List of pirates

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This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, river pirates, and others involved in piracy and piracy-related activities. This list includes both captains and prominent crew members. For a list of female pirates, see women in piracy.

Ancient World[edit]

Sextus Pompeius denarius, minted for his victory over Augustus' fleet. On the obverse the Pharus of Messina, on the reverse monster Scylla, who defeated Augustus.
NameLifeYears activeCountry of originComments
Anicetusd. 69Pontus (Hellenic)Was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman uprising in Pontus in AD 69.
Demetrius of Pharosd. 214 BCPharos (Hellenic)His actions precipitated the Second Illyrian War.
Dionysius the Phocaean494 BCGreecePhocaean admiral active against Carthaginian and Tyrsenian merchants in the years following the Greco–Persian Wars.
Gan Ning175–218190–197ChinaHis party carried bells as their trademark causing the commoners to be afraid when they heard the bells.
Genthus of IllyriaFirst century BCIllyriaWas accused by the Romans of organizing and aiding pirate raids in Italy.
Glauketas315–300 BCGreek inscriptions of the Athenian navy raiding his base on Kynthnos Island and capturing he and his men "making the sea safe for those that sailed thereon."
Sextus Pompeiusd. 35 BCRomeHe was the last focus of opposition to the Second Triumvirate.

Middle Ages[edit]

Aruj, or Oruç, Reis was a Turkish privateer and later Admiral in Ottoman service who became known as Barbarossa – or Redbeard – amongst Christians.
Awilda was a 5th-century pirate who, along with friends, dressed up as sailors and commandeered a ship.
NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Giorgio Adornod. 1558MaltaKnight of Malta active in the Mediterranean. Originally from Naples, he was elected "Captain-General of the Galleys" in 1547, 1549, 1557 and 1558.[1]
James Alday1516–15761540sEnglandAn English privateer. Raided Spanish ports with James Logan and William Cooke.
William Aleynfl. 14481432-1448EnglandEnglish pirate active in the Thames and English Channel. Associate of William Kyd.
Jean Ango1480–1551FranceA French ship-owner who provided ships to Francis I for exploration of the globe.
Aruj1474–15181503–1518Ottoman EmpireAn Ottoman privateer and Bey (Governor) of Algiers and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of the West Mediterranean.
Awilda5th centuryScandinaviaShe and some of her female friends dressed like sailors and commandeered a ship.
Hayreddin Barbarossa1478–15461504–1545Ottoman EmpireAn Ottoman privateer and later Admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades.
Baldassare Cossa (Antipope John XXIII)1370–1415ProcidaAntipope during the Western Schism, John XXIII was accused of—among other crimes—piracy, incest and sodomy.
Pier Gerlofs Donia1480–1520Germany (Frisia)a Frisian warrior, pirate, freedom fighter, folk hero and rebel.
Eric of Pomerania1382–1459Germany (Pomerania)The first king of the Nordic Kalmar Union, he spent his last years living on the island of Gothland and "sent forth piratical expeditions against friend and foe alike".[2]
Eustace the Monkc. 1170–1217FranceHe was a mercenary for both England and France.
Alv Erlingssond. 1290NorwayHe was a favorite of the Queen, yet committed countless acts of piracy throughout his life
Jean Fleury (Florin)fl. 15231520sFranceFrench privateer and naval officer under Jean Ango. Seized three Spanish ships carrying Aztec treasure from Mexico to Spain in 1523.
Magnus Heinason1545–1589Faroe IslandsFaroese naval hero and privateer. Was executed for piracy, though charges were later dropped.
Klein Henszleind. 1573to 1573GermanyA 16th-century pirate who raided shipping in the North Sea until his defeat and capture by a fleet from Hamburg
Wijerd Jelckama1490–1523Germany (Frisia)The nephew of Pier Gerlofs Donia (also known as Grutte Pier), fought along his side against the Saxon and Hollandic invaders.
William Kydfl. 1430–14531430s–1450sEnglandEnglish pirate active in Southwest England during the early-to-mid-15th century.
Gödeke Michelsd. 1402to 1402GermanyA German pirate and one of the leaders of the Likedeeler, a combination of former Vitalienbrüder
Didrik Piningc. 1430–1491Denmark-NorwayA pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Hans Pothorst.
Hans Pothorstc.1440–1490Denmark-NorwayA pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Didrik Pining.
Salih Reis1488–1568Ottoman EmpireA Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral.
Turgut Reis1485–1565Ottoman EmpireA Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli.
Klaus Störtebeker1360–1401GermanyHe was a leader of the Victual Brothers.
Kristoffer Trondson (Rustung)c.1500–1565c.1535–1542NorwayA Norwegian nobleman-turned pirate and privateer. Operated in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Gave up piracy in 1542 and eventually became admiral of the Danish Fleet.
Hennig Wichmann1370–1402149?–1402Germany (Frisia)One of the leaders of the Likedeeler, an association of former Victual Brothers.
Cord Widderichd. 14471404–1447GermanyA pirate active during political conflicts between Dithmarschen and North Frisia in the early 15th century.
Magister Wigbold1365–14021392–1402GermanyOften described as the brains behind the Victual Brothers.
Wimundb. 1147EnglandHe was a bishop who became a seafaring warlord adventurer.
John Crabbe1305-1332FlandersFlemish pirate best known for his successful use of a ship-mounted catapult. Once won the favor of Robert the Bruce and acted as a Naval Officer for England during the Hundred Years' War (after being captured by King Edward III.)

Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Corsairs: 1560–1650[edit]

The first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe, Thomas Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.
Uluj Ali was an Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.
Known as "el Draque" (the Dragon), Sir Francis Drake was considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.
After serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years, Piet Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.
Gráinne O'Malley (left of frame) was an important figure in Irish legend who is still recognised in popular culture today.
Sir John Hawkins
Sir Francis Verney was one the most feared Barbary corsairs during the early 17th century.
NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Nicholas Alvelearly 17th century1603EnglandActive in the Ionian Sea.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés1519–15741565SpanishA Spanish Admiral and pirate hunter, de Aviles is remembered for his destruction of the French settlement of Fort Caroline in 1565.
Samuel Axeearly 17th century1629–1645EnglandAn English privateer in Dutch service, Axe served with English forces in the Dutch Revolt against Habsburg rule.
Sir Andrew Barton1466–1511to 1511ScotlandServed under a Scottish letter of marque, but was described a pirate by English and Portuguese.
Abraham Blauveltd. 16631640–1663NetherlandsOne of the last Dutch corsairs of the mid-17th century, Blauvelt mapped much of South America.
Nathaniel Butlerb. 15781639EnglandDespite a comparatively unsuccessful career as a privateer, Butler was later colonial governor of Bermuda.
Jan de Bouffearly 17th century1602Netherlandsde Bouff served as a Dunkirker in Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt.
John Callis (Calles)c. 1558–1587?c. 1574–1587EnglandWelsh pirate active along the southern coast of Wales.
Hendrik (Enrique) Brower1581–16431600,
NetherlandsBrouwer was a privateer who fought the Habsburgs during the Dutch revolt, holding the city of Castro, Chile hostage for a period of two months.[3]
Thomas Cavendish1560–15921587–1592EnglandThe first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe, Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.[4][5][6][7][8]
Shirahama Kenki16th-early 17th centuriesJapanJapanese pirate and one of the first Japanese with whom the southern Vietnamese kingdom of the Nguyễn Lords made contact.
Matsuura Takanobu1529–1599JapanOne of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyūshū and one of the first lords to allow trading with Europeans
Peter Loved.1610EnglandAn English pirate who set up base in the Outer Hebrides and was active around Ireland and Scotland. He was betrayed by the outlaw Neil MacLeod and executed in 1610.
Zheng Zhilong (Cheng Chih Lung)1604–16621623–1645ChinaA convert to Christianity, Zhilon collaborated with Dutch forces, helping to create a monopoly on trade with Japan.
Zheng Jing (Cheng Chin)1643–16821662–1682ChinaChinese pirate and warlord. The eldest son of Koxinga and grandson of Zheng Zhilong, he succeeded his father as ruler of Tainan and briefly occupied Fukien.
Wang Zhi16th century1551–1555ChinaOne of the chief figures amongst the wokou of the 16th century.
Francois le Clerc (Jambe de Bois)16th century1550s–1560sFranceKnown for his sacking of Santiago de Cuba in 1554
Jacob Collaart17th century1625–1635NetherlandsA Flemish admiral who served as privateer and one of the Dunkirkers in Spanish Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt, responsible for the destruction of at least 150 fishing boats.
Claes Compaan1587–16601621–1627NetherlandsFormer Dutch corsair and privateer, he later became a pirate and was successful in capturing hundreds of ships in Europe, the Barbary coast and West Africa.
Baltazar de Cordesd.1601?1598–1601NetherlandsA Dutch corsair who fought against the Spanish during the early 17th Century.
Simon (Zyman) the Dancerfl. 1606–16091600sNetherlandsOne of the leading Barbary corsairs, was based in Algiers and Tunis during the early 17th century.
Simon Danzikerd. 16111600s–1610sNetherlandsDutch corsair and privateer who later became a Barbary corsair. He and John Ward dominated the Western Mediterranean during the early 17th century.
De Veenboerd. 16201600s–1610sNetherlandsFormer Dutch corsair and privateer. Later became a Barbary corsair under Simon the Dancer and eventually commanded the Algiers corsair fleet.
Uluj Ali (Giovanni Dionigi)1519–15871536–1550TurkeyAn Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.
Sir Francis Drake1540–15961563–1596EnglandKnown as "el Draque" (the Dragon), he was considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.[9][10]
Peter Easton1570–16191602EnglandA privateer, then pirate, who was able to retire in Villefranche, Savoy with an estimated worth of two million pounds.
Jan Janszoon1570–after 1641HollandTurkish service of the 'fleet from Salé'
Daniel Elfrith1607–1640EnglandEnglish privateer and slave trader in the West Indies.
Jan Evertsen1630sNetherlandsDutch admiral and corsair.[citation needed]
Juan Garciafl. 16221620sSpainOne of the Spanish privateers who accompanied Jan Jacobsen on his last voyage in 1622.
Sir Michael Gearec. 1565–?c. 1584–1603EnglandElizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies up until the turn of the 17th century.
Sir John Hawkins1532–15951554, 1564, 1567EnglandA some-time pirate, his work in ship design was important during the threat of invasion from the Spanish Armada.[11][12]
Piet Hein1577–16291628NetherlandsAfter serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years, Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.
Pieter Adriaanszoon Itafl. 1628–16301620sNetherlandsDutch corsair and privateer. Commanded one of the earliest and largest expeditions against the Portugal and Spain in the Caribbean during 1628.
Jan Jacobsend. 16221610s–1620sNetherlandsFlemish-born privateer in English service during the Eighty Years' War.
Willem Jacobszoonfl. 1624–16251620sNetherlandsDutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten on one of the first major expeditions to the West Indies.[citation needed]
Jan Janz (Murad Rais)c. 1570–c. 16411590s–1640sNetherlandsDutch privateer taken captive by Barbary corsairs and later became one himself.
Willem Jansenfl. 16001600sNetherlandsDutch corsair based in Duinkerken and one time officer under Jacques Colaert.[citation needed]
Cornelius Jol1597–16411630s–1640sNetherlandsDutch corsair successful against the Spanish in the West Indies. One of the first to use a wooden peg leg.
Sir James Lancaster1554–16181591–1603EnglandElizabethan Sea Dog active in India during the late 16th century. Later a chief director for the East India Company.
Guillaume Le Testu1509–15731560s–1570sFranceFrench privateer, explorer and cartographer. First navigator to chart Australia in 1531.
Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer1583–16271627NetherlandsHendrick captured 1.2 million guilders from a Honduran treasure fleet, but was mortally wounded in the process.
Sir Henry Mainwaring1587–16531610–1616EnglandEnglish privateer and pirate hunter. His pirate fleet nearly broke the truce between England and Spain following the Anglo-Spanish War.
Olivier van Noort1558–16271598–1601NetherlandsDespite his venture being of limited success, it was the inspiration that led to the formation of the Dutch East India Company.
John Nutt1620–1623EnglandAn English pirate active in Newfoundland.
Gráinne O'Malley (Gráinne Ní Mháille)1530–16031560s–1600sIrelandAn important figure in Irish legend who is still present in popular culture today.[13][14]
John Oxenham1536–15801570s–1600sEnglandElizabethan Sea Dog and associate of Sir Frances Drake during the early years of the Anglo-Spanish War. First English privateer to enter the Pacific though Panama.[citation needed]
William Parkerd. 16171590s–1600sEnglandElizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies. Successfully attacked Porto Bello in 1602 without firing a shot.[citation needed]
Pedro de la Plesafl. 16221620sSpanishHe and Juan Garcia who joined Jan Jacobsen on his final voyage in 1622.
Murat Reis the Elder1506–16081534–1608RhodesA Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral who took part in all of the early naval campaigns of Turgut Reis.
Assan Reis (Jan Marinus van Sommelsdijk)fl. 16261620sNetherlandsFormer Dutch privateer turned Barbary corsair. He attacked the Dutch ship St. Jan Babtista under Jacob Jacobsen of Ilpendam on March 7, 1626.[citation needed]
James Riskinner (Reiskimmer)17th century1630sEnglandA lieutenant on the ship Warwick, then part of a fleet under the command of Nathaniel Butler, he later took part in a privateering expedition between May–September 1639.
Isaac Rochussen1631–17101660s–1670sNetherlandsA Dutch corsair active against the English during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch War. His capture of The Falcon, an East India merchantman, was one of the most valuable prizes captured during the late-17th century.
Mahieu Romboutsenfl. 16361630sNetherlandsDutch corsair in the service of Spain. Was part of a three ship squadron under Jacques Colaert and was captured with him after a five-hour battle with Jan Evertsen.[citation needed]
William Rousfl. 1636–16451630s–1640sNetherlandsDutch corsair and privateer based on Providence Island. He was involved in privateering expeditions for the Providence Island Company and later commander of Fort Henry.
Jan van Ryend. 16271620sNetherlandsDutch corsair active in the West Indies. Reportedly killed with a number of colonists attempting to establish one of the first colonies on the Wiapoco in Dutch Guiana.
Pieter Schoutenfl. 1624–16251620sNetherlandsDutch corsair who led one of the Dutch expeditions to the West Indies.
Jacques de Sores16th century1555FranceA French pirate whose sole documented act was his attack and burning of Havana in 1555.
Dirck Simonszoon van Uitgeestfl. 1628–16291620sNetherlandsDutch corsair who commanded a WIC expedition to Brazil bringing back over 12 Portuguese and Spanish prizes.[citation needed]
Sir Francis Verney1584–16151608–1610EnglandEnglish nobleman who left behind his inheritance to become a Barbary corsair.
Johannes van Walbeeckfl. 16341620s–1630sNetherlandsDutch admiral and corsair. Captured Curaçao in 1634 and later served as governor.
John Ward1552–16221603–1610sEnglandA notorious English pirate around the turn of the 17th century who later became a Barbary Corsair operating out of Tunis during the early 1600s.
Cornelis Wittebolfl. 16221620sNetherlandsDutch corsair in Spanish service. In February 1622, attacked a fishing fleet from the Veere and Maasmond sinking several ships and bringing back the survivors to ransom in Duinkerken.[citation needed]
Jacob Willekens1571–16331590s–1630sNetherlandsDutch admiral who led Dutch corsairs on the first major privateering expedition to the West Indies.
Hendrik Worstfl. 16241620sNetherlandsDutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten in his expedition to the West Indies.[citation needed]
Filips van Zuylenfl. 16241620sNetherlandsDutch corsair active against the Portuguese in West Africa.
Moses Cohen Henriquesearly 17th century1620s and 1630sNetherlandsDutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin active in the Caribbean against Spain and Brazil against Portugal

Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690[edit]

Although Jean Bart was born the son of a fisherman, he was able to retire as an Admiral in French service on the strength of his captures during his time as a privateer.
William Dampier was the first Englishman to explore or map parts of New Holland (Australia) and New Guinea, and was also the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
Known only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon (pictured), Pierre le Grand's existence is disputed.
Henry Morgan was a privateer (and pirate) who later retired to become Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.
François l'Ollonais was nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards" and had a reputation for brutality – offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners.
Roche Braziliano had a reputation for violence, and once roasted two Spanish farmers when they refused to hand over their pigs.
NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Vincenzo Alessandrid. 1657ItalyOriginally a Knight of Malta, Alessandri was captured and enslaved.[citation needed]
Michiel Andrieszoon17th century1680sNetherlandsDutch merchant-pirate. Associated with Thomas Paine and Laurens de Graff.[citation needed]
John Anselld. 1689EnglandSailed with Henry Morgan and participated in his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.
Jean Bart1651–17021672–1697FranceBorn the son of a fisherman, Bart retired an Admiral in French service.
Philippe Bequel17th century1650–1669FranceWas one of the first foreign privateers awarded a letter of marque by the governor of Jamaica
Jacob Janssen van den Berghfl. 16601650s–1660sNetherlandsDutch corsair and slave trader for the Dutch West India Company.[citation needed]
Lancelot Blackburne1653–17431680–1684EnglandBlackburne was an English clergyman, who became Archbishop of York, and – in popular belief – a pirate.
Eduardo Blomard. 16791670sSpainSpanish renegade active in the Spanish Main during the 1670s. Tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Bartolomé Charpes and Juan Guartem in Panama in 1679.[citation needed]
Pierre Bot17th century1680sFranceFrench buccaneer active in the Caribbean.[citation needed]
Manuel Butiensfl. 16451640sNetherlandsDutch renegade and Dunkirker in the service of Spain.[citation needed]
Bartolomé Charpesd. 16791680sSpainSpanish renegade who was tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Edwardo Blomar and Juan Guartem in Panama by Governor Don Dionicio Alceda in 1679.[citation needed]
Edward Collier17th century1668–1671EnglandServed as Sir Henry Morgan's second-in-command throughout much of his expeditions against Spain during the mid-17th century.
John Cooke (Cook)d. 16831680sEnglandEnglish buccaneer who led an expedition against the Spanish in the early 1680s.[citation needed]
John Coxond. 16891677–1682EnglandOne of the most famous of the Brethren of the Coast, a loose consortium of pirates and privateers who were active on the Spanish Main.
William Dampier1651–17151670–1688EnglandWas the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.[15][16]
Edward Davis17th century1680–1688EnglandLed the last major buccaneer raid against Panama.
John Davis (Robert Searle)17th centuryEnglandDavis was one of the earliest and most active buccaneers on Jamaica.
Jacquotte Delahaye17th century1660sFranceDelahaye was a French Buccaneer, and together with Anne Dieu-Le-Veut was one of very few female buccaneers.
Anne Dieu-Le-Veutb. 16501650–1704FranceWas originally one of the women – "Filles de Roi" – sent by the French government to Tortuga to become wives to the local male colonists.
Charlotte de Berry17th century1660sEnglandA female pirate, she later commanded her own ship.
Cornelius Essexd. 16801670sEnglandAn English buccaneer who took part in Captain Bartholomew Sharp's privateering expedition, the "Pacific Adventure", during the late 1670s.
Laurens de Graaf1653–17041672–1697NetherlandsCharacterised as "a great and mischievous pirate" by Henry Morgan, de Graaf was a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
Michel de Grammont1645–16861670–1686FranceA French buccaneer, de Grammont primarily attacked Spanish holdings in Venezuela.
Jean du Casse1646–1715168?–1697FranceBorn to Huguenot parents, du Casse was allowed to join the French navy on the value of his prizes taken while a buccaneer.
Alexandre Exquemelin1645–17071669–1674
FranceA French writer, most known as the author of one of the most important sourcebooks of 17th century piracy, De Americaensche Zee-Roovers.
Jean Foccard17th century1680sFranceAssociate of Laurens de Graaf and Michel de Grammont. He later joined them in their attack on Tampico in 1682.[citation needed]
"Red Legs" Greaves17th CenturyScotlandGreaves's nickname was based on a commonly used term for reddened legs often seen among the Scottish and Irish who took to wearing kilts in almost any weather.
Juan Guartem17th century1670sSpainA Spanish renegade pirate who raided Spanish settlements in New Spain during the late 17th century with his most notable raid being against Chepo in 1679.
Peter Harrisd. 16801670sEnglandEnglish buccaneer and member of Captain Bartholomew Sharp's "Pacific Expedition". Killed at Panama in 1680.[citation needed]
Jean Hamlin (Hamilton)17th century1680sAnglo-FrenchFrench buccaneer active in the Caribbean. Later hunted down by Captain John Coxon.[citation needed]
Richard Hawkins1562–16221593–1594EnglandA buccaneer and explorer who was later knighted.
George Hout (d'Hout)fl. 16871680sEnglandEnglish buccaneer who joined Francois Grogniet and Pierre le Picard in their raid on Guayaquil in 1687.[citation needed]
François l'Olonnais17th centuryc. 1635–c. 1668FranceFrench pirate active in the Caribbean during the 1660s. He may have been cannabalized by the natives of Darién Province
William Jackson17th century1639–1645EnglandIt was the fleet under his command that captured Jamaica for England.
Bartholomeus de Jagerfl. 16551650sNetherlandsDutch corsair active against the Portuguese. He attacked a small merchant fleet at Fernando Noronha capturing one merchant ship and driving off the other.[citation needed]
Daniel Johnson1629–16751657–1675EnglandBecame known as "Johnson the Terror" amongst the Spanish.
William Knight17th century1684–1686EnglandAlong with Edward Davis, he took part in the final large buccaneer attack on Spanish holdings.
Pierre Le Grand17th centuryFranceKnown only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon, his existence is disputed.
Raveneau de Lussanb. 16631684–1688FranceAn impoverished nobleman. Attacked targets in Central America. Known for a “long march” in 1688.
Thomas Magott (Mackett)17th century1680sEnglandEnglish buccaneer who sailed with Bartholomew Sharp and others on the "Pacific Adventure".[citation needed]
Edward Mansvelt (Mansfield)d. 16661650s–1660sCuraçaoDutch buccaneer in English service. Known as the Admiral of the "Brethren of the Coast", Mansvelt was a mentor to Sir Henry Morgan who succeeded him following his death.
Marquis de Maintenon1648–16911672–1676FranceA French nobleman who became a buccaneer in the Caribbean, selling his castle and title to Madame de Maintenon
David Marteen17th century1663–1665NetherlandsKnown primarily as the sole non-English Captain who participated in the raids against Spanish strongholds in present-day Mexico and Nicaragua.
Daniel Montbars (Exterminator)1645–1701?1660s–1670sFranceA former French naval officer and gentleman adventurer, he engaged in a violent and destructive war against Spain in the Caribbean and the Spanish Main. His hatred of the Spanish earned him the name "Montbars the Exterminator".
Sir Henry Morgan1635–16881663–1674WalesA privateer (and pirate) who later retired to become Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.[17][18]
John Morris17th century1663–1672EnglandA skilled pilot, he served with both Christopher Myngs and Henry Morgan before becoming a pirate hunter.
Sir Christopher Myngs1625–16661650s–1660sEnglandDescribed as "unhinged and out of tune" by the governor of Jamaica, Myngs nevertheless became a Vice-Admiral of the Blue in the Royal Navy.
François l'Ollonais (Jean-David Nau)1635–16681660–1668FranceNicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards", l'Ollonais had a reputation for brutality, offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners.
Pierre Le Picardfl. 1666–16901660s–1690sFranceAn officer under l'Ollonais, he and Moise Vauquelin left to pursue a career on their own. He later served in King William's War.
Chevalier du Plessisd. 16681660sFranceFrench privateer active in the West Indies. He was succeeded by Moise Vauquelin following his death.[citation needed]
Baron Jean de Pointis1635–17071690sFranceHis greatest venture was the 1697 Raid of Cartagena.
Thomas Poundd. 17031689EnglandBriefly commanded a small ship near Massachusetts before being captured.
Bartolomeu Portuguêsb. 16301666–1669PortugalOne of the earliest pirates to use a pirate code.
Lawrence Princefl. 1659–16721650s–1670sNetherlandsDutch buccaneer in English service. An officer under Sir Henry Morgan, he and John Morris led the vanguard at Panama in 1671.
Roche Braziliano17th century1654–1671NetherlandsRoasted two Spanish farmers alive when they refused to hand over their pigs.
Philip Rasfl. 1652–16551650sNetherlandsCaptured several English ships as both a corsair and privateer during the First Anglo-Dutch War.[citation needed]
Thomas Paine17th century1680sEnglandA colonial American privateer who raided several settlements in the West Indies with Jan Willems, most notably against Rio de la Hacha in 1680. He also drove the French from Block Island.
Manuel Ribeiro Pardald. 16711668–1671PortugalPortuguese privateer in the service of Spain. One of the few successful privateers active against the buccaneers of the Caribbean during the late 17th century.
Stenka Razin1630–1671RussiaA Cossack pirate who operated on the Volga and later expanded into the Caspian Sea.
Richard Sawkinsd. 16801679–1680EnglandParticipated, along with John Coxon and Bartholomew Sharp, in the surprise attack on Santa Marta
Lewis Scotfl. 16631660sEnglandKnown for his attack on the city of Campeche, on the Yucatan Peninsula.
Bartholomew Sharp1650–16901679–1682EnglandPlundered 25 Spanish ships and numerous small towns.
Gustav Skytte1637–16631657–1663SwedenAttacked ships in the Baltic Sea, along with other accomplices of noble descent.
Bernard Claesen Speirdykefl. 1663–16701660s–1670sNetherlandsDutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean, he was captured by Captain Manuel Ribeiro Pardal near Cuba and later executed.
Charles Swan17th centuryEnglandA reluctant pirate, he begged for a pirate even as he looted his way around South America.
Jacques Tavernier (Le Lyonnais)1625–16731664–1673FranceFrench buccaneer who took part in expeditions with Laurens de Graaf, Michel de Grammont, Pierre Le Grand, François l'Ollonais and Sir Henry Morgan before his execution in 1673. His existence is disputed as the only pre-20th century reference to him appears in Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography.[19][20]
Nicholas (Nikolaas) van Hoorn1635–16831663–1683NetherlandsMerchant, privateer and later pirate, van Hoorn was hugely successful before dying of wound infection.
Cornelis Janszoon van de Veldefl. 16551650sNetherlandsDutch corsair active near the Antillen, he was briefly associated with Bartholomeus de Jager.[citation needed]
Moise Vauquelin (Moses Vanclein)fl. 1650–16721650s–1670sFranceAn officer under l'Ollonais, he also had a partnership with Pierre le Picard. In his later years, he wrote a book detailing the coastline of Honduras and the Yucatan along with fellow buccaneer Philippe Bequel.
Lionel Wafer1640–17051679–1688WalesAn explorer whose work helped inspire the Darien Scheme.
Yankey (Janke) Willemsfl. 1681–16871680sNetherlandsDutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean.
William Wright17th century1675–1682EnglandDespite being English, Wright was active as a privateer under a French commission. He later became a buccaneer.

Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730[edit]

The most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, Black Bart was estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.
With his fearsome appearance, Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate.
Despite never commanding a ship herself, Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.
Henry Every (or Avery) is famous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.
Although modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumour of Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate.
NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Thomas Anstisd. 17231718–1723EnglandWas mainly active in the Caribbean, and served under first Howell Davis and later Bartholomew Roberts.[19][21]
Adam Baldridge ?fl. c. 1685–1697EnglandEnglish pirate and one of the early founders of the pirate settlements in Madagascar.
Bartholomew Roberts (Black Bart)1682–17221719–1722WalesThe most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.[19][21][22]
George Boothd. 17001696–1700EnglandOne of the earliest pirates active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea.
John Bowend. 17041700–1704BermudaWas active in the Indian Ocean, his contemporaries included George Booth and Nathaniel North.
Samuel Bellamy (Black Sam)1689–17171716–1717EnglandDespite having a career of less than year, Bellamy was extraordinarily successful, capturing more than 50 ships before his death at age 28.[21] His acquired wealth from his short career is equal to US $120 million (in 2008 dollars), making him the top-earning pirate in history.[23]
Blackbeard (Edward Thatch)1680–17181716–1718EnglandWith his fearsome appearance, Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate.[19][21]
Black Caesard. 17181700s–1718AfricaA captured slave turned pirate, Black Caesar was a well-known pirate active off the Florida Keys during the early 18th century. He later acted as a lieutenant to Blackbeard and was one of five Africans serving on his flagship.[21]
Stede Bonnet1688–17181717–1718BarbadosNicknamed "The Gentleman Pirate", Bonnet was born into a wealthy family before turning to piracy.[19][21]
Anne Bonny1698–1782to 1725IrelandDespite never commanding a ship herself, Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.[19][21][24]
Nicholas Brownd. 1726to 1726EnglandActive off the coast of Jamaica, Brown was eventually killed – and his head pickled – by childhood friend John Drudge.
Dirk Chiversearly 18th century1694–1699NetherlandsActive in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, Chivers later retired from piracy and returned to the Netherlands.[19]
Thomas Cocklynearly 18th century1717 to deathEnglandPrimarily known for his association with Howell Davis and Oliver La Buze, Cocklyn's activities after 1719 are unknown.[19][21]
Christopher Condentd. 17701718–1720EnglandAfter entering into piracy in 1718, Condent later took a prize of £150,000 and retired to France, becoming a wealthy merchant.[19]
William Condond. 1721to 1721EnglandCaptaining the Fiery Dragon, Condon was killed when she caught fire and sank.
Robert Cullifordearly 18th century1690–1698EnglandThe former first mate of William Kidd, Culliford led a first mutiny against Kidd, stealing his ship Blessed William.[19][21]
Alexander Dalzeel1662–17151685–1715ScotlandServed under Henry Every. Was captured four times before finally being hanged.
Howell Davis1690–17191718–1719WalesHaving a career that lasted only 11 months, Davis was ambushed during an attempt to kidnap the governor of Príncipe.[19][21]
Edward England1690–17201717–1720IrelandDiffering from many other pirates of his day, England did not kill captives unless necessary.[19][21]
John Evansd. 17231722–1723WalesAfter an unsuccessful career as a legitimate sailor, Evans turned to piracy – initially raiding houses from a small canoe.
Henry Every (Avery)b. 16531695–1696EnglandFamous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.[19]
John Fennd. 1723to 1723EnglandSailed with Bartholomew Roberts and, later, Thomas Anstis.
William Flyd. 1726to 1726EnglandRaided off the New England coast before being captured and hanged at Boston, Massachusetts.
Ingela Gathenhielm1692–17291718–1721SwedenWidow of Lars Gathenhielm, active on the Baltic Sea.
Lars Gathenhielm1689–17181710–1718SwedenActive on the Baltic Sea
Charles Harrisd. 1723to 1723EnglandJoining the Barbary corsairs, Harris converted to Islam, before being captured and later hanged.
John Halseyd. 17081705–1708Colonial AmericaActive in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, Halsey is remembered by Defoe as "brave in his Person, courteous to all his Prisoners, lived beloved, and died regretted by his own People."[19]
Miguel Henríquezb. 1680early 18th centurySpain / Puerto RicoAlthough born a shoemaker, Henríquez was later awarded a letter of marque by Spain for his actions against the British.
Benjamin Hornigoldd. 17191717–1719EnglandKnown for being less aggressive than other pirates, Hornigold once captured a ship for the sole purpose of seizing the crew's hats.[19][21]
Thomas Howardearly 18th century1698–1703EnglandHoward served under both George Booth and John Bowen and later commanded the Prosperous.
"Calico Jack" John Rackham1682–1720to 1720EnglandEarned his nickname for the colourful calico clothes that he wore.[19][21]
Henry Jenningsd. 17451715EnglandAlthough later governor of the pirate haven of New Providence, Jennings only carried out two pirate acts – gaining an estimated 410,000 pesos.[19]
John Juliand. 17331716–1717Miskito originsRecorded as the first black pirate to operate in the New World.[21]
James Kelly (James Gilliam)d. 1701to 1699EnglandActive in the Indian Ocean, Kelly was a long-time associate of William Kidd.
William "Captain" Kidd1645–17011695–1699ScotlandAlthough modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumor of Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate. His property was claimed by the crown and given to the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, by Queen Anne.[19][21][25][26][27][28]
Olivier Levasseur (Oliver La Buse)1680–17301716–1730FranceNicknamed "la Buse" (the Buzzard) for the speed with which he attacked his targets, Levasseur left behind a cryptic message that has yet to be deciphered fully today.[19][21]
Edward "Ned" Low1690–17241721–1724EnglandA pirate known for his vicious tortures, his methods were described as having "done credit to the ingenuity of the Spanish Inquisition in its darkest days".[19][21]
George Lowtherd. 1723to 1723EnglandActive in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, one of Lowther's lieutenants included Edward Low.[19][21]
Christopher Moodyd. 17181713–1718EnglandActive off North and South Carolina, Moody offered no quarter to captured crews, signified by his flying of a red standard.[21]
Nathaniel Northb. 16721689–1704
BermudaActive in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, North served with other famous contemporaries, including John Bowen and George Booth.
James Plantainearly 18th centuryJamaicaPlantain ruled the island of Madagascar between 1725 and 1728, primarily through fear, and was known as the "King of Ranter Bay".[19]
John Quelch1666–17041703–1704EnglandQuelch was the first person tried for piracy outside England under Admiralty Law and therefore without a jury.
Mary Read1690–1721to 1720EnglandAlong with Anne Bonny, one of few female historical pirates. When captured, Read escaped hanging by claiming she was pregnant, but died soon after of a fever while still in prison.[19][21]
Woodes Rogers1679–17321709–1710EnglandPlayed a major role in the suppression of pirates in the Caribbean.[19][21][29]
Francis Spriggsd. 1725to 1725EnglandAlong with George Lowther and Edward Low, Spriggs was primarily active in the Bay of Honduras during the early 1720s.
John Taylorearly 18th centuryEnglandAt Reunion Island, Taylor is reputed to have captured the most valuable prize in pirate history.[19]
Thomas Tewd. 16951692–1695EnglandDespite only going on two pirate voyages, Tew pioneered a route later known as the Pirate Round.[19][21]
Charles Vane1680–17201716–1720EnglandDisliked due to his cruelty, Vane showed little respect for the pirate code, cheating his crew out of their shares in the takings.[19][21]
Richard Worleyd. 1719to 1719EnglandCredited as one of the first pirates to fly the skull and crossbones pirate flag.[19]
Emanuel Wynnearly 18th centuryFranceWas the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger. His design, however, also incorporate an hourglass below the skull.[19]

After the Golden Age: Pirates, Privateers, Smugglers, and River Pirates: 1730-1834[edit]

NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Peter Alston1765–18041797–1804United StatesRiver pirate, highwayman, and counterfeiter, alias James May, who was believed to be an associate of the Samuel Mason and Micajah "Big" Harpe and Wiley "Little" Harpe.
Louis-Michel Aury1788–18211810–1821FranceFrench privateer, served to the Republics of Venezuela and Mexico.
Joseph Bakerd. 18001800CanadaThe single piratical action of his career consisted of an unsuccessful attempt to commandeer the sloop Eliza.[30]
Renato Beluche1780–18601803–1813LouisianaA known associate of the Lafitte Brothers active in the Caribbean before joining Simon Bolivar in his fight for South American independence.
Benito Bonito1780–18211810–1820SpainPirate who supposedly hid his treasures of Lima in the cliffs of Australia, or in Coco Island.
Hippolyte de Bouchard1780–18431817–1819ArgentinaA French and Argentine sailor who fought for Argentina, Chile and Peru.[31]
Flora Burnfl. 17411740s–1750sEnglandFemale pirate active mainly off the East coast of North America from 1741.
Henri Caesarearly 18th century1805–1830HaitiHaitian pirate active in the Caribbean during the early 18th century.
Eric Cobham and Maria Lindsey1700–17601720s–1740sEnglandCobham and his wife, Maria, were primarily active in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
James Ford1770?–18331799?-1833United StatesA civic leader and business owner in western Kentucky and southern Illinois, secretly, was the leader of a gang of river pirates and highwaymen, along the Ohio River, known as the "Ford's Ferry Gang."
Hezekiah FrithEarly 19th century1790s–1800sBermudaBritish ship owner and smuggler known as Bermuda's "gentleman privateer". Alleged to have used his business as a cover to withhold cargo sized in privateering expeditions and amass a small fortune.
Vincent Gambid. 1820ItalyA pirate based out of New Orleans, he was an associate of Jean Lafitte.
José Gaspar (Gasparilla)1756–18211783–1821SpainThough a popular figure in Florida folklore, there is no pre-20th century evidence of his existence.[32]
Catherine Hagerty and Charlotte Badgerearly 19th century1806EnglandAustralian convicts. Among a group of convicts taken on board a shorthanded ship as crew. The convicts commandeered the ship and sailed for New Zealand. Hagerty was put ashore and died, Badger was never seen again.[33]
Micajah and Wiley Harpe1768–1799 (Micajah)
1770–1804 (Wiley)
1797–1799 (Micajah)
1797–1804 (Wiley)
United StatesAmerica's first known serial killers, were Loyalists in the American Revolution, as well as, river pirates and highwaymen, who preyed on travelers along the Ohio River and the waterways of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. The Harpe Brothers were associates of Samuel Mason and Peter Alston.
Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah1760–18261780–1826KuwaitThe most famous pirate in the Persian Gulf, he was appointed as a ruler of Dammam and went into a piracy against Al-Khalifa in Bahrain.
Bill Johnston1782–18701810–1860United StatesNicknamed "Pirate of the Thousand Islands".
Edward Jordan1771–18091794–1809CanadaIrish rebel, fisherman and pirate of Nova Scotia.
Jorgen Jorgensen1780–18411807–1808DenmarkDanish adventurer and writer, he was captured by the British as a privateer during the Napoleonic Wars.[34]
Jean Lafittec. 1776–1826?1803–1815
FranceFrench pirate (or privateer) active in the Gulf of Mexico during the early 1800s. A wanted fugitive by the United States, he later participated, during the War of 1812, in the Battle of New Orleans on the side of Andrew Jackson and the Americans.
Pierre Lafitte1770–18211803–1821FranceFrench pirate, and lesser-known brother of Jean Lafitte, active mainly in the Gulf of Mexico.
Sam Hall Lord1778–18441800s–1840sBarbadosSam Lord was one of the most famous buccaneers on the island of Barbados.
Kazimierz Lux1780–18461803–1819PolandThe Polish Pirates of the Caribbean.[clarification needed]
Samuel Mason1739–1803to 1803United StatesInitially, an Revolutionary War Patriot captain in the Ohio County, Virginia militia and an associate judge and squire in Kentucky, Mason later, ran a gang of highway robbers and waterways river pirates.
John A. Murrell1806?–1844to 1834United StatesNear-legendary bandit, known as the "Great Western Land Pirate," ran a gang of river pirates and highwaymen along the Mississippi River.
Rachel Wall1760-17891781–1782Province of PennsylvaniaRachel and her husband George Wall were active off the New Hampshire coast until George and the crew were washed out to sea. She was hanged in Boston on 8 October 1789.
Alexander Whited. 1784fl. 1784East Coast of AmericaHanged for piracy in Cambridge, Massachusetts in November 1784.
Dominique You1775–18301802–1814HaitiAcquired a reputation for daring as a pirate. Retired to become a politician in New Orleans.

Renegades of the West Indies: 1820-1830[edit]

Roberto Cofresi was Puerto Rico's most famous pirate and was regarded by many as the Puerto Rican equivalent of Robin Hood.
NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Mansel Alcantra (Alcantara)fl. 18291820sSpainIn 1829, he captured the Topaz off St. Helena and had the entire crew murdered.
Roberto Cofresí1791–18251818-1825Puerto RicoPuerto Rico's most famous pirate, regarded by many as the Puerto Rican equivalent of Robin Hood.
Diabolito (Little Devil)d. 1823CubaCuban-born pirate active in the Caribbean during the early 19th century. He was one of the first pirates to be hunted down by Commodore David Porter and the Mosquito Fleet during the early 1820s.
Charles Gibbs1798–18311816–1831United StatesOne of the last pirates active in the Caribbean, and one of the last people executed for piracy by the United States.[35]
"Don" Pedro Gilbert1800–18341832–1834ColombiaTook part in the last recorded incident of piracy in Atlantic waters.[36][37]
Benito de Soto1805–18301827–1830SpainThe most notorious of the last generation to attack shipping on the Atlantic Ocean.
Jacque Alexander Tardy1767-18271817-1827France

Piracy in the Far East: 1830-1860[edit]

NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Tuanku Abbasearly 19th centuryto 1844MalaysiaThe brother of a rajah of Achin, known for his sponsoring and leading of pirate raids.
Eli Boggs1810–18571830–1857United StatesPirate who sailed in Chinese junk for smuggling.
Cheng Id. 1807to 1807ChinaA pirate on the Chinese coast in the 18h and 19th centuries.
Cheung Po Tsaiearly 19th centuryto 1810ChinaActive along the Guangdong coast and is said to have commanded a fleet of 600 junks.
Ching Shihd. 18441807–1810ChinaA prominent female pirate in late Qing China.
Chui A-pood. 1851?1840s–1850ChinaBased in Bias Bay east of Hong Kong, Chui preyed on opium ships in the South China Sea until his fleet was destroyed by the British in 1849.[38]
Shap Ng-tsaifl. 1840s1845–1849ChinaCommanded around 70 junks in the South China Sea before retiring and accepting a pardon from the Chinese government.

Blackbirders, Shanghaiers, Crimps and African Slave Traders: 1860-1900[edit]

NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Nathaniel Gordon1834–18621860United StatesThe first and only American slave trader to be tried, convicted, and executed "for being engaged in the Slave Trade" in accordance with the Piracy Law of 1820.[39]
Bully Hayes1829–18771850–1877United StatesThe Pirate of the South Sea, was a notorious blackbirder in the South Pacific, and was described as "the last of the Buccaneers".
Albert W. Hicks1820–18601860United StatesNew York waterfront thug who killed the 3-man crew of an oyster sloop after being shanghaied. He was the last man hung for piracy in the United States.
James "Shanghai" Kelly1830-18901850-1870United StatesA legendary figure in San Francisco history who owned several boarding houses and saloons, Kelly was renowned for his ability to supply men to understaffed ships. He was reported to have shanghaied 100 men for three ships in a single evening, by hosting a free booze cruise to celebrate his "birthday", then serving opium-laced whiskey to knock out his guests.[40]
Joseph "Bunko" Kellyd. aft. 19081879–1894EnglandThe "King of the Crimps" in Portland, Oregon, he shanghaiied over 2,000 men in all. In 1893, he delivered 20+ men who had mistakenly consumed embalming fluid from the open cellar of a mortuary. The ship sailed off before the captain realized most of the men were dead.[41]
Ben Pease1837-18701860-1870United StatesA New England sea captain who kidnapped Pacific Islanders aboard the Pioneer, providing labor for the plantations of Fiji. When Bully Hayes was arrested for piracy in Samoa, Pease helped him to escape. When next the Pioneer returned to port, Hayes was at the helm, and was rumored to have killed Pease during a fight.

Piracy in the 20th and 21st centuries: 1901-[edit]

NameLifeYears ActiveCountry of originComments
Boysie Singh1908–19571947–1956TrinidadActive in the waters between Venezuela and Trinidad. Singh commonly attacked fishing boats, killing the crew and stealing the boat engine, before sinking the boat and selling the engine.[42]
"Roaring" Dan Seavey1867–19491900–1930United StatesActive in the American Great Lakes.
Felix von Luckner1881–19661916–1917GermanyGerman navy officer nobleman privateer who the epithet Der Seeteufel (the Sea-Devil) -- and his crew that of Die Piraten des Kaisers (the Emperor's Pirates) -- for his exploits in command of the sailing commerce raider SMS Seeadler (Windjammer) (Sea Eagle) in 1916–1917, during World War I.
Peter de Neumann1917–197221 June 1941United KingdomSecond Officer aboard the RN prize vessel Criton (captured from the Vichy French). Widely known as "The Man From Timbuctoo".[43][44]
Asad 'Booyah' Abdulahi1966-1998-SomaliaSomali pirate boss, active in capturing ships in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean for ransoms.[45]
Abdul Hassan1969-2005-SomaliaSomali pirate nicknamed "the one who never sleeps". Leader of the 350-men strong group "Central Regional Coast Guard", active in capturing ships for ransoms.[46][47][48]
Abduwali Muse1990-2008-2009SomaliaIn 16 February 2011, Muse was a defendant in the first piracy trial in the United States in almost two centuries.


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  2. ^ Library of Universal Knowledge: A Reprint of the Last (1880) Edinburgh and London Edition of Chambers's Encyclopedia. New York: American Book Exchange, 1880. (pg. 510)
  3. ^ Minnis, Natalie and Kerry Mackenzie. Insight Guides: Chile & Easter Island. Maspeth, New York: Langenscheidt Publishing Group, 2002. (pg. 265) ISBN 981-234-890-5
  4. ^ Edwards, Peter. editor (1988). Last Voyages: Cavendish, Judson, Ralegh: The Original Narratives. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-812894-0
  5. ^ Hakluyt, Richard. Chapter: "The prosperous voyage of the worshipful Thomas Candish..", in Voyages and Discoveries: Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation. Found in volume 8 of the 1907 Everyman's Library edition. Also found in Penguin edition ISBN 0-14-043073-3
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  7. ^ Walling, R.A.J. A Sea-Dog of Devon: a Life of Sir John Hawkins. 1907.
  8. ^ Williamson, James. Hawkins of Plymouth: a new History of Sir John Hawkins. 1969.
  9. ^ Bawlf, R. Samuel. The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, 1577–1580.(Douglas & McIntyre, 2003)
  10. ^ Merideth, Mrs. Charles, Notes and Sketches of New South Wales, during a residence in that colony from 1839 to 1844; BOUND WITH: "Life of Drake" by John Barrow (1st ed, 1844) [xi, 164; and xii, 187 pp. respectfully]
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  12. ^ Hazlewood, Nick. The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls. HarperCollins Books, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-06-621089-5
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  14. ^ Cook, Judith. 2004. Pirate Queen, the life of Grace O'Malley 1530–1603. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-443-1
  15. ^ Scott, Ernest (1916). "A Short History of Australia: Chap.XV, Melbourne
  16. ^ Wilkinson, Clennell William Dampier, John Lane at the Bodley Head, 1929.
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  20. ^ Wilson, John Grant and John Fiske. Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. Vol. VI. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1889. (pg. 39)
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  23. ^ Woolsey, Matt (19 September 2008). "Top-Earning Pirates". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
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  33. ^ Convicts on the “Venus”. 1806
  34. ^ Serle, Percival (1949). "Jorgensen, Jorgen". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. 
  35. ^ Gibbs, Joseph (2007), "Dead Men Tell No Tales: The Lives and Legends of the Pirate Charles Gibbs." University of South Carolina Press.
  36. ^ Gilbert, Pedro. A Report of the Trial of Pedro Gilbert. Boston: Russell, Oridorne and Metcalf, 1834.
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  38. ^ Martin Booth. Opium: A History. New York: Thomas Dunne, 1996. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-312-20667-3
  39. ^ Soodalter, Ron Hanging Captain Gordon: The Life and Trial of an American Slave Trader, Atria Books, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-6728-1
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  44. ^ Daily Express, London, 10 February 1943, London - The Man From Timbuctoo
  45. ^ The Guardian - 'We consider ourselves heroes' - a Somali pirate speaks
  46. ^ The Daily Mail - As brigands hold the Sirius Star supertanker to ransom, we go inside the Somali pirates' lair
  47. ^ John D. Brown - Dawn of the Pirate
  48. ^ The Guardian - US wants to take fight against Somali pirates on to land

Further reading[edit]

Ancient World[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Privateers: 1560–1650[edit]

Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690[edit]

Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730[edit]

Decline of Piracy: 1730–1900[edit]

External links[edit]

Ancient World
Middle Ages
Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Privateers (1560–1650)
Age of the Buccaneers (1650–1690)
Golden Age of Piracy (1690–1730)
Decline of Piracy (1730–1900)
Piracy in the 20th and 21st centuries