List of plantations in Louisiana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of plantations and/or plantation houses in the U.S. state of Louisiana that are National Historic Landmarks, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, listed on a heritage register, or are otherwise significant for their history, association with significant events or people, or their architecture and design.[1][2][3]

Color keyHistoric register listing
National Historic Landmark
National Register of Historic Places
Not listed on national or state register
NRHP reference numberNameImageYear designatedTown, ParishParishNotes
87000849Acadia PlantationThibodauxLafourche Parish, LouisianaDemolished 2010
83000554Afton Villa GardensAfton Villa.jpgSt. FrancisvilleWest FelicianaDestroyed by fire in 1963. Gardens and ruins open Daily 9:00 am to 4:30 pm, March 1 to June 30 and October 1 to December 1
91001046Aillet HouseAillet House.jpg8/9/1991Port AllenWest Baton Rouge Parish, LouisianaBuilt in 1830; French-Creole Architecture
01000007Albania Plantation House11AlbaniaWM.jpgJeaneretteIberia
Albemarle Plantation HouseNapoleonvilleAssumptionOwned and in continuous operation by the original family since 1839.
96001263Allendale Plantation11/1/1996Port AllenWest Baton Rouge Parish, LouisianaOwned by Henry Watkins Allen, the last Confederate Governor of Louisiana; Burned to the ground by Union troops in 1862
82000469Ardoyne Plantation HouseHoumaTerrebonne
80004476Arlington PlantationLake ProvidenceEast Carroll
82000457Arlington Plantation HouseFRAringtonWM.JPGFranklinSt. Mary
82004676Arlington Plantation HouseWashingtonSt. Landry
79001050Ashland (Belle Helene)Ashland (Belle Helene).jpgMay 4, 1979GeismarAscension
72000552Asphodel Plantation and CemeteryJackson
87000729Audubon Plantation HouseBaton Rouge
82000434Avondale Plantation HomeClintonEast Feliciana
07000424Bagatelle Plantation HouseSunshine
79001056Battleground PlantationSicily Island
Belle GroveBelle Grove Plantation 02.jpgWhite CastleIberville
79001083Bennett Plantation HouseAlexandriaRapides
91000705Bocage PlantationBocage Plantation.JPGDarrowAscensionBuilt in 1837, possibly designed by James H. Dakin
83000527Bouverans Plantation HouseLockport
80001709Breston Plantation HouseColumbiaCaldwell
83000503Buckmeadow Plantation HouseLake ProvidenceEast Carroll
79001103Butler Greenwood PlantationButlergreen woodpecker.jpgSt. FrancisvilleWest Feliciana
82002754Calliham Plantation HouseHamburg
84002859Calumet Plantation HouseFRCalumetWM.JPGPattersonSt. Mary
79001069Carter PlantationSpringfield
82002757Cashpoint Plantation HouseElm GroveBossier
92000583Caspiana Plantation StoreNatchitoches
88001049Cedar Bend PlantationNatchez
76000965Cedars PlantationOak Ridge
82000442Chatchie Plantation HouseChatachie.JPGThibodauxLafourche
73000869Cherokee PlantationNatchitoches
77001519Chretien Point PlantationSunset
85000970Clarendon Plantation HouseEvergreenAvoyelles
75000857Cottage PlantationSt. FrancisvilleWest Feliciana
84000144Crescent PlantationTallulahMadison
73000868Darby PlantationNew Iberia
86001054Desire Plantation HouseVacherie
73002132Destrehan PlantationDestrehan Manor House 20070706.jpgMarch 20, 1973DestrehanSt. Charles
87000851Dixie Plantation HouseFranklin
85002759Ducros Plantation HouseThibodaux
94000742Dulcito Plantation HouseNew Iberia
82002791El Dorado Plantation HouseLivoniaPointe Coupee
88003135Emilie Plantation HouseGaryville
75000848Enterprise PlantationJeaneretteIberia
91001386Evergreen PlantationEvergreen Plantation NHL.jpgApril 27, 1992Wallace
30°01′37″N 90°38′22″W / 30.02690°N 90.63958°W / 30.02690; -90.63958 (Evergreen Plantation)
St. John the BaptistThe most intact plantation in the South with 37 national landmarked buildings.
88000102Fairhaven Plantation HouseZachary
93000821Fairview Plantation HouseEthel
Frogmore PlantationFrogmore, LAMuseum quality steam powered cotton gin. Plantation tour a Rand McNally as a "Must See Site" in the South/Southeast and by AAA Southern Traveler Magazine as one of the top three favorite attractions in the tri-states of Ark/La/Miss. Featured in PBS documentaries.
82004674Frozard Plantation HouseGrand Coteau
93001548Godchaux-Reserve Plantation HouseReserve
97000967Gracelane Plantation HouseBaton Rouge
92000510Graugnard Farms Plantation HouseSt. James
82000451Harlem Plantation HouseWaterPleaseHouseLAHwy39.jpgPointe à la HachePlaquemines
78001438Hazelwood PlantationHazelwood.jpgLaurel Hill
86003129Homestead Plantation ComplexPlaquemine
70000842Homeplace Plantation House1940 HABS photoApril 15, 1970Hahnville
29°58′16″N 90°24′27″W / 29.97105°N 90.40758°W / 29.97105; -90.40758 (Homeplace Plantation House)
St. Charles
04001470Hope Plantation HouseGaryville
80001694The HoumasThe Houmas 01.jpgSeptember 27, 1980BurnsideAscension
87002449Inglewood Plantation Historic DistrictAlexandriaRapides
01000669Katie Plantation HouseBreaux Bridge
06000317Kenilworth Plantation HouseSt. Bernard
71000362Kent Plantation HouseKent Plantation House.jpgAlexandriaRapides
84000145LaBranche Plantation DependencyLabranchWM.jpgOctober 18, 1984St. RoseSt. Charles
02001296Landry Plantation HouseYoungsville
93000322Lane Plantation HouseEthel
92001842Laura PlantationLauraPlanationHouse.jpgVacherieSt. JamesPlantation heiress and manager Laura Lacoul Gore's (1861-1963) autobiography Memories of the Old Plantation Home: A Creole Family Album (Nov. 2000) tells the family's history and her experience living at the plantation
78001426Laurel Valley Sugar PlantationRuined mill at the Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation.jpgThibodauxLafourche
93000694LeBeuf Plantation HouseNew Orleans
94000705Linwood Plantation Manager's HouseNewellton
79001057Lisburn Plantation HouseFerriday
74000924Live Oaks PlantationRosedale
80001748Logtown PlantationMonroe
91001419Longue VueLongueVue5Jan07BackB.jpgApril 5, 2005New Orleans
29°58′36″N 90°07′23″W / 29.97675°N 90.12309°W / 29.97675; -90.12309 (Longue Vue House and Gardens)
Orleans
77000678Loyd Hall PlantationCheneyvilleRapides
02001603Lucky Plantation HouseSunshine
73000860Madewood Plantation HouseMadewood house.jpgMay 4, 1983Napoleonville
29°55′39″N 90°59′39″W / 29.92738°N 90.99426°W / 29.92738; -90.99426 (Madewood Plantation House)
Assumption
83000548PlantationJanuary 3, 1998Derry
29°42′53″N 90°49′08″W / 29.714722°N 90.818889°W / 29.714722; -90.818889 (Magnolia Plantation (Schriever, Louisiana))
Schriever
79001071MagnoliaHABS photoJanuary 3, 2001Derry
31°33′11″N 92°56′33″W / 31.55294°N 92.94240°W / 31.55294; -92.94240 (Magnolia Plantation (Derry, Louisiana))
Natchitoches
86000253Magnolia LaneMagnolia Lane Plantation House Posted.JPGWestwegoJefferson
72000549Magnolia Mound Plantation HouseMagnolia Mound Plantation House.jpgBaton RougeEast Baton Rouge
87002135Marengo Plantation HouseJonesville
83000533Mary Plantation HouseMary Plantation House upriver side.JPGBraithwaitePlaquemines
72000556Melrose PlantationHABS photoMay 30, 1974Melrose
31°05′16″N 92°58′03″W / 31.08771°N 92.96756°W / 31.08771; -92.96756 (Melrose Plantation)
Natchitoches
80001769Monte Vista Plantation HousePort Allen
87002505Montegut Plantation HouseLaPlace
82000444Montrose Plantation HouseTallulahMadison
82000468Moro Plantation HouseWaterproofTensas
06000779Moss Grove Plantation HouseJonesville
76002167Moundville Plantation HouseWashington
80001717Mount Hope Plantation HouseMount Hope Plantation House.jpgBaton RougeEast Baton Rouge
79001094Myrtle Grove PlantationMay 10, 1979WaterproofTensas
74002185Myrtle Hill Plantation HouseGloster
78001439Myrtles PlantationMyrtles Plantation Louisiana.jpgSt. FrancisvilleWest Feliciana
76000966Narcisse Prudhomme PlantationNatchitoches
85000976Narrows Plantation HouseLake ArthurJefferson Davis
80001733Nottoway Plantation HouseNottoway plantation wc.jpgWhite CastleIberville
74002187Oak Alley PlantationOakAlleyacp.jpgDecember 2, 1974Vacherie
30°00′15″N 90°46′33″W / 30.00427°N 90.77593°W / 30.00427; -90.77593 (Oak Alley Plantation)
St. James
92000036Oak Grove Plantation DependenciesSt. FrancisvilleWest Feliciana
79001073OaklandHABS photoJanuary 3, 2001Natchez
31°39′54″N 93°00′12″W / 31.66500°N 93.00333°W / 31.66500; -93.00333 (Oakland Plantation (Natchitoches, Louisiana))
Natchitoches
80001720OaklandGurleyEast Feliciana
79001072OaklawnNatchez
73000878Oakley Plantation HouseSt. FrancisvilleWest FelicianaJohn James Audubon worked as a tutor for Eliza Pierre for four months in 1821. Audubon's wife also taught there. He painted 32 of his famousThe Birds of America while at Oakley.
80001697Oakwold Plantation HouseEvergreen
80001764Orange Grove Plantation HouseHouma
90001748Ormond Plantation HouseOrmond Plantation Destrehan Louisiana.jpgNovember 11, 1990DestrehanSt. Charles
77000665Palo Alto PlantationPaloAltoWM.JPGDonaldsonvilleAscension
70000258Parlange Plantation1936 HABS photoMay 30, 1974Mix
31°39′54″N 93°00′12″W / 31.66500°N 93.00333°W / 31.66500; -93.00333 (Parlange Plantation House)
Pointe Coupee
03001064Pegram Plantation HouseLecompteRapides
71000360Pitot HousePitotHouseBayouStJohn.jpgNew OrleansOrleans
84001347Pleasant View Plantation HouseOscarPointe Coupee
80004251Judge Felix Poche' Plantation HouseConvent
87002136Poplar Grove Plantation HousePort AllenWest Baton Rouge Parish
01000943Residence Plantation HouseHouma
79001064Richland PlantationNorwoodEast Feliciana
80001736Rienzi Plantation HouseRezieniWM.jpgThibodauxLafourche
80001771Rosale PlantationSt. FrancisvilleWest Feliciana
76000974Rosalie Plantation Sugar MillAlexandriaRapides
73000880Rosebank Plantation HouseWeyanoke
01000765Rosedown1934 HABS photoApril 5, 2005St. Francisville
30°47′46″N 91°22′15″W / 30.79602°N 91.37095°W / 30.79602; -91.37095 (Rosedown Plantation)
West Feliciana
99001039Sandbar Plantation HousePort Allen
74002186San Francisco Plantation HouseSan Francisco Plantation 02.jpgMay 30, 1970Reserve
30°02′51″N 90°36′20″W / 30.04753°N 90.60554°W / 30.04753; -90.60554 (San Francisco Plantation House)
St. John the Baptist
78003448Santa Maria Plantation HouseBaton Rouge
82000445Scottland Plantation HouseTallulahMadison
86001495Sebastopol Plantation HouseSt. Bernard
72000553Shadows-on-the-Teche1938 HABS photoMay 30, 1970New Iberia
30°00′09″N 91°48′54″W / 30.00254°N 91.81499°W / 30.00254; -91.81499 (Shadows-on-the-Teche)
IberiaMrs. Francis Weeks (Magill) Prewitt and her children Ida Magill and Agustin Magill were among the over 200 people, many of whom were of plantation society, who perished in the 1856 Last Island Hurricane. The children are buried on the grounds.
95000387Smithfield Plantation HousePort Allen
83000558Solitude Plantation HouseSt. FrancisvilleWest Feliciana
74002188Southdown PlantationSouthdown1.JPGHouma
82000470St. George Plantation HouseStgeorge2.jpgSchrieverTerrebonne
05000987St. Joseph PlantationVacherie
75000849St. Louis PlantationPlaquemine
79001104St. Maurice PlantationSt. MauricePointe Coupee
03000680Star Hill Plantation DependencyStar Hill
98000570Stephanie Plantation HouseArnaudville
82000432Synope Plantation HouseColumbia
79001059Tacony Plantation HouseVidalia
80001731Tally-Ho Plantation HouseTally Ho.JPGBayou GoulaIberville
99000257Trio Plantation HouseRayville
Uncle Sam PlantationUncle Sam Plantation 01b.jpgConventSt. James
02000297Valverda Plantation HouseMaringouinPointe Coupee
77000677White Hall Plantation HouseLettsworthPointe Coupee
87001475Whitehall Plantation HouseMonroe
92001566Whitney Plantation Historic DistrictWallaceSt. John the Baptist
88000977Wildwood Plantation HouseJackson
98000702Woodland PlantationA Home on the Mississippi.pngWest Pointe à la HachePlaquemines

Historical background of the plantation era[edit]

Upland or green seeded cotton was not a commercially important crop until the invention of the cotton gin in 1793. With an inexpensive cotton gin a man could remove seed from as much cotton in one day as a woman could de-seed in two months working at a rate of about one pound per day.[4] The newly mechanized cotton industry in England during the Industrial Revolution absorbed the tremendous supply of cheap cotton that became a major crop in the Southern U.S.

At the time of the cotton gin’s invention, the sub tropical soils in the Eastern U.S. were becoming depleted, and the fertilizer deposits of guano deposits of South America and the Pacific Islands along with the nitrate deposits in the Chilean deserts were not yet being exploited, meaning that there were fertilizer shortages, leading to a decline in agriculture in the Southeast and a westward expansion to new land.

Transportation at the time was extremely limited. There were almost no improved roads in the U.S. or in the Louisiana Territory and the first railroads were not built until the 1830s.[5] The only practical means for shipping agricultural products more than a few miles without exceeding their value was by water. This made much of the land in the U.S. unsuitable for growing crops other than for local consumption.

Under ownership of Spain, New Orleans held the strategically important sight between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain. The Carondelet Canal, which was completed in 1794, connected the Tremé neighborhood of New Orleans with Bayou St. John, giving shipping access to Lake Pontchartrain and the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. gained rights to use the port in New Orleans in 1795. See: New Orleans#History

New Orleans was transferred by Spain to France in 1800, but remained under Spanish control. The Louisiana Territory purchased from France under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803 was sparely populated. After the Louisiana Purchase under the Thomas Jefferson administration, a high priority was to build roads to New Orleans, which were the Natchez Trace and the Federal Road through Georgia, initially intended for mail delivery.

The Napoleonic Wars and the Embargo Act of 1807 restricted European trade, which did not recover until the end of the War of 1812 in 1815. The Year without a summer of 1816 resulted in famine in Europe and a wave of immigration to the U.S., with New Orleans being the destination of many refugees. The return of good harvests in Europe along with the newly cleared and planted land in the Midwest and Mississippi Valley and the improvements in transportation resulted in a collapse in agricultural prices that caused the 1818-9 depression. Agricultural prices remained depressed for many years, but their eventual recovery resulted in a new wave of land clearing, triggering another depression in the late 1830s. Cotton prices were particularly depressed.[6]

Until the development of the steamboat, river navigation was either with barges or flatboats floated downstream or pushed upstream with poles or by hand using overhanging tree limbs. On the Mississippi River most traffic was down river on log rafts or on wooden boats that were dismantled and sold as lumber in the vicinity of New Orleans. Steam powered navigation between Pittsburg and New Orleans began in 1811-12. Inland steam navigation which rapidly expanded in the following decades, and railroads appeared before the Civil War, though they mainly linked waterways until the Civil War, after which railroads overtook most of the traffic.

It was during the period of expanding steam transportation that plantation agriculture dominated the Southern economy, with two-thirds of the millionaires in the U.S. living in Louisiana, mostly between Natchez and New Orleans. The surviving plantation homes range from relatively modest dwellings to opulent mansions, some containing original furnishings and many with period furniture.

Due to poor transportation and lack of industrialization, plantations tended to be somewhat self-sufficient, growing most of their own food, harvesting their own timber and firewood, repairing farm implements an building their own buildings. Many slaves were skilled blacksmiths, masons and carpenters who often were contracted out. Cloth, shoes and clothing were imported from Europe and from the Northeast U.S.

The self-sufficiency of plantations and cheap slave labor hindered economic development of the South. Contemporary descriptions cite the lack of towns, commerce and economic development.

Besides the necessity of river transportation, the soils near the rivers and old river channels contained the best soil closest to the rivers where the sandy and silty soil settled, leaving higher elevation natural levees. The clay soil settled further away from the rivers and being less stable, slumped to muddy back swamps.[7] The plantations in the vicinity of St. Francisville, Louisiana are on the high eastern bank of the Mississippi River are on a loess soil, which was not as fertile as the river alluvium, but was still well suited to plantation agriculture.

Slave housing[edit]

Slave quarters at Magnolia Plantation, Natchitoches Parish, LA IMG 3473

Examples of slave housing can be found on many of the plantations. A contemporary account from memoirs of a resident of The White Castle describes slave housing as being more comfortable than many white people had in Europe (although it is not known if all slave housing was up to the standards the writer was familiar with or of surviving examples). Surviving slave housing appears to be better than Engels description some of the mill workers' housing in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. Engels described much housing consisting of a single room occupied by eight to ten unrelated individuals of both sexes with no toilet facilities and often no furniture. The occupants slept on piles of sawdust or straw.

Examples of slave housing at Laura and San Francisco Plantations are wooden buildings with two or three separate rooms, including the kitchen, and furnished with one or more bed frames and a few other pieces of furniture. These were intended to house a single family.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation," (PDF), National Register Bulletins, National Park Service. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  2. ^ National Park Service (April 2007). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-05-20. 
  3. ^ National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database". Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  4. ^ Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753 . Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7).
  5. ^ Taylor, George Rogers. The Transportation Revolution, 1815-1860. ISBN 978-0873321013. 
  6. ^ North, Douglas C. (1966). The Economic Growth of the United States 1790-1860. New York, London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-00346-8. 
  7. ^ See soil surveys of the various parishes