While there is ample evidence to indicate the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, no specific food has been acknowledged by scientists and government regulatory authorities as providing a health benefit. Current medical research is focused on whether health effects could be due to specific
essential nutrients or phytochemicals. [1 ]
The following is a
list of present in commonly consumed phytochemicals foods. Phenolic compounds [edit ] red, blue, purple pigments Flavonols Quercetin – red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans. Gingerol – ginger. Kaempferol – tea, strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, grapefruit, apples, peas, brassicates ( broccoli, kale, brussels sprouts, cabbage), chives, spinach, endive, leek, tomatoes. Myricetin – grapes, red wine, berries, walnuts. Rutin – citrus fruits, oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit, berries, peaches, apples, pagoda tree fruits, asparagus, buckwheat, parsley, tomatoes, apricots, rhubarb, tea. Isorhamnetin – red turnip, goldenrod, mustard leaf, ginkgo biloba. Flavanones Flavones Acacetin – Robinia pseudoacacia, Turnera diffusa. Apigenin – chamomile, celery, parsley. Chrysin – Passiflora caerulea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Oroxylum indicum. Diosmetin – Vicia. Tangeritin – tangerine and other citrus peels. Luteolin – beets, artichokes, celery, carrots, celeriac, rutabaga, parsley, mint, chamomile, lemongrass, chrysanthemum Flavan-3-ols (flavanols) Flavanonols – red wine, many red, purple or blue Anthocyanidins (flavonals) or Anthocyanins fruits and vegetables. Pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry. Peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach. Cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa. Delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry, eggplant. Malvidin – malve, bilberry, blueberry. Petunidin use the 3-phenylchromen- Isoflavones ( phytoestrogens) 4-one skeleton (with no hydroxyl group substitution on carbon at position 2). Daidzein (formononetin) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, kudzu, other legumes. Genistein (biochanin A) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes. Glycitein – soy. Isoflavanes. Isoflavandiols. Isoflavenes. Pterocarpans or Coumestans ( phytoestrogens) Coumestrol – red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas, brussels sprouts.
– seeds ( phytoestrogens flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains ( rye, oats, barley), bran ( wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables. [2 ] Matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli. Secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots. Pinoresinol and lariciresinol – [3 ] sesame seed, Brassica vegetables Salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat. Vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves. Gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy. Ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes. Tannic acid – nettles, tea, berries. Caffeic acid – burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple, olive oil. Chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries. Cinnamic acid – cinnamon, aloe. Ferulic acid – oats, rice, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut. Coumarin – citrus fruits, maize. chilli peppers.
rye and barley Terpenes (isoprenoids) [edit ] orange pigments α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange. β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables. γ-Carotene - to vitamin A, δ-Carotene Lycopene – Vietnam Gac, tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots, autumn olive. Neurosporene Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange. Phytoene – sweet potato, orange. yellow pigments. Canthaxanthin – paprika. Cryptoxanthin to vitamin A, in – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi. Zeaxanthin – wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges. Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear, cilantro. Rubixanthin – rose hips. Limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil. Perillyl alcohol – citrus oils, caraway, mints.
beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa. – Phytosterols almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils. Tocopherols ( vitamin E) – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts. omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids Oleanolic acid - American pokeweed, honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, cloves, and many other Syzygium species. Ursolic acid - apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes. Betulinic acid - Ber tree, white birch, tropical carnivorous plants and Triphyophyllum peltatum , Ancistrocladus heyneanus a member of the Diospyros leucomelas persimmon family, , the jambul ( Tetracera boiviniana ), Syzygium formosanum chaga, and many other Syzygium species. Moronic acid - Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe Betacyanins betanin - beets, chard isobetanin - beets, chard probetanin - beets, chard neobetanin - beets, chard Betaxanthins (non glycosidic versions) Organosulfides [edit ] Indoles, glucosinolates/ sulfur compounds [edit ] Indole-3-carbinol – cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli. Sulforaphane - broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbages 3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM - broccoli family, brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale Sinigrin - broccoli family, brussels sprouts, black mustard Allicin - garlic Alliin - garlic Allyl isothiocyanate - horseradish, mustard, wasabi Piperine - black pepper Syn-propanethial-S-oxide - cut onions. Protein inhibitors [edit ] Other organic acids [edit ] Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper. Phytic acid – ( inositol hexaphosphate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds. Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes, tamarind. Anacardic acid – cashews, mangoes. Malic acid – apples References [edit ] ^ Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University ^ Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University ^ Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database i...[Br J Nutr. 2005] - PubMed Result This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it