant of God John Paul I
Papa IOANNES PAULUS Primus

Humilitas
("Humility")

Albino LucianiForno di Canale, Belluno, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy65 / 65Abolished the Papal Coronation opting for the Papal Inauguration instead. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name and the first with two names for his two immediate predecessors. Last pope to use the Sedia Gestatoria.
264John paul 2 coa.svg16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpgBd. John Paul II
(John Paul the Great)

Papa IOANNES PAULUS Secundus (MAGNUS)

Totus Tuus
("Totally yours")

Karol Józef WojtyłaWadowice, Republic of Poland58 / 84First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope in 455 years since Pope Adrian VI. Credited with the collapse of Communism in Europe. Traveled extensively; first pope to travel to Canada. Had the third longest reign after Pius IX and St Peter. Founded World Youth Day (1984).

21st century[edit]

Numerical orderPontificatePortraitName
English · Regnal
Motto
Latin (English)
Personal namePlace of birthAge at start/end of papacyNotes
265BXVI CoA like gfx PioM.svg19 April 2005
– 28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
Benedicto XVI, 2011.jpgBenedict XVI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus Decimus

Cooperatores Veritatis
("Cooperators of the truth")

Joseph Aloisius RatzingerMarktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany78 / 85Oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin. Called the "Pope of Aesthetics" for his re-introduction of several papal garments. First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294),[22] retaining regnal name with title of Pope Emeritus.[23]
266Insigne Francisci.svg13 March 2013
– present
(1 year, 23 days)
Pope Francis 2013.jpgFrancis
Papa FRANCISCUS

Miserando atque Eligendo
("By having mercy, by choosing him")[24]

Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J.Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina76 / -First pope to be born outside Europe since Gregory III and the first from the Americas. First pope from the Southern Hemisphere. First Jesuit pope. First to use a new and non-composed regnal name since Lando (913–914). Canonized more saints, thus far, than all his predecessors of the past three centuries combined. First pope to use the name of St. Francis of Assisi.

Religious orders[edit]

37 popes have been members of religious orders. These have included:

and including Camaldolese (1):
Gregory XVI
and including Canons Regulars (5):
Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Gregory VIII, Adrian IV
and including Conventual Franciscans (2):
Sixtus V, Clement XIV
and including Secular Franciscans (12):
Gregory IX, Gregory X, Martin V, Innocent XII, Clement XII, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII

Notes on numbering of popes[edit]

A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12*
  2. ^ "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 21 October 2008. 
  3. ^ "Papal Primacy of honour: titles and insignia". Newadvent.org. 1 June 1911. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  4. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Erwin (et al.); Bromiley (English translation), Geoffrey William, eds. (2005). "Pope, Papacy". Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon [The encyclopedia of Christianity] 4. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 272–282. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  5. ^ The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  6. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P. (31 October 2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. HarperCollins. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 13: Bishops of Rome". pp. from Theosodr Mommsen, MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp.73–6. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "OCA - St Liberius the Pope of Rome". Ocafs.oca.org. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  9. ^ Deno John Geanakoplos (15 September 1989). Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-299-11884-6. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  10. ^ For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211
  11. ^ "Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  12. ^ "Pope Clement VII (1523-1534)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "Pope Pius V (1566-1572)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  15. ^ John Henry Blunt (1874). "Jansenists". Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. Rivingtons. pp. 234–240. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  16. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "Pope Clement XIV (1769-1774)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  20. ^ "The Wind was too Strong". Rome Art Lover. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  22. ^ Brown, Andrew (11 February 2013). "Benedict, the placeholder pope who leaves a battered, weakened church". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  23. ^ Pianigiani, Gaia; Povoledo, Elisabetta (27 February 2013). "Benedict XVI to Keep His Name and Become Pope Emeritus". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ "Pope Francis : "Miserando atque eligendo"...". Vatican Radio. 18 March 2013. 
  25. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Antipope". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  26. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Chronological Lists of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  27. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Pope Martin IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  28. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Popess Joan". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

General[edit]

External links[edit]