Several Roman Catholic popes have been murdered. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII).</ref> A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.
Chronological list of martyr popes (assassinated because of defending the faith)
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Chronological list of popes murdered
Chronological list of popes who are alleged to have been murdered