List of nearest stars

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This video takes you on a fly-through of the space around the nearest stars to the Sun.

This list contains all known stars and brown dwarfs at a distance of up to 5 parsecs (16.3 light-years) from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance. In addition to the Solar System, there are another 55 stellar systems currently known lying within this distance. These systems contain a total of 56 hydrogen-fusing stars (of which 46 are red dwarfs), 14 brown dwarfs, and 4 white dwarfs. Despite the relative proximity of these objects to the Earth, only nine of them have an apparent magnitude less than 6.5, which means only about 13% of these objects can be observed with the naked eye.[1] Besides the Sun, only three are first-magnitude stars: Alpha Centauri, Sirius, and Procyon. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion–Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.


Stars visible to the unaided eye have their magnitude shown in light blue below. The classes of the stars and brown dwarfs are shown in the color of their spectral types (these colors are derived from conventional names for the spectral types and do not represent the star's observed color). Many brown dwarfs are not listed by visual magnitude but are listed by near-IR J band magnitude. Some of the parallax and distance results are preliminary measurements.[2]

Light-years (±err)
DesignationStellar classApparent magnitude (mV or mJ)Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ)Epoch J2000.0Parallax[2][4]
Discovery date[5]Additional
SystemStarStar #Right ascension[2]Declination[2]
0Solar SystemSunG2V[2]−26.74[2]4.85[2]has eight planets
14.2421(16)Alpha Centauri
(Rigil Kentaurus)
Proxima Centauri (V645 Centauri)1M5.5Ve11.09[2]15.53[2]14h 29m 43.0s−62° 40′ 46″768.87(029)[6][7]1915[8]
4.3650(68)α Centauri A (HD 128620)2G2V[2]0.01[2]4.38[2]14h 39m 36.5s−60° 50′ 02″747.23(117)[6][9]
α Centauri B (HD 128621)2K1V[2]1.34[2]5.71[2]14h 39m 35.1s−60° 50′ 14″1689has one suspected planet[10]
25.9630(109)Barnard's Star (BD+04°3561a)4M4.0Ve9.53[2]13.22[2]17h 57m 48.5s+04° 41′ 36″546.98(1 00)[6][7]1916largest known proper motion[11]
36.59(7)Luhman 16Luhman 16A5L8±1[12]10.7 J10h 49m 15.57s−53° 19′ 06″495 (5)[13]2013
Luhman 16B5T1±2[12]
47.7825(390)Wolf 359 (CN Leonis)7M6.0V[2]13.44[2]16.55[2]10h 56m 29.2s+07° 00′ 53″419.10(210)[6]1919
58.2905(148)Lalande 21185 (BD+36°2147)8M2.0V[2]7.47[2]10.44[2]11h 03m 20.2s+35° 58′ 12″393.42(070)[6][7]1801
(α Canis Majoris)
Sirius A9A1V[2]−1.46[2]1.42[2]06h 45m 08.9s−16° 42′ 58″380.02(128)[6][7]brightest star in the night sky
Sirius B9DA2[2]8.44[2]11.34[2]1844
78.7280(631)Luyten 726-8Luyten 726-8 A (BL Ceti)11M5.5Ve12.54[2]15.40[2]01h 39m 01.3s−17° 57′ 01″373.70(270)[6]1949
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Ceti)11M6.0Ve12.99[2]15.85[2]
89.6813(512)Ross 154 (V1216 Sagittarii)13M3.5Ve10.43[2]13.07[2]18h 49m 49.4s−23° 50′ 10″336.90(178)[6][7]1925
910.322(36)Ross 248 (HH Andromedae)14M5.5Ve12.29[2]14.79[2]23h 41m 54.7s+44° 10′ 30″316.00(110)[6]1925
1010.522(27)Epsilon Eridani (BD−09°697)15K2V[2]3.73[2]6.19[2]03h 32m 55.8s−09° 27′ 30″309.99(079)[6][7]150at least one planet[14]
1110.742(31)Lacaille 9352 (CD−36°15693)16M1.5Ve7.34[2]9.75[2]23h 05m 52.0s−35° 51′ 11″303.64(087)[6][7]1753
1210.919(49)Ross 128 (FI Virginis)17M4.0Vn11.13[2]13.51[2]11h 47m 44.4s+00° 48′ 16″298.72(135)[6][7]1925
1311.089[15]WISE 1506+702718T614.3 J15h 06m 49.9s+70° 27′ 36″310(042)[15]2011
1411.266(171)EZ Aquarii
(Gliese 866, Luyten 789-6)
EZ Aquarii A19M5.0Ve13.33[2]15.64[2]22h 38m 33.4s−15° 18′ 07″289.50(440)[6]1937
EZ Aquarii B19M?13.27[2]15.58[2]-
EZ Aquarii C19M?14.03[2]16.34[2]1995
(α Canis Minoris)
Procyon A22F5V–IV[2]0.38[2]2.66[2]07h 39m 18.1s+05° 13′ 30″286.05(081)[6][7]
Procyon B22DQZ[2]10.70[2]12.98[2]1844
1611.403(22)61 Cygni61 Cygni A (BD+38°4343)24K5.0V[2]5.21[2]7.49[2]21h 06m 53.9s+38° 44′ 58″286.04(056)[6][7]1725first star (other than Sun) to have its distance measured[16]
61 Cygni B (BD+38°4344)24K7.0V[2]6.03[2]8.31[2]21h 06m 55.3s+38° 44′ 31″-
1711.525(69)Struve 2398
(Gliese 725, BD+59°1915)
Struve 2398 A (HD 173739)26M3.0V[2]8.90[2]11.16[2]18h 42m 46.7s+59° 37′ 49″283.00(169)[6][7]1835
Struve 2398 B (HD 173740)26M3.5V[2]9.69[2]11.95[2]18h 42m 46.9s+59° 37′ 37″1835
1811.624(39)Groombridge 34
(Gliese 15)
Groombridge 34 A (GX Andromedae)28M1.5V[2]8.08[2]10.32[2]0h 18m 22.9s+44° 01′ 23″280.59(095)[6][7]1813
Groombridge 34 B (GQ Andromedae)28M3.5V[2]11.06[2]13.30[2]-
1911.824(30)Epsilon Indi
Epsilon Indi A30K5Ve[2]4.69[2]6.89[2]22h 03m 21.7s−56° 47′ 10″275.84(069)[6][7]1597one suspected planet[17]
Epsilon Indi Ba30T1.0V12.3 J[18]22h 04m 10.5s−56° 46′ 58″Jan 2003
Epsilon Indi Bb30T6.0V13.2 J[18]Aug 2003
2011.826(129)DX Cancri (G 51-15)33M6.5Ve14.78[2]16.98[2]08h 29m 49.5s+26° 46′ 37″275.80(300)[6]1972
2111.887(33)Tau Ceti (BD−16°295)34G8Vp[2]3.49[2]5.68[2]01h 44m 04.1s−15° 56′ 15″274.39(076)[6][7]150possibly five planets
2211.991(57)GJ 1061 (LHS 1565)35M5.5V[2]13.09[2]15.26[2]03h 35m 59.7s−44° 30′ 45″272.01(130)[19]1995[20][21]
2312.068[15]WISE 0350-565836Y1>22.8 J[22]03h 50m−56° 58′291(050)[15]2011
2412.132(133)YZ Ceti (LHS 138)37M4.5V[2]12.02[2]14.17[2]01h 12m 30.6s−16° 59′ 56″268.84(295)[6][7]1961
2512.366(59)Luyten's Star (BD+05°1668)38M3.5Vn9.86[2]11.97[2]07h 27m 24.5s+05° 13′ 33″263.76(125)[6][7]1935
2612.514(129)Teegarden's star (SO025300.5+165258)39M6.5V15.14[2]17.22[2]02h 53m 00.9s+16° 52′ 53″260.63(269)[19]2003[21] possible planetary system[23]
2712.571(54)SCR 1845-6357SCR 1845-6357 A40M8.5V[2]17.3919.4118h 45m 05.3s−63° 57′ 48″259.45(111)[19]2004[21]
SCR 1845-6357 B40T6[24]13.3 J[18]18h 45m 02.6s−63° 57′ 52″2006
2812.777(43)Kapteyn's Star (CD−45°1841)42M1.5V[2]8.84[2]10.87[2]05h 11m 40.6s−45° 01′ 06″255.27(086)[6][7]1898
2912.870(57)Lacaille 8760 (AX Microscopii)43M0.0V[2]6.67[2]8.69[2]21h 17m 15.3s−38° 52′ 03″253.43(112)[6][7]1753
3013.149(74)Kruger 60
Kruger 60 A44M3.0V[2]9.79[2]11.76[2]22h 27m 59.5s+57° 41′ 45″248.06(139)[6][9]1880
Kruger 60 B (DO Cephei)44M4.0V[2]11.41[2]13.38[2]1890?
3113.167(82)DEN 1048-395646M8.5V[2]17.39[2]19.37[2]10h 48m 14.7s−39° 56′ 06″247.71(155)[19]2001[25][26]
3213.259UGPS 0722-0547T9[2]16.52 J[27]07h 22m 27.3s–05° 40′ 30″2462010[28]
3313.349(110)Ross 614
(V577 Monocerotis, Gliese 234)
Ross 614A (LHS 1849)48M4.5V[2]11.15[2]13.09[2]06h 29m 23.4s−02° 48′ 50″244.34(201)[6][9]1927
Ross 614B (LHS 1850)48M5.5V14.23[2]16.17[2]1936
3413.820(98)Wolf 1061 (Gliese 628, BD−12°4523)50M3.0V[2]10.07[2]11.93[2]16h 30m 18.1s−12° 39′ 45″236.01(167)[6][7]1919
3514.066(109)Van Maanen's star (Gliese 35, LHS 7)52DZ7[2]12.38[2]14.21[2]00h 49m 09.9s+05° 23′ 19″231.88(179)[6][7]1896
3614.231(66)Gliese 1 (CD−37°15492)53M3.0V[2]8.55[2]10.35[2]00h 05m 24.4s−37° 21′ 27″229.20(107)[6][7]1884
3714.312(289)Wolf 424
(FL Virginis, LHS 333, Gliese 473)
Wolf 424 A54M5.5Ve13.18[2]14.97[2]12h 33m 17.2s+09° 01′ 15″227.90(460)[6]
Wolf 424 B54M7Ve13.17[2]14.96[2]
3814.509(187)TZ Arietis (Gliese 83.1, Luyten 1159-16)56M4.5V[2]12.27[2]14.03[2]02h 00m 13.2s+13° 03′ 08″224.80(290)[6]
3914.793(55)Gliese 687 (LHS 450, BD+68°946)57M3.0V[2]9.17[2]10.89[2]17h 36m 25.9s+68° 20′ 21″220.49(082)[6][7]
4014.805(242)LHS 292 (LP 731-58)58M6.5V[2]15.60[2]17.32[2]10h 48m 12.6s−11° 20′ 14″220.30(360)[6]
4114.809(107)Gliese 674 (LHS 449)59M3.0V[2]9.38[2]11.09[2]17h 28m 39.9s−46° 53′ 43″220.25(159)[6][7]has one known planet[29]
4214.812(67)GJ 1245GJ 1245 A60M5.5V[2]13.46[2]15.17[2]19h 53m 54.2s+44° 24′ 55″220.20(100)[6]
GJ 1245 B60M6.0V[2]14.01[2]15.72[2]19h 53m 55.2s+44° 24′ 56″
GJ 1245 C60M5.516.75[2]18.46[2]19h 53m 54.2s+44° 24′ 55″
4315.060(140)Gliese 440 (WD 1142-645)63DQ6[2]11.50[2]13.18[2]11h 45m 42.9s−64° 50′ 29″216.57(201)[6][7]
4415.313(259)GJ 100264M5.5V[2]13.76[2]15.40[2]00h 06m 43.8s−07° 32′ 22″213.00(360)[6]
4515.342(141)Gliese 876 (Ross 780)65M3.5V[2]10.17[2]11.81[2]22h 53m 16.7s−14° 15′ 49″212.59(196)[6][7]has four known planets[30]
4615.610(204)LHS 288 (Luyten 143-23)66M5.5V[2]13.90[2]15.51[2]10h 44m 21.2s−61° 12′ 36″208.95(273)[19][21]
4715.832(83)Gliese 412Gliese 412 A67M1.0V[2]8.77[2]10.34[2]11h 05m 28.6s+43° 31′ 36″206.02(108)[6][7]
Gliese 412 B (WX Ursae Majoris)67M5.5V[2]14.48[2]16.05[2]11h 05m 30.4s+43° 31′ 18″
4815.848(52)Groombridge 1618 (Gliese 380)69K7.0V[2]6.59[2]8.16[2]10h 11m 22.1s+49° 27′ 15″205.81(067)[6][7]
4915.942(218)AD Leonis70M3.0V[2]9.32[2]10.87[2]10h 19m 36.4s+19° 52′ 10″204.60(280)[6]
5016.067[22]DENIS J081730.0-61552071T608h 17m−61° 55′203 [22]2010
5116.085(105)Gliese 83272M3.0V[2]8.66[2]10.20[2]21h 33m 34.0s−49° 00′ 32″202.78(132)[6][7]has one known planet[31]
5216.195(338)LP 944-02073M9.0V[2]18.69[2]20.02[2]03h 39m 35.2s−35° 25′ 41″201.40(420)[32]
5316.197(313)DEN 0255-470074L7.5V[2]22.92[2]24.44[2]02h 55m 03.7s−47° 00′ 52″201.37(389)[19][26]
Light-years (±err)
SystemStarStar #Stellar classApparent magnitude (mV or mJ)Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ)Right ascension[2]Declination[2]Parallax[2][4]
Discovery dateAdditional
DesignationEpoch J2000.0

Maps of nearby stars[edit]

This map shows all of the star systems within 14 light-years of the Sun (shown as Sol), except for four brown dwarfs discovered after 2009. Double and triple stars are shown "stacked", but the true location is the star closest to the central plane. Color corresponds to the table above.
This is a 3D map of the nearest stars using the coordinates listed above. The stars in the front have a right ascension of 18h. An animated version is available here. 3d glasses red green.svg 3D red green glasses are recommended to view this image correctly.

Future and past[edit]

Distances of the nearest stars from 20,000 years ago until 80,000 years in the future

Ross 248, currently at a distance of 10.3 light-years, has a radial velocity of −81 km/s. In about 31,000 years it may be the closest star to the Sun for several millennia, with a minimum distance of 0.927 parsecs (3.02 light-years) in 36,000 years.[33] Gliese 445, currently at a distance of 17.6 light-years, has a radial velocity of −119 km/s. In about 40,000 years it will be the closest star for a period of several thousand years.[33]

Known Hipparcos stars that have passed or will pass within 5.1 light-years of the Sun within ±2 million years:[34]

Star nameHIP#Minimum distance in light-years (parsecs)Approach date in kiloyearsCurrent distance in light-years (parsecs)Stellar classificationMass in MCurrent apparent magnitudeConstellationRight ascensionDeclination
Gliese 710898251.01 (0.311)144762.9 (19.3)K7V0.4–0.69.6Serpens18h 19m 50.843s−01° 56′ 18.98″
Proxima Centauri708902.90 (0.890)27.44.24 (1.29)M5Ve0.1511.05Centaurus14h 29m 42.949s−62° 40′ 46.14″
Alpha Centauri A716832.97 (0.910)28.44.36 (1.338)G2V1.100[35]−0.01Centaurus14h 39m 36.495s−60° 50′ 02.31″
Alpha Centauri B716812.97 (0.910)28.44.36 (1.338)K1V0.907[35]1.33Centaurus14h 39m 35.080s−60° 50′ 13.76″
AC+79 3888575443.45 (1.059)46.017.6 (5.39)M40.15?10.8Camelopardalis11h 47m 41.377s+78° 41′ 28.18″
Barnard's Star879373.74 (1.148)9.85.98 (1.834)sdM40.1449.54Ophiuchus17h 57m 48.498s+04° 41′ 36.25″
Zeta Leporis272884.16 (1.275)−86170.2 (21.5)A2Vann2.03.55Lepus05h 46m 57.341s−14° 49′ 19.02″
Lalande 21185540354.65 (1.426)20.58.32 (2.55)M2V0.397.52Ursa Major11h 03m 20.194s+35° 58′ 11.55″
Gliese 208263355.01 (1.537)−50037.1 (11.38)K70.478.9Orion05h 36m 30.991s+11° 19′ 40.32″

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Weaver, Harold F. (1947). "The Visibility of Stars Without Optical Aid". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 59 (350): 232–243. Bibcode:1947PASP...59..232W. doi:10.1086/125956. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, GSU (2007-09-17). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". RECONS. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  3. ^ a b From parallax.
  4. ^ a b Parallaxes given by RECONS are a weighted mean of values in the sources given, as well as measurements by the RECONS program.
  5. ^ Before 1900: earliest certain recorded observation. 1900–1930: first catalogued. After 1930: earliest trigonometric or spectroscopic parallax.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Hipparcos Catalogue.
  8. ^ Burgasser et al. 2000
  9. ^ a b c Visual binary orbits and masses post Hipparcos, Staffan Söderhjelm, Astronomy and Astrophysics 341 (January 1999), pp. 121–140.
  10. ^ "The exoplanet next door: Earth-sized world discovered in nearby α Centauri star system". Eric Hand, Nature, October 16, 2012. Accessed October 16, 2012.
  11. ^ Barnard, E. E. (1916). "A small star with large proper motion". Astronomical Journal 29 (695): 181. Bibcode:1916AJ.....29..181B. doi:10.1086/104156. 
  12. ^ a b H.M.J. Boffin, D. Pourbaix K., Mužić, V.D. Ivanov, R. Kurtev, Y. Beletsky, A. Mehner, J.P. Berger, J.H. Girard, & D. Mawet (2013-12-05). "Possible astrometric discovery of a substellar companion to the closest binary brown dwarf system WISE J104915.57–531906.1". Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  13. ^ Luhman, K. L. "Discovery of a Binary Brown Dwarf at 2 Parsecs from the Sun". Astrophysical Journal Letters (to be published). 
  14. ^ Janson, M. et al. (September 2008), "A comprehensive examination of the ε Eridani system. Verification of a 4 micron narrow-band high-contrast imaging approach for planet searches", Astronomy and Astrophysics 488 (2): 771–780, arXiv:0807.0301, Bibcode:2008A&A...488..771J, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809984 
  15. ^ a b c d Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. (2013). "Parallaxes and Proper Motions of Ultracool Brown Dwarfs of Spectral Types Y and Late T". The Astrophysical Journal 762 (2): 119. arXiv:1211.6977. Bibcode:2013ApJ...762..119M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/762/2/119. 
  16. ^ Bessel, F. W. (1839). "Bestimmung der Entfernung des 61sten Sterns des Schwans. Von Herrn Geheimen - Rath und Ritter Bessel". Astronomische Nachrichten (in German) 16 (5-6): 65. Bibcode:1839AN.....16...65B. doi:10.1002/asna.18390160502. "(page 92) Ich bin daher der Meinung, daß nur die jährliche Parallaxe = 0"3136 als das Resultat der bisherigen Beobachtungen zu betrachten ist"  A parallax of 313.6 mas yields a distance of 10.4 light years
  17. ^ Zechmeister, M.; Kürster, M; Endl, M.; Lo Curto, G.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Henning, T.; Hatzes, A.; Cochran, W. D. (April 2013). "The planet search programme at the ESO CES and HARPS. IV. The search for Jupiter analogues around solar-like stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 552: pp62. arXiv:1211.7263. Bibcode:2013A&A...552A..78Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116551. 
  18. ^ a b c Chris Gelino, Davy Kirkpatrick, Adam Burgasser. " Photometry, spectroscopy, and astrometry of M, L, and T dwarfs". Retrieved 2012-06-10.  (main page)
  19. ^ a b c d e f Systems with their first accurate trigonometric parallaxes measured by RECONS
  20. ^ The solar neighborhood IV: discovery of the twentieth nearest star, Todd J. Henry, Philip A. Ianna, J. Davy Kirkpatrick, Hartmut Jahreiss, The Astronomical Journal 114, #1 (July 1997), pp. 388–395. doi:10.1086/118482
  21. ^ a b c d The Solar Neighborhood. XVII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: 20 New Members of the RECONS 10 Parsec Sample, Todd J. Henry, Wei-Chun Jao, John P. Subasavage, Thomas D. Beaulieu, Philip A. Ianna, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, The Astronomical Journal 132, #6 (December 2006), pp. 2360–2371. doi:10.1086/508233
  22. ^ a b c Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino; Cushing; Mace; Griffith; Skrutskie; Marsh; Wright; Eisenhardt; McLean; Mainzer; Burgasser; Tinney; Parker; Salter (2012). "Further Defining Spectral Type "Y" and Exploring the Low-mass End of the Field Brown Dwarf mass Function". arXiv:1205.2122v1 [astro-ph.SR].
  23. ^ Barnes, J. R. et al. (2012). "ROPS: A New Search for Habitable Earths in the Southern Sky". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 424 (1): 591–604. arXiv:1204.6283. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.424..591B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21236.x. 
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