List of multilingual countries and regions

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Main article: Multilingualism

This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level.

There is a distinction between social and personal bilingualism. Many countries, such as Belgium, India, South Africa and Switzerland, which are officially multilingual, may have many monolinguals in their population. Officially monolingual countries, on the other hand, such as France, can have sizable multilingual populations. Some countries have official languages but also have regional and local official languages, notably China, Mexico, Russia, Spain, and the UK.


Central Africa
East Africa
Horn of Africa
North Africa
Southern Africa
West Africa



Road signs in Israel written in Hebrew, Arabic, and romanized Hebrew transliteration



Multilingual cities[edit]

A trash can in Seattle labeled in four languages: English, Chinese (), Vietnamese (should be rác), and Spanish. Tagalog also uses the Spanish word.

In many cities around the globe, a majority of the population frequently speaks two or more languages. There are also large cities with high numbers of immigrants such as Montreal; Amsterdam; London; New York; Paris; Sydney; and Vancouver, where dozens of languages can be heard, but the majority of the population are monolingual.

There are many more cities of multilingual speakers where multilingualism a part of everyday life.

The following list is an example:

Notes and references[edit]


  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.


  1. ^ Bolivian Constitution, Article 5-I: Son idiomas oficiales del Estado el castellano y todos los idiomas de las naciones y pueblos indígena originario campesinos, que son el aymara, araona, baure, bésiro, canichana, cavineño, cayubaba, chácobo, chimán, ese ejja, guaraní, guarasu'we, guarayu, itonama, leco, machajuyai-kallawaya, machineri, maropa, mojeño-trinitario, mojeño-ignaciano, moré, mosetén, movima, pacawara, puquina, quechua, sirionó, tacana, tapieté, toromona, uru-chipaya, weenhayek, yawanawa, yuki, yuracaré y zamuco.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ [". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-12-13.]
  5. ^ "Portail d'actualités sur le Liban". Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  6. ^ Peluncuran Peta Bahasa Indonesia (not in English)
  7. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  8. ^ Van Parijs, Philippe, Professor of economic and social ethics at the UCLouvain, Visiting Professor at Harvard University and the KULeuven. "Belgium's new linguistic challenges" (pdf 0.7 MB). KVS Express (supplement to newspaper De Morgen) March–April 2007: Article from original source (pdf 4.9 MB) pages 34–36 republished by the Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy – Directorate–general Statistics Belgium. Retrieved 2007-05-05.  — The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.
  9. ^ "Statistical database". Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  10. ^ § 11, "Lov om Færøernes Hjemmestyre"
  11. ^ Håller språket ihop Norden? - EN forskningsrapport om ungdomars föståelse av danska, svenska och norska
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ "2011.gada tautas skaitīšana - Galvenie rādītāji | Latvijas statistika". Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  14. ^ a b Paul Ariste Keelekontaktid. Tallinn: 1981 (Estonian)
  15. ^ Swiss Constitution/Part 1, article 4, states: The national languages are German, French, Italian, and Romansh.
  16. ^ Map of percentage able to speak Welsh, 2001
  17. ^ Vilnius city municipality#Demographics