List of nearest galaxies

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What follows is a list of all known galaxies within 3.6 megaparsecs (11.7 million light-years) of Earth, in order of proximity to Earth (see caveat below).

3.6 Mpc was chosen as a cut off point because this is the distance approximately to the centers of the next two large galaxy groups - the M81 Group and the Centaurus A/M83 Group. This vast spherical region of space centered on the Earth is mostly empty but encompasses all 50 or so Local Group galaxies and the closer members of several nearby galaxy groups as well as a few isolated galaxies that do not appear to be part of any defined group.

However:

To get a sense of perspective, all the 'nearby' items on this list are thousands or millions of light years away. In comparison, the Moon is about one light second away (roughly 0.000000032 or 3.2×10−8 light years) and the Sun about 8 light minutes away (roughly 0.000015 or 1.5×10−5 light years).

Contents

List

# GalaxyTypeDist from EarthMagnitudeGroup
Membership
Notes
MlyMpcMm
  1Milky Way IR Spitzer.jpgMilky WaySBbc   —   —-20.8 [1]n/aLocal GroupHome galaxy of Earth
  2Canis Major DwarfIrr0.025[2]0.008-14.523.3Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way)
  3Sagittarius Dwarf Sphr SagDEGdSph/E70.0810.024[3]-12.67[3]4.5[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way (partial accretion by Milky Way)
  4Ursa Major II DwarfdSph0.0980.030-4.214.3Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way)
  LH 95.jpgLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC)Irr/SB(s)m0.1630.050[3]-17.93[3]0.9[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
  5Boo SDSS enhanced.jpgBoötes Dwarfd Sph0.197[4]0.060-5.8[5]13.1Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
  6Small magellanic cloud.jpgSmall Magellanic Cloud (SMC, NGC 292)SB(s)m pec0.2060.063[3]-16.35[3]2.7[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
  –Ursa Minor DwarfdE40.2060.063[3]-7.13[3]11.9[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
  8PGC 60095 Draco Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpgDraco Dwarf (DDO 208)dE0 pec0.2580.079[3]-8.74[3]10.9[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way with a large amount of dark matter
*NGC 2419 Hubble WikiSky.jpgNGC 2419Glob Clus0.2750.084-9.5/-11 ?9/10.4 ?Brightest remote MW globular cluster
  9Sextans Dwarf SphdSph0.2810.086[3]-7.98[3]12[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 10Sculptor Dwarf (E351-G30)dE30.2870.088[3]-9.77[3]10.1[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 11Ursa Major I Dwarf (UMa I dSph)dSph0.3300.10[6]-6.75[6] ?Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 —Carina Dwarf Galaxy.jpgCarina Dwarf (E206-G220)dE30.3300.10[3]-8.97[6]11.3[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 13Fornax Dwarf.jpgFornax Dwarf (E356-G04)dSPh/E20.460.14[1]-11.5[3]9.28[1]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 14Leo II Dwarf (Leo B, DDO 93)dE0 pec0.701[7]0.215-9.23[3]12.45[1]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 15Leo I Dwarf (DDO 74)dE30.820[7]0.25-10.97[3]11.18[1]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 16Leo T DwarfG[4]1.3700.42[8]16[4]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way?
 17Phoenix Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpgPhoenix Dwarf Galaxy (P 6830)IAm1.440.44-10.22[3]13.07[1]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 18NGC6822.jpgBarnard's Galaxy (NGC 6822)IB(s)m IV-V1.630[7]0.50-15.22[3]9.32[1]Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 *MGC1[9]Glob Clus20.615-9.2Local GroupIsolated cluster at ~200 kpc from M31
 19Ngc185.jpgNGC 185dE3 pec2.010 [10]0.62-14.76[3]9.99[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 20Andromeda IIdE02.130 [10]0.65-9.33[3]15.10[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 21IC10 BVHa.jpgIC 10 (UGC 192)dIrr IV/BCD[4]2.20.67-15.57[3]12.2[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 22NGC147.jpgNGC 147 (DDO 3)dE5 pec2.200[10]0.68-14.9[3]10.36[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 23 ?Leo A Hubble WikiSky.jpgLeo A (Leo III, DDO 69)IBm V2.250[7] ?0.80[11] ?-11.68[11] ?12.92Local GroupSatellite of Milky Way
 24IC1613-3.jpgIC 1613 (UGC 668)IAB(s)m V2.350[7]0.72-14.51[3]9.92[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 25Andromeda I Hubble WikiSky.jpgAndromeda IdE3 pec2.430[10]0.75-10.87[3]13.9[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 26Andromeda IIIdE22.440[10]0.75-9.30[3]15.20[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 27Cetus DwarfdSph/E42.460[10]0.75-10.18[3]14.4[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda[3]
 28M32 (NGC 221)E22.480;[7]0.76-15.96[3]8.73[1]Local GroupClose Satellite of Andromeda
 29Cassiopeia Dwarf (Cas dSph, Andromeda VII)dSph2.490[10]0.76-11.67[3]13.65[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda[3]
 30Andromeda IXdE2.500[10]0.77-7.5[3] ?Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda[3]
 —LGS 3dIrr/dSph2.510[10]0.77-7.96[3]16.18[1]Local GroupSatellite of M33[citation needed]
 —Andromeda VdSph2.52[10]0.77-8.41[3]16.67[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda[3]
 33Pegasus Dwarf Sph (And VI)dSph2.55[10]0.78-10.80[3]14.05[1]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda[3]
 34Andromeda VIIIdSph[12]2.56?? ? ? ?Local GroupTidally distorted dwarf close to Andromeda discovered 2003[12]
 —Pic iroberts1.jpgAndromeda Galaxy (M31)SA(s)b2.56[10]0.79-21.58[3]4.17[1]Local GroupLargest Galaxy in the Local Group, with at least 19 satellite galaxies
 36M33.jpgTriangulum Galaxy (M33)SAc2.64 [10]0.81-18.87[3]6.19[1]Local GroupMost distant (difficult) naked eye object
 37M110 (NGC 205)E6p2.69 [10]0.83-16.15[3]8.72[1]Local GroupClose Satellite of Andromeda
 38Andromeda XXI[13]2.80.86-9.9Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 38Andromeda XXII[13]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 39Tucana DwarfdE52.870.88[3]-9.1615.7[1]Local Group[3]Isolated group member - a 'primordial' galaxy[14]
 40Andromeda XdSph[4]2.90??-8.1[15]16.1[4]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda discovered 2006
 41Pegasus Dwarf Irregular (DDO 216)dIrr/DSph[4]3.00 [10]0.92-11.47[3]13.21[4]Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda
 42Andromeda XIX[16]3.040.933-9.3Local GroupSatellite of Andromeda, spread over 1.7 kpc
 43Wlm galaxy.jpgWolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM, DDO 221)Ib(s)m[4]3.160.97[11]-14.06[11]11.03[4]Local GroupIsolated member at the edge of the local group
 44SagDIG.jpgSagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (SagDIG)IB(s)m V[4]3.391.04[3]-11.4915.5Local Group[1]Isolated group member
 45Aquariusdwarf.gifAquarius Dwarf Galaxy (DDO 210)Im V3.49 [10]1.07 / 0.94[11]-11.09[11]14.0[4]Local GroupIsolated group member
46UGC 4879 (VV124)[17]3.591.1-11.5[11]Local Group
 48Antlia DwarfdE3.5[4]4.081.25[11]-9.63[11]16.19[1]Local GroupMay have interacted with NGC 3109[18]
 47NGC 3109 2MASS.jpgNGC 3109SB(s)m4.241.30[18]-15.68[1]10.39[1]Local Group
 —Sextans dwarf.jpgSextans A (UGCA 205, DDO 75)IBm[4]4.31[19]1.32-13.95[3]11.86[4]Local Group[1]Isolated group member
 50Andromeda XVIII[16]4.421.355<-9.7Local Group
 51Sextans B (UGC 5373)IM IV-V[4]4.71.44[11]-14.08[11]11.85[4]Local Group[1]
 53KKh 060Ir4.891.5[1]18B[4]
 —KUG 1210+301B (KK98 127)S..4.891.5[1]15.7[4]between LG and M94Pair?
 52HIZSS 003 ?5.51.69[11]−12.60[11]18B[4]Far below the SG planeHidden by the Milky Way
 57KKR 25Ir6.071.86[1]-9.94[11]17.0[4]Local Group[3]
 —ESO 410-G005E3[4]6.331.94[11]-11.60[11]14.85[4]NGC 55 & 300
 59ESO 294-010dS0/Im[4]6.26[20]1.96[11]-10.95[11]15.6[4]NGC 55 & 300
 60IC 5152IA(s)m[4]6.421.97[11]-15.56[11]11.06[4]NGC 55 & 300 ?Remotely on the side of NGC 55
 61GR 8.jpgGR 8 (DDO 155)ImV[4]6.952.13[11]-12.14[11]14.65[4]Inner edge of M94 Group"footprint galaxy"
 58KKR 03 (KK98 230)dwarf Irr6.982.14[11]-9.817.90[4]Inner edge of M94 Group
 62Composite Image of NGC 300.jpgNGC 300SA(s)d[4]7.012.15[20]-17.92[1]8.95[4]Inner edge of Sculptor groupforms pair with NGC 55
 63GALEX-NGC55.jpgNGC 55SB(s)m: sp[4]7.082.17[11]-18.47[11]8.84[1]Inner edge of Sculptor groupForms pair with NGC 300
 64UGCA 438 (ESO 407-018)IB(s)m pec:[4]7.242.22[11]-12.92[11]13.86[1]NGC 55 & 300
 68UGC 09128 (DDO 187)ImIV-V7.32.24[11]-12.47[11]14.38[4]Inner edge of M94 Group
 65IC 3104IB(s)m7.402.27[1]-14.85[11]13.63[4]On the way to Circinus galaxy
 59IC 4662 (ESO 102- G 014)IBm7.962.44[11]-15.56[11]11.74[4]On the way to Circinus galaxy
 67KKh 98Irr7.992.45[1]-10.78[1]16.7[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 ??UGC 8508 (I Zw 060)IAm8.35 [21]?2.69[11]?-13.09[11]14.40[4]M94 Group
 71KKh 086Ir8.512.60[11]-10.30[11]16.8[4]Isolated (M94/Cent A)
 72DDO 99 (UGC 06817)Im8.612.64[1] - 3.9[4]−13.52[11]13.4[4]M94 Group
 69UGC 07577 (DDO 125)Im8.942.74[11]−14.32[11]12.84[4]M94 Group
 74UGC 9240 (DDO 190)IAm9.102.80[11]-14.19[11]13.25[4]M94 Group
 —Circinus.galaxy.750pix.jpgCircinus (ESO 097-13)SA(s)b9.132.8[1] - 4[22]12.1[4]Centaurus A GroupActive galaxy, obscured by Milky Way
 —Dwingeloo 1SB(s)cd9.132.8[1]-18.7819.8[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —Maf2atlas.jpgMaffei 2SAB(rs)bc9.132.8[1]-20.15[3]14.77[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 79UGCA 276 (DDO 113)Im9.322.86[1]15.40[4]M94 Group
 80Fireworks of Star Formation Light Up a Galaxy - GPN-2000-000877.jpgNGC 4214 (UGC 07278)IAB(s)m9.582.94[1]10.24[4]M94 GroupStarburst galaxy
 73UGCA 86SAB(s)m[23]9.652.96[24]13.5[4]IC 342/Maffei Group[23]
NGC 41639.652.96[24]14.5[4]M94 Group
 81Dwingeloo 2Im?9.783.0[1]-14.55[1]20.5[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —KKH 11 (ZOAG G135.74-04.53)dE/N9.783.0[1]-13.35[3]16.2[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —KKH 12Ir9.783.0[1]-13.0317.8[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —MB 3dSph9.783.0[1]-13.65[3]19.8[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —MB 1 (KK98 21)SAB(s)d?9.783.0[1]-14.81[3]20.5[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —Maf1atlas.jpgMaffei 1S0- pec9.783.0[1]-18.97[3]11.4[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —UGCA 92Im?[4]9.823.01[24]13[4]IC 342/Maffei Group[23]
 87UGC 8651 (DDO 181)Im9.823.01[1]14.7[4]M94 Group
ESO274-01[25]10.13.0911.7Centaurus A Group
 89UGCA 292 (DDO 125)ImIV-V10.113.1[1]16.0[4]M94 Group
 90NGC 3741ImIII/BCD10.21 [21]3.1314.3[4]M94 Group
 91KK98 35Irr10.313.16[1]-14.3017.2[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 63HIPASS J1247-77Im10.313.16[26]17.B[4]Aligned with IC 3104
 92NGC 2366HST.jpgNGC 2366IB(s)m10.40 [21]3.1911.43[4]M81 group
 —UGCA 133 (DDO 44)Im10.40 [21]3.1915.54[4]M81 group
 —ESO321-014[25]10.40 [25]3.1915.16Centaurus A Group
 94UGC 8833Im10.413.19[1]16.5[4]M94 Group
 95UGC 4483BlueCG10.47 [21]3.2115.2[4]M81 group
 88NGC404.jpgNGC 404SA(s)0-:[4]10.563.24[11]-16.61[11]11.21[4]'Mirach's Ghost'
 96UGCA 105Im?10.63 [21]3.26-16.8113.9[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 97IC 342SAB(rs)cd[4]10.703.28[1]-20.69[1]9.37[1]IC 342/Maffei Group"the hidden galaxy"
 98Cas 1 (KK98 19)dwarf Irr10.763.3[1]-16.7016.38[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —NGC 2403HST.jpgNGC 2403SAB(s)cd HII10.763.30[3]-19.298.93[4]M81 group
100Camelopardalis BIrr10.80 [21]3.31-11.8516.1[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
101UGCA 015 (DDO 6)IB(s)m10.903.34[3]-12.50[3]15.19[4]Sculptor group
 58NGC 1569.jpgNGC 1569 (UGC 03056)IBm;Sbrst[4]10.963.36[27]-18.17[1]11.86[4]IC 342/Maffei Group[23]
 75KKH 37 (Mai 16)S/Irr11.063.39[26]16.4[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
102Holmberg II (DDO 50, UGC 4305)Im11.06 [21]3.3911.1[4]M81 group
103NGC 5102 2MASS.jpgNGC 5102SA0- HII11.093.40[1]-18.08.5610.35[4]Centaurus A Group
 —NGC 523711.093.40;[25]Centaurus A Group
 —ESO325-1111.093.40;[25]Centaurus A Group
104ESO 540-030.jpgESO 540-030 (KDG 2)IABm11.103.40[3]-11.3916.45[4]Sculptor group
105FM2000 1dSph?11.15 [21]3.4217.5[4]M81 group
 —ESO 540-032IAB(s)m pec:11.153.42[3]-11.32[3]16.55[4]Sculptor group
107NGC 1560SA(s)d HII11.253.45[1]-16.87[3]12.16[4]IC 342/Maffei Group
 —ESO 383-087 (ISG 39)SB(s)dm3.45[25]-15.16[1]11.03[4]Centaurus A Group
 —NGC 520611.33.47;[25]Centaurus A Group
 —KK 179 (ESO269-37)3.48;[25]Centaurus A Group
108KK98 77dwarf Sph11.35 [21]3.4816.2[4]M81 group
109DDO 71Im11.42 [21]3.5018[4]M81 group
110M82 Chandra HST Spitzer.jpgM82I0;Sbrst HII11.513.53[3]-19.63[3]9.30 [4]M81 group
111ESO 269-66 (KK98 190)dE,N11.553.54[1]-13.5614.11[4]Centaurus A Group
112M81 Dwarf A (KDG 52)I?11.58 [21]3.55-11.49[3]16.5[4]M81 group
113NGC2976 3.6 5.8 8.0 microns spitzer.pngNGC 2976SAc pec HII11.61 [21]3.56-17.1[3]10.82[4]M81 group
 —UGC 4459 (DDO 53)Im11.61 [21]3.56-13.37[3]14.48 [4]M81 group
115Phot-18b-99-hires.jpgNGC 4945SB(s)cd:sp[4]11.70 [28]3.59-20.51[1]9.3[4]Centaurus A Group
# GalaxyTypeDist from EarthMagnitudeGroup
Membership
Notes
MlyMpcMm

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo I. D. Karachentsev et al.(2004) A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies Refinements in distance measurements could change the order presented in this list.
  2. ^ From official press release announcing discovery (University of Strasbourg) accessdate = June 2008
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm I. D. Karachentsev (2005). "The Local Group and Other Neighboring Galaxy Groups". Astronomical Journal 129 (1): 178–188. arXiv:astro-ph/0410065. Bibcode 2005AJ....129..178K. doi:10.1086/426368. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/. Retrieved 2008. 
  5. ^ Belokurov, 2006 A Faint New Milky Way Satellite in Bootes
  6. ^ a b c Willman, Dalcanton, Martinez-Delgado, et al. (2005) "A New Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy in Ursa Major", submitted to Astrophysical Journal Letters, on arXiv.org: astro-ph/0503552
  7. ^ a b c d e f van den Bergh, S. (2000)Updated Information on the Local Group
  8. ^ Irwin; Belokurov; Evans; Ryan-Weber; de Jong; Koposov; Zucker; Hodgkin et al. (2007). "Discovery of an Unusual Dwarf Galaxy in the Outskirts of the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal 656: L13–L16. arXiv:astro-ph/0701154. Bibcode 2007ApJ...656L..13I. doi:10.1086/512183. 
  9. ^ Mackey; Ferguson; Irwin; Martin; Huxor; Tanvir; Chapman; Ibata et al. (2009). "Deep Gemini/GMOS imaging of an extremely isolated globular cluster in the Local Group". arXiv:0909.1456 [astro-ph.GA]. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p McConnachie, A. W. et al. 2005 Distances and Metallicities for 17 Local Group Galaxies
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Karachentsev; Kashibadze; Makarov; Tully (2009). "The Hubble flow around the Local Group". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 393 (4): 1265. arXiv:0811.4610. Bibcode 2009MNRAS.393.1265K. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14300.x. 
  12. ^ a b Morrison et al. 2003 Andromeda VIII, a New Tidally Distorted satellite of M31 - for details see [1]
  13. ^ a b Martin; McConnachie; Mike Irwin; Widrow; Ferguson; Ibata; John Dubinski; Arif Babul et al. (2009). "PAndAS' cubs: Discovery of two new dwarf galaxies in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies". arXiv:0909.0399 [astro-ph.CO]. 
  14. ^ See
  15. ^ Zucker et al. 2007 Andromeda X, a New Dwarf Speroidal satellite of M31:Photometry - for details see [2]
  16. ^ a b A Trio of New Local Group Galaxies with Extreme Properties, Alan W. McConnachie et al 2008, ApJ 688 1009-1020, http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.3988
  17. ^ Kopylov; Tikhonov; Sergey Fabrika; Igor Drozdovsky; Valeev (2008). "VV124 (UGC4879): A new transitional dwarf galaxy in the periphery of the Local Group". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters 387: L45–L49. arXiv:0803.1107. Bibcode 2008MNRAS.387L..45K. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00482.x. 
  18. ^ a b Soszynski "et al."(2006) The Araucaria Project: Distance to the Local Group Galaxy NGC 3109 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheids see [3]
  19. ^ Dolphin, Andrew E. et al. 2003 Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Sextans A. II. Cepheids and Distance
  20. ^ a b Karachentsev, I. D. et al. (2003)Distances to Nearby Galaxies in Sculptor
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Karachentsev, I. D. et al.(2002)The M 81 group of galaxies: New distances, kinematics and structure
  22. ^ 4±1 Mpc in Freeman et al., 1977, A&A, 55 , 445, still considered as a reference
  23. ^ a b c d see article at
  24. ^ a b c http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1538-3881/131/3/1361/205003.tb1.html
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1538-3881/133/2/504
  26. ^ a b http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1538-3881/131/3/1361/
  27. ^ A New Hubble Space Telescope Distance to NGC 1569: Starburst Properties and IC 342 Group Membership* Aaron J. Grocholski et al 2008 ApJ 686 L79-L82 doi:10.1086/592949 , http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.0153
  28. ^ I. D. Karachentsev et al.(2002) New distances to galaxies in the Centaurus A group

References