List of nuclides

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This table of nuclides shows the 901 observed nuclides that are either stable, or if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.

(A nuclide is defined conventionally as an experimentally examined bound collections of one or more protons and zero or more neutrons, that is either stable, or has an observed decay mode.)

At least 3,000 nuclides have been experimentally characterized. Those not shown in this 901-member list all have decay half-lives less than 60 minutes.

Introduction[edit]

An additional row contains specific data on the type of decay of the nuclide. If a decay has been predicted theoretically but never observed experimentally, it is given in parentheses. Only 90 nuclides from the first 40 elements are theoretically (energetically) stable to any kind of radioactive decay (save proton decay, which has not been observed). Another 164 nuclides are in theory subject to known types of decay processes such as spontaneous fission, alpha decay, double beta decay, etc., but for which decay has not been observed. Some of these are indicated with a ">" number to show the lower time limit of the half-life known based on experimental observation. Such nuclides are considered to be "stable" until a half-life for their decay has been measured in some fashion, and thus a half life is known.

The next group is the radioactive primordial nuclides. Presently known are 34 of these, of which 29 have half-lives considerably longer than the age of the universe. Tellurium-123 most recently had been reported to be radioactive, but the same experimental group later retracted this report, and it presently remains observationally stable.

About 50 nuclides have half lives too short to be primordial, but are nevertheless found in nature as a result of later production by natural processes. These are daughters of longer-lived nuclides (radiogenic nuclides), cosmic-ray reaction products (cosmogenic nuclides), or products of other natural nuclear reactions (nucleogenic nuclides).

The remaining radionuclides presented are artificially produced. Some, such as caesium-137 are found in the environment only as a result of contamination from man-made nuclear fission product releases (nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, and other processes).

All the radionuclides, starting with the longest-lived primordial radionuclides, are presented sorted by decreasing half life. All half lives in the list are given in seconds. For more convenient units, they must be divided by the corresponding number of seconds in the time unit (for example, nuclides with half lives over 108 seconds must be divided by 31,556,926 to obtain half life in years).

Some 164 of the 254 so-called stable nuclides are presumed to be unstable with a very long half-life, and thus a radioactive decay has not yet been experimentally measured, but might reported at any time. A total of 254 nuclides are classified as "stable" (no decay experimentally observed and thus no experimental half-life yet determined). An additional 34 primordial radionuclides are known.

The total list of 288 primordial nuclides, starting with the stable nuclides and ending with the longest-lived radioactive nuclide found in nature which is not the daughter product of a longer-lived decay, ends with the shortest-half lived primordial nuclide, 244Pu, at position 288.

Summary table for numbers of each class of nuclides[edit]

This is a summary table[1] of decay class for the 901 nuclides with half-lives longer than one hour, given in this list of nuclides. Note that numbers should not be considered perfectly exact, and may change slightly in the future, as nuclides radioactive only in theory are observed to be radioactive, or new half-lives are determined enough precision to give them as an experimental figure.

Only 90 of these 901 nuclides are theoretically stable,[citation needed] except to proton-decay (which has never been observed). An additional 164 nuclides are theoretically unstable[citation needed] but have never been observed to decay. This total of 254 nuclides are classically considered stable, but the number of subject to change as various long-lived nuclides among the 164 are in fact determined to be radioactive.

The remaining 641 radionuclides with half-lives longer than 1 hour, have half-lives that are well-characterized. They include 29 nuclides with measured half-lives longer than the estimated age of the universe (13.8 billion years), and another 5 nuclides with half-lives long enough (> 80 million years) that they are still primordial, and may be detected on Earth, having survived from their presence in interstellar dust since before the formation of the solar system, about 4.6 billion years before the present. Together, these constitute the known 34 radioactive primordial nuclides.

Another ~51 short-lived nuclides can be detected naturally as daughters of longer-lived nuclides (radiogenic nuclides), cosmic-ray reaction products (cosmogenic nuclides), or products of other natural nuclear reactions (nucleogenic nuclides). This gives a total of about ~ 339 naturally occurring nuclides. The remaining known nuclides listed, are known solely from artificial nuclear transmutation.

Stability classNumber of nuclidesRunning totalNotes on running total
Theoretically stable to all but proton decay9090Includes first 40 elements. Proton decay yet to be observed.
Energetically unstable to one or more known decay modes, but no decay yet seen. All considered "stable" until decay detected.164254Total of classically stable nuclides.
Radioactive primordial nuclides.34288Total primordial elements include bismuth, uranium, thorium, plutonium, plus all stable nuclides.
Radioactive non-primordial, but naturally occurring on Earth.~ 51~ 339Carbon-14 (and other isotopes generated by cosmic rays); daughters of radioactive primordials, such as francium, etc.
Radioactive synthetic (half-life > 1 hour). Includes most useful radiotracers.>562>901The 901 nuclides with half-life >1h are listed in this article; there are some more short-lived natural isotopes.
Radioactive synthetic (half-life < 1 hour).>2400>3300Includes all well-characterized synthetic nuclides.

List legends[edit]

no (number)

A running positive integer for reference. Especially for nuclides with short half-lives, this number, i.e. position in this table, might be changed in the future.

nuclide column

nuclide identifiers are given by their mass number A and the symbol for the corresponding chemical element (implies a unique proton number). In the rare case that this is not the ground state, this is indicated by a m for metastable appended to the mass number.

energy column

The column labeled "energy" denotes the energy equivalent of the difference between the mass per nucleon of this nuclide and the mass of a neutron (so all nuclides get a positive value) in MeV, formally: mnmnuclide / A.

half-life column

All times are given in seconds (3.1556926×107 s = 1 year). Entries starting with a > indicates that only lower limits for the half-life were established. Such elements are formally still considered "stable" until a half-life can be determined.

decay mode column
αα decay
ββ decay
εelectron capture
β+β+ decay
SFspontaneous fission
ββdouble β decay
β+β+double β+ decay
ITisomeric transition
pproton emission
nneutron emission

Decay modes in parentheses are still not experimentally observed, but are energetically predicted to occur.

decay energy column

Multiple values for (maximal) decay energy are mapped to decay modes in their order. The decay energy listed is for the specific nuclide only, not for the whole decay chain. It includes the energy lost to neutrinos.

Nuclides with no experimentally observed decays[edit]

Spontaneous fission is theoretically possible for all elements with atomic numbers >40, but has not been observed for a number of these. The list separates nuclides unstable only to this fission mechanism, from the rest of the nuclides following, which are unstable to additional mechanisms.

nonuclideAZNenergyhalf-lifedecay modedecay energy (Mev)
156Fe5626309.153567
262Ni6228349.147877
360Ni6028329.145862
458Fe5826329.142938
552Cr5224289.137037
657Fe5726319.127119
759Co5927329.126046
854Cr5424309.125633
961Ni6128339.124129
1055Mn5525309.120611
1164Ni6428369.119754
1266Zn6630369.115258
1353Cr5324299.114435
1463Cu6329349.112272
1565Cu6529369.106154
1668Zn6830389.100845
1750Ti5022289.099861
1851V5123289.094884
1967Zn6730379.084468
2048Ti4822269.081488
2172Ge7232409.079465
2270Ge7032389.079372
2369Ga6931389.076078
2488Sr8838509.070438
2574Ge7432429.063522
2649Ti4922279.062323
2776Se7634429.061485
2871Ga7131409.059218
2978Se7834449.058842
3090Zr9040509.057631
3189Y8939509.056743
3286Sr8638489.054160
3382Kr8236469.054126
3484Kr8436489.052649
3573Ge7332419.048006
3687Sr8738499.046964
3775As7533429.045093
3880Kr8036449.044984
3977Se7734439.040153
4085Rb8537489.037998
4191Zr9140519.037156
4283Kr8336479.034966
4379Br7935449.034220
4481Br8135469.033979
4592Zr9240529.032783
4646Ti4622249.030532
4747Ti4722259.027336
4844Ca4420249.013793
4942Ca4220228.989116
5038Ar3818208.984870
5145Sc4521248.983945
5243Ca4320238.964551
5334S3416188.951675
5440Ar4018228.947325
5541K4119228.938623
5639K3919208.938174
5737Cl3717208.929760
5836S3616208.923108
5935Cl3517188.900285
6030Si3014168.885761
6132S3216168.884318
6233S3316178.876964
6331P3115168.859744
6428Si2814148.838935
6529Si2914158.826327
6627Al2713148.708242
6726Mg2612148.694981
6824Mg2412128.651911
6925Mg2512138.599047
7023Na2311128.485675
7122Ne2210128.436087
7220Ne2010108.423422
7316O16888.367390
7421Ne2110118.344280
7519F199108.149612
7617O17898.118904
7718O188108.114744
7812C12668.071327
7915N15788.064594
8014N14777.866827
8113C13677.830943
824He4227.465077
8311B11567.283337
8410B10556.866257
859Be9456.810483
867Li7345.941599
876Li6335.723527
883He3213.094327
892H2111.503327
901H1100.782327
9194Mo9442529.011856(SF)< 4.485
9293Nb9341529.009051(SF)< 0.943
9396Mo9642548.996229(SF)< 5.771
9495Mo9542538.994564(SF)< 4.531
9597Mo9742558.973806(SF)< 6.226
9698Ru9844548.971572(SF)< 11.690
97100Ru10044568.963517(SF)< 13.634
9899Ru9944558.956348(SF)< 12.368
99102Ru10244588.944837(SF)< 12.049
100101Ru10144578.942117(SF)< 13.205
101104Pd10446588.930847(SF)< 18.969
102103Rh10345588.925910(SF)< 15.462
103106Pd10646608.919460(SF)< 16.806
104105Pd10546598.913356(SF)< 18.247
105108Pd10846628.900253(SF)< 16.102
106107Ag10747608.897514(SF)< 20.512
107110Cd11048628.892718(SF)< 22.486
108109Ag10947628.885300(SF)< 19.241
109112Cd11248648.880077(SF)< 20.733
110111Cd11148638.875445(SF)< 21.883
111114Sn11450648.865722(SF)< 27.965
112113In11349648.862212(SF)< 24.281
113116Sn11650668.860362(SF)< 25.905
114115Sn11550658.854249(SF)< 26.791
115118Sn11850688.848073(SF)< 23.815
116117Sn11750678.843977(SF)< 25.334
117120Sn12050708.830537(SF)< 21.824
118119Sn11950698.828201(SF)< 23.140
119121Sb12151708.811783(SF)< 25.718
120122Te12252708.811606(SF)< 30.974
121124Te12452728.801364(SF)< 28.221
122123Sb12351728.796727(SF)< 23.454
123126Te12652748.786126(SF)< 26.011
124125Te12552738.783505(SF)< 26.966
125128Xe12854748.773359(SF)< 35.047
126127I12753748.771981(SF)< 29.961
127130Xe13054768.762725(SF)< 32.483
128129Xe12954758.758904(SF)< 33.947
129132Xe13254788.747695(SF)< 30.885
130131Xe13154778.746253(SF)< 31.140
131134Ba13456788.735133(SF)< 40.520
132133Cs13355788.733515(SF)< 34.753
133136Ba13656808.724908(SF)< 38.041
134135Ba13556798.722072(SF)< 39.357
135137Ba13756818.711628(SF)< 35.722
136138Ba13856828.710904(SF)< 34.302
137140Ce14058828.700494(SF)< 43.633
138139La13957828.698892(SF)< 38.944
139141Pr14159828.681405(SF)< 48.450
140142Nd14260828.676646(SF)< 53.264
141156Gd15664928.536342(SF)< 71.541
142157Gd15764938.522478(SF)< 70.531
143158Gd15864948.518775(SF)< 70.965
144159Tb15965948.508680(SF)< 74.878
145163Dy16366978.478607(SF)< 79.055
146164Dy16466988.473604(SF)< 79.499
14754Fe5426289.113040+β+)0.6800
14858Ni5828309.109736+β+)1.9258
14974Se7434409.047175+β+)1.2094
15080Se8034469.043326β)0.1339
15186Kr8636509.039532β)1.2556
15284Sr8438469.031375+β+)1.7867
15392Mo9242509.014860+β+)1.6491
15494Zr9440548.999698β)1.1440
15598Mo9842568.970426β)0.1125
15696Ru9644528.967911+β+)2.7188
157102Pd10246568.933337+β+)1.1720
158104Ru10444608.918337β)1.2997
15936Ar3618188.911105+β+)0.4335
160110Pd11046648.874500β)1.9997
161112Sn11250628.862944+β+)1.9222
162122Sn12250728.808590β)0.3661
163124Sn12450748.782914β)2.2870
164126Xe12654728.779010+β+)0.8973
165143Nd14360838.658792(α)0.5214
166144Sm14462828.640577+β+, α)1.7811, 0.0761
167145Nd14560858.632963(α)1.5784
168146Nd14660868.625649β, α)0.0702, 1.1822
169148Nd14860888.594388β, α)1.9288, 0.5986
170150Sm15062888.585043(α)1.4495
171152Sm15262908.563227(α)0.2203
172153Eu15363908.550893(α)0.2736
173154Gd15464908.549985(α)0.0812
174154Sm15462928.541857β)1.2510
175155Gd15564918.536341(α)0.0812
176156Dy15666908.523443+β+, α)2.0108, 1.7579
177158Dy15866928.516973+β+, α)0.2833, 0.8748
178160Dy16066948.506816(α)0.4387
179161Dy16166958.494067(α)0.3443
180162Dy16266968.492234(α)0.0847
181162Er16268948.480852+β+, α)1.8445, 1.6460
182164Er16468968.473462+β+, α)0.0241, 1.3041
183165Ho16567988.464689(α)0.1394
184166Er16668988.462482(α)0.8309
185167Er16768998.450350(α)0.6657
186168Er168681008.446308(α)0.5527
187168Yb16870988.437845+β+, α)1.4221, 1.9508
188169Tm169691008.433931(α)1.2004
189170Yb170701008.428792(α)1.7376
190170Er170681028.424945β, α)0.6536, 0.0502
191171Yb171701018.418182(α)1.5589
192172Yb172701028.415864(α)1.3103
193173Yb173701038.404023(α)0.9459
194174Yb174701048.398624(α)0.7401
195175Lu175711048.386589(α)1.6197
196176Hf176721048.381427(α)2.2550
197177Hf177721058.370139(α)2.2449
198178Hf178721068.365958(α)2.0832
199179Hf179721078.353293(α)1.8065
200180Hf180721088.347930(α)1.2828
201181Ta181731088.338961(α)1.5259
202185Re185751108.308204(α)2.1947
203187Os187761118.291746(α)2.7202
204188Os188761128.290138(α)2.1426
205189Os189761138.277599(α)1.9757
206190Os190761148.275045(α)1.3784
207191Ir191771148.263508(α)2.0839
208192Pt192781148.260353(α)2.4181
209192Os192761168.258202β, α)0.4135, 0.3622
210194Pt194781168.250519(α)1.5045
211193Ir193771168.250259(α)1.0173
212195Pt195781178.239516(α)1.1581
213196Pt196781188.237896(α)0.7942
214196Hg196801168.233710+β+, α)0.8197, 2.0273
215197Au197791188.229404(α)0.9545
216198Hg198801188.227663(α)1.3833
217198Pt198781208.222378β, α)1.0472, 0.0870
218199Hg199801198.219805(α)0.8242
219200Hg200801208.218848(α)0.7178
220201Hg201801218.208956(α)0.3341
221202Hg202801228.206703(α)0.1363
222203Tl203811228.198230(α)0.9108
223204Hg204801248.192358β)0.4163
224205Tl205811248.187526(α)0.1567
225206Pb206821248.186791(α)1.1366
226207Pb207821258.179791(α)0.3915
227208Pb208821268.175888(α)0.5188

Stable primordial nuclides checked for radioactivity as instability candidates[edit]

nonuclideAZNenergyhalf-life (sec)decay modedecay energy (MeV)
 228134Xe13454808.728973> 1.830×1030ββ0.825
 22940Ca4020208.942485> 9.467×1028β+β+0.194
 230132Ba13256768.741288> 9.467×1028β+β+0.846
 23178Kr7836429.022349> 7.258×1027β+β+2.846
 232160Gd16064968.496009> 9.783×1026ββ1.729
 233184W184741108.319737> 9.152×1026α1.656
 234186W186741128.299873> 8.521×1026α1.123
 235183W183741098.324699> 4.102×1026α1.680
 236182W182741088.336424> 2.619×1026α1.772
 237114Cd11448668.860985> 2.020×1026ββ0.540
 23850Cr5024269.076517> 4.102×1025β+β+1.167
 239108Cd10848608.897735> 3.156×1025β+β+0.272
 240142Ce14258848.666666> 8.205×1024ββ, (α)1.417, 1.298
 241106Cd10648588.893327> 8.205×1024β+β+2.770
 242176Yb176701068.375271> 5.049×1024ββ, (α)1.083, 0.570
 243204Pb204821228.194414> 4.418×1024α1.972
 244124Xe12454708.778264> 3.471×1024β+β+2.864
 245123Te12352718.796302> 2.903×1024β+0.052
 24664Zn6430349.102634> 8.836×1023+β+)1.096
 247120Te12052688.816369> 6.943×1023β+β+1.700
 24870Zn7030409.065109> 4.102×1023ββ0.998
 24946Ca4620269.009047> 8.836×1022ββ0.988
 250149Sm14962878.589058> 6.312×1022α1.870
 251180mTa180731078.342767> 3.787×1022, K, α)0.783, 0.929, 2.103
 252138Ce13858808.705878> 2.840×1021β+β+0.694
 253136Ce13658788.707122> 2.209×1021β+β+2.419
 254184Os184761088.311850> 1.767×1021α, +β+)2.963, 1.451

34 primordial nuclides measured to be radioactive, or decay products identified (Te-130, Ba-130)[edit]

nonuclideenergyhalf-life (sec)decay modedecay energy (MeV)half-life (years)
255128Te8.7432612.4×1032ββ2.5305.6×1024
256136Xe8.7068056.66×1028ββ2.4622.11×1021
25776Ge9.0346565.6423×1028ββ2.0391.8×1021
258130Ba8.7425743.79×1028KK2.6201.2×1021
25982Se9.0175963.408×1027ββ2.9951.1×1020
260116Cd8.8361469.783×1026ββ2.8093.102×1019
26148Ca8.9924527.258×1026ββ, β4.274, 0.00582.301×1019
26296Zr8.9613596.3×1026ββ3.3482.0×1019
263209Bi8.1586895.996×1026α3.1371.9×1019
264130Te8.7665782.777×1026ββ0.8688.806×1018
265150Nd8.5625942.493×1026ββ3.3677.905×1018
266100Mo8.9331672.461×1026ββ3.0357.804×1018
267151Eu8.5657591.578×1026α1.96445.004×1018
268180W8.3471275.680×1025α2.5091.801×1018
26950V9.0557594.418×1024β+, β2.205, 1.0381.4×1017
270113Cd8.8593722.430×1023β0.3217.7×1015
271148Sm8.6074232.209×1023α1.9867.005×1015
272144Nd8.6529477.227×1022α1.9052.292×1015
273186Os8.3025086.312×1022α2.8232.002×1015
274174Hf8.3922876.312×1022α2.4972.002×1015
275115In8.8499101.392×1022β0.4994.4×1014
276152Gd8.5628683.408×1021α2.2031.1×1014
277190Pt8.2677642.051×1019α3.2526.5×1011
278147Sm8.6105933.345×1018α2.3101.061×1011
279138La8.6983203.219×1018K, β1.737, 1.0441.021×1011
28087Rb9.0437181.568×1018β0.2834.972×1010
281187Re8.2917321.300×1018β, α0.0026, 1.6534.122×1010
282176Lu8.3746651.187×1018β1.1933.764×1010
283232Th7.9185334.434×1017α, SF4.0831.406×1010
284238U7.8725511.410×1017α, SF4.2704.471×109
28540K8.9097073.938×1016β, K, β+1.311, 1.505, 1.5051.25×109
286235U7.8971982.222×1016α, SF4.679704×106
287146Sm8.6261363.250×1015α2.529103×106
288244Pu7.8262212.525×1015α, SF4.66680×106

The last entry, plutonium-244, has a half-life of 80 million years, or 1/57th of the age of the solar system. Some shorter-lived radionuclides (below) have been detected in uranium ore samples or in the spectra of stars (technetium, promethium, californium); these are not primordial, but are radioactive daughter products of primordial longer-lived nuclides. Others are known naturally on Earth from other spontaneous energetic production processes which have produced them since the birth of the solar system (i.e., from cosmic rays, such as carbon-14). About 50 of them have been observed to occur naturally.

Non-primordial radionuclides—half-lives of less than 80 million years[edit]

nonuclideenergyhalf-life (sec)decay modehalf-life (years or days)
28992Nb9.0109801.095×1015K, β3.470×107 y
290236U7.8914707.391×1014α, SF2.342×107 y
291205Pb8.1872795.459×1014β+1.730×107 y
292129I8.7573974.955×1014β1.570×107 y
293247Cm7.8060084.923×1014α1.560×107 y
294182Hf8.3243992.809×1014β8.901×106 y
295107Pd8.8971972.051×1014β6.499×106 y
29698Tc8.9532461.325×1014β4.199×106 y
29753Mn9.1031751.180×1014β+3.739×106 y
298210mBi8.1404739.594×1013α2.579615×106 y
299154Dy8.5284579.467×1013α3.000×106 y
30060Fe9.0948618.268×1013β2.620×106 y
30197Tc8.9705038.203×1013β+2.600×106 y
302135Cs8.7200827.258×1013β2.300×106 y
303237Np7.8819896.766×1013α, SF2.144×106 y
304150Gd8.5764545.649×1013α1.790×106 y
30593Zr9.0080694.828×1013β1.530×106 y
30610Be6.8106574.765×1013β1.510×106 y
30726Al8.5409542.263×1013β+7.171×105 y
308242Pu7.8452181.183×1013α, SF3.749×105 y
309208Bi8.1620491.161×1013β+3.679×105 y
310248Cm7.7995861.098×1013α, SF3.479×105 y
31136Cl8.8913809.499×1012β, β+3.010×105 y
31279Se9.0323109.309×1012β2.950×105 y
313234U7.9083087.747×1012α, SF2.455×105 y
314126Sn8.7540267.258×1012β2.230×105 y
31581Kr9.0305137.227×1012β+2.290×105 y
31699Tc8.9533796.662×1012β2.111×105 y
317186mRe8.2959586.312×1012I2.000×105 y
318233U7.9128735.024×1012α, SF1.592×105 y
319236Np7.8875144.860×1012β+, β, α1.540×105 y
32041Ca8.9283473.219×1012β+1.020×105 y
32159Ni9.1078632.398×1012β+7.599×104 y
322230Th7.9371362.379×1012α, SF7.539×104 y
323137La8.7071011.893×1012β+5.999×104 y
324202Pb8.1997141.657×1012β+, α5.251×104 y
325231Pa7.9266271.034×1012α, SF3.277×104 y
326239Pu7.8680227.609×1011α, SF2.411×104 y
32794Nb8.9900996.406×1011β2.030×104 y
328245Cm7.8223292.682×1011α, SF8499 y
329250Cm7.7793712.619×1011SF, α, β8299 y
330243Am7.8360352.326×1011α, SF7371 y
331229Th7.9421272.316×1011α7339 y
332240Pu7.8624652.070×1011α, SF6560 y
33314C7.8556201.799×1011[2]β5701 y[2]
334246Cm7.8167811.502×1011α, SF4760 y
335163Ho8.4785911.442×1011β+4570 y
33693Mo9.0046931.262×1011β+3999 y
337226Ra7.9665975.049×1010α1600 y
338247Bk7.8061824.355×1010α1380 y
339166mHo8.4512733.787×1010β1200 y
340251Cf7.7759692.834×1010α, SF898 y
34191Nb9.0233272.146×1010β+680 y
342194Hg8.2372711.401×1010β+444 y
343108mAg8.8814391.382×1010β+, I438 y
344241Am7.8516761.364×1010α, SF432 y
345249Cf7.7913051.108×1010α, SF351 y
34639Ar8.9236868.489×109β269 y
347192mIr8.2518757.605×109I241 y
348158Tb8.5110555.680×109β+, β180 y
349242mAm7.8419134.450×109I, α, SF141 y
35032Si8.8238564.166×109β132 y
351209Po8.1496333.219×109α, β+102 y
35263Ni9.1112103.159×109β100 y
353151Sm8.5652512.840×109β
354238Pu7.8773582.768×109α, SF
355157Tb8.5220962.241×109β+
356148Gd8.5867062.237×109α
357232U7.9221432.174×109α, SF
35844Ti8.9247021.893×109β+
359193Pt8.2499651.578×109β+
360121mSn8.8084991.385×109I, β
361150Eu8.5699741.164×109β+
362207Bi8.1682091.038×109β+
36342Ar8.8909231.038×109β
364137Cs8.7030479.477×108β
365243Cm7.8360049.183×108α, β+, SF
36690Sr9.0262399.120×108β
367210Pb8.1414627.006×108β, α
368227Ac7.9574476.871×108β, α
369244Cm7.8317635.712×108α, SF
370145Pm8.6318385.586×108β+, α
371241Pu7.8515904.510×108β, α, SF
372152Eu8.5508974.262×108β+, β
373250Cf7.7866404.128×108α, SF
3743H3.0879943.888×108β
37585Kr9.0299193.384×108β
376133Ba8.7296243.319×108β+10.5 y
377248Bk7.796811> 2.840×108α9.00 y
378154Eu8.5372002.711×108β, β+
379194Os8.2385081.893×108β
380228Ra7.9443901.815×108β
381146Pm8.6155741.745×108β+, β
38260Co9.0988111.663×108β
383155Eu8.5347111.500×108β
384204Tl8.1906711.193×108β, β+
385174Lu8.3907261.045×108β+
386101Rh8.9367531.041×108β+
387102mRh8.9206809.152×107β+, I
388208Po8.1553159.145×107α, β+
389236Pu7.8895369.019×107α, SF
390125Sb8.7773678.705×107β
39155Fe9.1164078.637×107β+
392252Cf7.7696058.347×107α, SF
393147Pm8.6090688.279×107β
39422Na8.3068918.213×107β+
395134Cs8.7197686.517×107β, β+
396171Tm8.4176206.059×107β
397228Th7.9539066.033×107α
398172Hf8.3992525.901×107β+
399179Ta8.3527035.743×107β+
400173Lu8.4001474.323×107β+
401252Es7.7646214.075×107α, β+, β
402109Cd8.8833273.986×107β+
403235Np7.8966693.422×107β+, α
404106Ru8.8856863.228×107β1.02 y
405144Pm8.6367513.136×107β+363 d
406145Sm8.6275902.938×107β+
407248Cf7.8001982.881×107α, SF
408249Bk7.7908052.851×107β, α, SF
40949V9.0500402.843×107β+
41054Mn9.1001312.697×107β+, β
411144Ce8.6299182.462×107β
412254Es7.7485242.382×107α, β, SF, β+
41357Co9.1124542.348×107β+
41468Ge9.0563272.341×107β+
415143Pm8.6515092.290×107β+
416110mAg8.8653552.158×107β, I
41765Zn9.0853522.105×107β+
418153Gd8.5477312.077×107β+
419195Au8.2383531.608×107β+
420194mIr8.2380251.477×107β
421184mRe8.3106701.460×107I, β+
422242Cm7.8448601.407×107α, SF
42345Ca8.9782611.405×107β
424177mLu8.3618291.386×107β, I
425121mTe8.8007491.331×107I, β+
426159Dy8.5063781.248×107β+
427210Po8.1472951.196×107α
428139Ce8.6968811.189×107β+
429123Sn8.7853111.116×107β
430170Tm8.4230961.111×107β, β+
431151Gd8.5626851.071×107β+, α
432181W8.3379241.047×107β+
43375Se9.0335811.035×107β+
434113Sn8.8530359.944×106β+
435182Ta8.3264569.887×106β
436127mTe8.7657599.418×106I
43788Y9.0292729.212×106β+
438257Fm7.7266198.683×106α, SF114 d
439185Os8.3027308.087×106β+
440168Tm8.4363168.044×106β+, β
441149Eu8.5843958.044×106β+
44235S8.8955107.561×106β
44383Rb9.0240387.448×106β+
44446Sc8.9790917.239×106β
44588Zr9.0215897.206×106β+
44673As9.0433416.938×106β+
44756Co9.0720316.673×106β+
448185W8.3058666.489×106β
449160Tb8.4953466.247×106β
45058Co9.1031536.122×106β+
451183Re8.3216616.048×106β+
452175Hf8.3826656.048×106β+
453188W8.2770036.029×106β
45485Sr9.0254805.602×106β+
45595Zr8.9729895.532×106β
45695mTc8.9763595.270×106β+, I
457254Cf7.7510875.227×106SF, α
458124Sb8.7779435.194×106β
459125I8.7820195.132×106β+
46091Y9.0201745.055×106β
461148Eu8.5868824.709×106β+, α
4627Be5.8184704.598×106β+
463258Md7.7159484.450×106α, SF
46489Sr9.0399694.369×106β
465114mIn8.8466084.278×106I, β+
466146Gd8.5925124.171×106β+
467203Hg8.1958064.026×106β
468237Pu7.8810603.905×106β+, α
469115mCd8.8357543.850×106β
47059Fe9.0995163.844×106β
471181Hf8.3332723.662×106β
472148mPm8.5898003.567×106β, I
473105Ag8.9005473.567×106β+
474255Es7.7415673.439×106β, α, SF
475103Ru8.9185003.392×106β
476127Xe8.7667683.145×106β+
47795Nb8.9848213.023×106β
47837Ar8.9077523.020×106β+
479129mTe8.7449532.903×106I, β
48084Rb9.0207322.860×106β+, β
481241Cm7.8484922.834×106β+, α
482141Ce8.6772862.809×106β
483169Yb8.4285462.767×106β+
484260Md7.6997892.748×106SF, α, β+, β
48551Cr9.0801272.393×106β+
486240Cm7.8558052.333×106α, β+, SF
487233Pa7.9104262.331×106β
48882Sr8.9982542.208×106β+
48933P8.8694342.189×106β
490234Th7.8977632.082×106β
491147Eu8.5988792.082×106β+, α
492178W8.3545631.866×106β+
493230U7.9338711.797×106α, SF
494253Es7.7590191.769×106α, SF
495227Th7.9576441.614×106α
49686Rb9.0335021.611×106β, β+
497253Cf7.7578851.539×106β, α
49874As9.0288951.535×106β+, β
499230Pa7.9314361.503×106β+, β, α
500103Pd8.9206381.468×106β+
50199Rh8.9357111.391×106β+
50248V8.9978901.380×106β+
503191Os8.2618701.331×106β
504205Bi8.1740691.323×106β+
505156Eu8.5206421.312×106β
506225Ra7.9735761.287×106β
50732P8.8308651.232×106β
508143Pr8.6522581.172×106β
509189Ir8.2747831.140×106β+
510136Cs8.7061711.127×106β
511126I8.7690261.117×106β+, β
512140Ba8.6661201.102×106β
513126Sb8.7570421.067×106β
514202Tl8.1999561.057×106β+
515190Ir8.2647551.018×106β+
516131Ba8.7330379.936×105β+
517223Ra7.9940429.876×105α
51871Ge9.0559439.876×105β+
519147Nd8.6029739.487×105β
520246Pu7.8054949.366×105β
521188Pt8.2725148.813×105β+, α
522225Ac7.9751598.640×105α10 d
523131Cs8.7435418.371×105β+
524125Sn8.7585158.329×105β
525169Er8.4318528.115×105β
526149Gd8.5755768.018×105β+, α
527167Tm8.4458667.992×105β+
528206Po8.1595907.603×105β+, α
52972Se9.0143007.258×105β+
530106mAg8.8906397.154×105β+
531171Lu8.4095327.119×105β+
532131I8.7388426.930×105β
533257Es7.7234686.653×105β, SF
534111Ag8.8661116.437×105β
535161Tb8.4903835.967×105β
536237U7.8798005.832×105β
537172Lu8.4012175.789×105β+
538132Cs8.7315995.599×105β+, β
539206Bi8.1685515.394×105β+
540196Au8.2302055.328×105β+, β
54156Ni9.0338995.249×105β+
542118Te8.8147265.184×105β+
543145Eu8.6092455.124×105β+
544120mSb8.8081944.977×105β+
54552Mn9.0464314.831×105β+
546156Tb8.5206674.622×105β+
547155Tb8.5310314.596×105β+
548133Xe8.7303024.530×105β
549183Ta8.3188474.406×105β
550245Bk7.8190204.268×105β+, α
551119mTe8.8017734.061×105β+, I
552146Eu8.5995603.983×105β+
55347Ca8.9721813.919×105β
554234Np7.9005713.802×105β+
55596Tc8.9652553.698×105β+
556231U7.9249773.629×105β+, α
557175Yb8.3839023.616×105β
558124I8.7758843.608×105β+
559127Sb8.7540053.326×105β
560222Rn7.9975733.304×105α
561224Ra7.9872773.138×105α
562100Pd8.9235873.136×105β+
563166Dy8.4483762.938×105β
564140Nd8.6731132.912×105β+
56547Sc9.0145642.894×105β
56687Y9.0255652.873×105β+
56789Zr9.0249122.823×105β+
56867Ga9.0695322.819×105β+
569132Te8.7166462.768×105β
570134Ce8.7044322.730×105β+
571199Au8.2175342.712×105β
572201Tl8.2065612.625×105β+
573253Fm7.7576912.592×105β+, α
574191Pt8.2582282.473×105β+
575111In8.8676882.423×105β+
57697Ru8.9590802.411×105β+
57799Mo8.9396692.375×105β
578122Sb8.7953462.353×105β, β+
57971As9.0275812.350×105β+
580198Au8.2207322.329×105β
581197Hg8.2263582.309×105β+
58290Y9.0322942.306×105β
583182Re8.3210532.304×105β+
584172Tm8.4049322.290×105β
58567Cu9.0760862.226×105β
58644mSc8.9246272.110×105I, β+
587128Ba8.7385232.100×105β+
58877Br9.0224312.053×105β+
589166Yb8.4423402.041×105β+
590177Ta8.3635532.036×105β+
591239Np7.8649992.036×105β
592153Tb8.5374712.022×105β+
59366Ni9.0714231.966×105β
594247Pu7.7919751.961×105β
595149Pm8.5818711.911×105β
596203Pb8.1934311.869×105β+
597238Np7.8719311.829×105β
598240Am7.8566941.829×105β+, α
599172Er8.3997521.775×105β
600170Lu8.4084451.738×105β+
601252Cm7.757439< 1.728×105β
60272Zn9.0175911.674×105β
603153Sm8.5456141.666×105β
604202Pt8.1832091.584×105β
60548Sc8.9983271.572×105β
606246Bk7.8112871.555×105β+, α
607195mHg8.2293991.498×105I, β+
608188Ir8.2752001.494×105β+
609140La8.6736201.450×105β
61069Ge9.0438001.406×105β+
61177As9.0312831.398×105β
612119Sb8.8232351.375×105β+
613147Gd8.5840011.370×105β+
614194Au8.2376261.369×105β+
615229Pa7.9407691.296×105β+, α
616246Cf7.8107921.285×105α, β+, SF
61757Ni9.0552221.282×105β+
618105Rh8.9079561.273×105β
61982Br9.0164071.270×105β
62079Kr9.0136441.261×105β+
621137mCe8.6963271.238×105I, β+
622169Lu8.4149781.226×105β+
623143Ce8.6420411.189×105β
624251Es7.7744671.188×105β+, α
62583Sr8.9965681.167×105β+
626129Cs8.7496221.154×105β+
627268Db7.6351331.152×105SF
628232Pa7.9163791.132×105β, β+
629193Os8.2443481.084×105β
630165Tm8.4527581.082×105β+
631131mTe8.7203921.080×105β, I
632226Ac7.9637611.057×105β, β+, α
633160Er8.4841901.029×105β+
634151Pm8.5573871.022×105β
63576As9.0225059.454×104β
636200Tl8.2065679.396×104β+
63772As9.0189669.360×104β+
638231Th7.9249329.187×104β, α
639252Fm7.7664989.140×104α, SF
640189Re8.2722698.748×104β1.01 d

Nuclides with half-lives less than 24 hours but more than 1.0 hour[edit]

nonuclideenergyhalf-lifedecay mode
641187W8.2847228.539×104β
642173Hf8.3916178.496×104β+
64396Nb8.9630368.406×104β
644154mTb8.5269128.172×104β+, I
64543K8.9223278.028×104β
646182Os8.3164327.956×104β+
647228Pa7.9444687.920×104β+, α
64848Cr8.9633907.762×104β+
649200Pb8.2025427.740×104β+
650112Pd8.8421857.571×104β
65128Mg8.6077067.529×104β
652100Rh8.9271677.488×104β+
653133I8.7170947.488×104β
654122Xe8.7709597.236×104β+
655255Fm7.7427047.225×104α, SF
656181Re8.3282947.164×104β+
657197Pt8.2257567.161×104β
658135La8.7131797.020×104β+
659142Pr8.6614176.883×104β, β+
660200mAu8.2028776.732×104β, I
661159Gd8.5025766.652×104β
662135Ce8.6981796.372×104β+
663193Au8.2443536.354×104β+
664151Tb8.5456926.339×104β+, α
66555Co9.0536476.311×104β+
666152Tb8.5365916.300×104β+, α
667188Re8.2788606.121×104β
668125Xe8.7688646.084×104β+
66997Zr8.9264516.028×104β
670186Ir8.2819355.990×104β+
67186Zr8.9759795.940×104β+
67276Br8.9961835.832×104β+
673170Hf8.4022105.764×104β+
674157Eu8.5137925.465×104β
67524Na8.4220825.382×104β
67676Kr8.9794065.328×104β+
67786Y8.9932345.306×104β+
678211Rn8.1128255.256×104β+, α
67990Nb8.9897275.256×104β+
680185Ir8.2893825.184×104β+
681240U7.8516825.076×104β
68272Ga9.0239585.074×104β
68369mZn9.0565364.954×104I, β
684109Pd8.8750614.932×104β
685123I8.7863114.760×104β+
686265Rf7.6611394.680×104α
687183Os8.3099074.680×104β+
68864Cu9.0935814.572×104β+, β
689200Pt8.2043424.500×104β
690130I8.7400354.450×104β
69142K8.9051754.436×104β
692171Hf8.3954804.356×104β+
693239Am7.8646664.284×104β+, α
694193mHg8.2314834.248×104β+, I
695203Bi8.1774364.234×104β+
69677Ge8.9961854.068×104β
697204Bi8.1726514.039×104β+
698189Pt8.2643593.913×104β+
699212Pb8.1069283.830×104β
700175Ta8.3708133.780×104β+
701245Pu7.8137523.780×104β
702187Ir8.2837133.780×104β+
703165Er8.4624063.730×104β+
70493Y8.9769513.665×104β
705244Am7.8259143.636×104β
706266Rf7.6581703.600×104α, SF
709155Dy8.5175213.564×104β+
71091Sr8.9905033.467×104β
71166Ga9.0368433.416×104β+
712156Sm8.5160073.384×104β
713201Pb8.1969893.359×104β+
71462Zn9.0579573.307×104β+
715135Xe8.7114533.290×104β
716128Sb8.7323433.244×104β
717234Pu7.8988923.168×104β+, α
718184Ta8.3041543.132×104β
719250Es7.7784073.096×104β+, α
720101Pd8.9171493.049×104β+
72152Fe9.0007892.979×104β+
722173Tm8.3965242.966×104β
723157Dy8.5135442.930×104β+
724210At8.1283372.916×104β+, α
725176Ta8.3632022.912×104β+
726166Tm8.4441832.772×104β+
727256mEs7.7307422.736×104β
728171Er8.4089012.706×104β
729199Tl8.2123332.671×104β+
730211At8.1265272.597×104β+, α
73173Se9.0058212.574×104β+
732234Pa7.8989302.412×104β
733135I8.6919942.365×104β
734107Cd8.8842712.340×104β+
73582mRb8.9996082.330×104β+, I
736153Dy8.5232882.304×104β+, α
737127Cs8.7503832.250×104β+
738228Ac7.9445912.214×104β
740145Pr8.6205142.154×104β
741207Po8.1541582.088×104β+, α
74290Mo8.9620722.002×104β+
743257Md7.7250401.987×104β+, α, SF
744111mPd8.8445891.980×104I, β
745139mNd8.6595291.980×104β+, I
746209At8.1329541.948×104β+, α
747113Ag8.8415311.933×104β
748198Tl8.2101661.908×104β+
749251Fm7.7685901.908×104β+, α
750138Nd8.6656611.814×104β+
751160mHo8.4858771.807×104I, β+
752118mSb8.8149631.800×104β+
754243Pu7.8336481.784×104β
755192Au8.2420361.778×104β+
756110In8.8574641.764×104β+
757133mCe8.6907711.764×104β+
75894Tc8.9665831.758×104β+
75985mY8.9868801.750×104β+, I
76073Ga9.0261121.750×104β
761192Hg8.2380511.746×104β+
762132La8.7057211.728×104β+
763179Lu8.3454281.652×104β
76481Rb9.0028711.645×104β+
765243Bk7.8298011.620×104β+, α
766105Ru8.8896891.598×104β
76780mBr9.0188721.591×104I
768139Pr8.6815651.588×104β+
769129Sb8.7273581.584×104β
770244Bk7.8224911.566×104β+, α
771109In8.8648051.512×104β+
772184Hf8.2968711.483×104β
773149Tb8.5511661.482×104β+, α
774110Sn8.8517271.480×104β+
775262Lr7.6815561.440×104SF, β+, α
77671mZn9.0173701.426×104β, I
777141La8.6595401.411×104β
778133La8.7141091.408×104β+
77943Sc8.9129071.401×104β+
780195mIr8.2333261.368×104β, I
78192Y8.9932081.274×104β
782204Po8.1612001.271×104β+, α
783132Ce8.6961311.264×104β+
784150Tb8.5453941.253×104β+, α
785117mCd8.8088401.210×104β
78661Cu9.0874521.200×104β+
787209Pb8.1556071.171×104β
788254Fm7.7528081.166×104α, SF
789250Bk7.7795231.156×104β
790161Er8.4763521.156×104β+
791190mRe8.2574331.152×104β, I
792191Au8.2483431.145×104β+
793173Ta8.3742181.130×104β+
794112Ag8.8447561.127×104β
795247Cf7.8035661.120×104β+, α
796184Ir8.2865991.112×104β+
79745Ti8.9381211.109×104β+
798167Ho8.4443041.081×104β
799269Db7.6300641.080×104α, SF
800239Cm7.8571431.044×104β+, α
801197Tl8.2151901.022×104β+
80288Kr8.9769181.022×104β
80338S8.7781961.022×104β
804117Sb8.8289771.008×104β+
805224Ac7.9809931.001×104β+, α, β
80693Tc8.9702749.900×103β+
807150Pm8.5620149.648×103β
80892Sr8.9720679.576×103β
809256Fm7.7373989.456×103SF, α
81031Si8.8116189.438×103β
81156Mn9.0875729.284×103β
81265Ni9.0732679.062×103β
813176W8.3590559.000×103β+
814116Te8.8064148.964×103β+
815141Nd8.6684768.964×103β+
816161Ho8.4887378.928×103β+
817210Rn8.1170328.640×103α, β+
818198Pb8.2028938.640×103β+
819238Cm7.8637648.640×103β+, α
82083Br9.0232438.640×103β
821152Dy8.5326708.568×103β+, α
822178mTa8.3550758.496×103β+
823187Pt8.2676388.460×103β+
824165Dy8.4568918.402×103β
825267Rf7.6473578.280×103SF
826132I8.7205708.262×103β
827158Er8.4846198.244×103β+
82866Ge9.0049648.136×103β+
829129Ba8.7307468.028×103β+
830177W8.3521187.920×103β+
831106mRh8.8847617.860×103β
832138mPr8.6710887.632×103β+
833121I8.7844437.632×103β+
834127Sn8.7288007.560×103β
835123Xe8.7644097.488×103β+
836186Pt8.2748977.488×103β+, α
837245Am7.8186747.380×103β
83889Nb8.9775077.308×103β+
839117mIn8.8288496.972×103β, I
840177Yb8.3594016.880×103β
841196Tl8.2116186.624×103β+
84218F8.0227896.585×103β+
84341Ar8.8778526.577×103β
844163Tm8.4562056.516×103β+
845239Pa7.8481486.480×103β
846201Bi8.1778756.480×103β+, α
847207At8.1353036.480×103β+, α
848224Rn7.9713276.420×103β
84980Sr8.9501776.378×103β+
850181Os8.3119356.300×103β+
851205Po8.1567376.264×103β+, α
852149Nd8.5705296.221×103β
853202Bi8.1739666.192×103β+, α
854249Es7.7854646.132×103β+, α
855147Tb8.5526346.120×103β+
85687Zr8.9833736.048×103β+
857126Ba8.7274396.000×103β+
85861Co9.1024495.940×103β
85995Ru8.9497495.915×103β+
860238Am7.8678825.880×103β+, α
861208At8.1313765.868×103β+, α
86275Br8.9931815.802×103β+
863259Md7.7098605.760×103SF, α
864230Ra7.9212495.580×103β
865142La8.6349545.466×103β
86678As9.0048795.442×103β
867199Pb8.1981115.400×103β+
87078Ge8.9926355.280×103β
871255Cf7.7387395.100×103β
872196mIr8.2194405.040×103β, I
873139Ba8.6822174.984×103β
87475Ge9.0294134.967×103β
875120I8.7695774.896×103β+
876256Md7.7290624.620×103β+, α, SF
877137Pr8.6784594.608×103β+
87887Kr8.9990224.578×103β
879164Yb8.4434194.548×103β+
880163Er8.4711684.500×103β+
88177Kr8.9826184.464×103β+
882178Yb8.3505304.440×103β
883267Db7.6443614.380×103SF
884237Am7.8748304.380×103β+, α
885142Sm8.6276164.349×103β+
88697Nb8.9538644.326×103β
887185Pt8.2695984.254×103β+
888195Tl8.2157124.176×103β+
889104Ag8.8897024.152×103β+
890174Ta8.3686844.104×103β+
89168Ga9.0578884.063×103β+
892162mHo8.4783714.020×103I, β+
893103Ag8.8945413.942×103β+
894249Cm7.7871913.849×103β
895183Hf8.3078853.841×103β
896229Ac7.9370483.762×103β
897117Te8.7986523.720×103β+
898240Np7.8533483.714×103β
899212Bi8.1096173.633×103β, α
900116mSb8.8164833.618×103β+
901148Tb8.5479493.600×103β+

Naturally occurring isotopes with half-lives below one hour[edit]

nuclidehalf-lifedecay mode
223Fr22 minα, β
221Fr4.8 minα
219At56 sα

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Almost all data are taken from reference.[3] For more recent updates, see reference.[4] These sources do not indicate whether certain heavy isotopes starting from Lr, Rf, Db... (etc.) were produced, observed, or only predicted from estimated data.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Table data is derived by counting members of the list; see WP:CALC. References for the list data itself are given below in this reference section
  2. ^ a b Other sources give the half-life of 14C as 5730 years (=1.808×1011 seconds)
  3. ^ Jagdish K. Tuli, Nuclear Wallet Cards, 7th edition, April 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory, US National Nuclear Data Center
  4. ^ Interactive Chart of Nuclides (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

External links[edit]