List of the most common surnames in Europe

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This is a list of the most common surnames in Europe, sorted by country.

Notably absent from the list is Iceland, whose people do not use surnames in the conventional sense. See Icelandic names.

Albania[edit]

See also: Albanian name
2005[citation needed]
SurnameMeaning
HoxhaImam
BogdaniGod gave
DukagjiniNoble family
DushkuType of tree
DervishiPoor, faqir
Gurakuqi
Gjoni (Gjonaj)Noble family
Frashëri
LekaShort for Alexander
Loshi (Loshaj)
PriftiPriest

Armenia[edit]

RankNameRomanizationMeaning
1ՀովհաննիսյանHovhannisyanSon of Hovhannes (John)
2ՀարությունյանHarutyunyanSon of Harutyun ("resurrection")
3ՍարգսյանSargsyanSon of Sargis
4ԽաչատրյանKhachatryanSon of Khachatur ("given by cross")
5ԳրիգորյանGrigoryanSon of Grigor (Gregory)

Austria[edit]

The forty most common surnames in Austria as published in 2006 are shown below beside the approximate percentage of the Austrian population sharing each surname.[1]

RankNameMeaningApproximate percentage
1Gruberoccupational name: miner0.3991
2Huberoccupational name: land-owning farmer0.3873
3Baueroccupational name: farmer0.3373
4Wagneroccupational name: wainwright0.3100
5Mülleroccupational name: miller0.3012
6Pichler0.2753
7Steinerstone0.2713
8Mosermoss0.2674
9Mayeroccupational name: approximately farmer0.2653
10Hofer0.2479
11Leitner0.2429
12Bergermountaineer0.2383
13Fuchsfox0.2250
14Eder0.2144
15Fischeroccupational name: fisher0.2141
16Schmidoccupational name: blacksmith0.2115
17Winkleroccupational name: owner of a small shop0.2015
18Weberoccupational name: weaver0.1995
19Schwarzblack0.1961
20Maieroccupational name: approximately farmer0.1946
21Schneideroccupational name: tailor0.1915
22Reiteroccupational name: rider0.1790
23Mayroccupational name: approximately farmer0.1751
24Schmidtoccupational name: blacksmith0.1740
25Wimmer0.1628
26Eggeroccupational name: ploughman0.1610
27Brunnerwater well0.1602
28Langlong0.1599
29Baumgartnertree gardener0.1586
30Auer0.1555
31Binderoccupational name cooper0.1458
32Lechner0.1435
33Wolfwolf0.1395
34Wallner0.1394
35Aignerallodial title0.1386
36Ebner0.1342
37Koller0.1301
38Lehnera function in feudalism0.1268
39Haas0.1261
40Schusteroccupational name: shoemaker0.1168

Azerbaijan[edit]

Rank[2]NameRomanizationMeaning
1MəmmədovMammadov"Son of Mammad"
2ƏliyevAliyev"Son of Ali"
3HəsənovHasanov"Son of Hasan"
4HüseynovHuseynov"Son of Hüseyn"
5QuliyevGuliyev"Son of Qulu"
6HacıyevHajiyev"Son of Haji"
7RəsulovRasulov"Son of Rasul"
8SüleymanovSuleymanov"Son of Suleyman"
9MusayevMusayev"Son of Musa"
10AbbasovAbbasov"Son of Abbas"
11BabayevBabayev"Son of Baba"
12VəliyevValiyev"Son of Vali"
13OrucovOrujov"Son of Oruc" Oruc also means "feasting"
14İsmayılovIsmayilov"Son of Ismayil"
15IbrahimovIbrahimov"Son of Ibrahim"

Belarus[edit]

Statistics available for Belarusian capital Minsk only:[3]

RankSurnamePopulation
1Ivanoŭ7,000
2Kazloŭ4,700
3Kavalioŭ4,300
4Kazloŭski3,900
5Novik3,300

Belgium[edit]

Belgium is a European nation composed of three main regions: Flemish Region (Flanders), Walloon Region (Wallonia), and Brussels-Capital Region. The Flemish region has a Dutch language tradition, while the Walloon region has a French language tradition. These different linguistic backgrounds are reflected in differing frequencies of surnames, as shown in the table below. (Data from 1 January 2008; total population: 10,666,866)[4][5]

National RankNameNumber of peopleRank (Flanders)Rank (Wallonia)Rank (Brussels)
1Peeters32,6571672
2Janssens30,2962561
3Maes25,5243638
4Jacobs19,9994974
5Mertens18,5186725
6Willems18,49856817
7Claes16,553743
8Goossens15,883915
9Wouters15,732835
10De Smet14,2591025
13Dubois12,97513
17Lambert11,802211
21Dupont10,369412
31Martin9,008310
37Simon7,774513

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bosniak origin[edit]

Serbian origin[edit]

The following names are the most common names for Serbs from Bosnia.[6]

  • Kovačević
  • Subotić
  • Savić
  • Popović
  • Jovanović
  • Petrović
  • Đurić
  • Babić
  • Lukić
  • Knežević
  • Marković
  • Ilić
  • Đukić
  • Vuković
  • Simić
  • Radić
  • Nikolić
  • Marić
  • Mitrović
  • Tomić
  • Božić
  • Golubović

Bulgaria[edit]

See also: Bulgarian name

Feminized names included (m. Dimitrov - f. Dimitrova).

  • Dimitrov
  • Dzhurov
  • Petrov
  • Ivanov
  • Stoyanov
  • Stefanov
  • Boyanov
  • Trifonov
  • Sofiyanski
  • Tasev
  • Metodiev
  • Katzarov
  • Iliev
  • Gospodinov
  • Apostolov
  • Hristov
  • Hasanov
  • Nikolov
  • Bojidarov
  • Stoichkov
  • Lechkov
  • Yanev
  • Yankov
  • Stoev
  • Konstantinov
  • Grigorov
  • Gruev
  • Georgiev
  • Kremenliev
  • Mihaylov
  • Blagoev

Croatia[edit]

Croatia
2008[7] / 2011[8][9]SurnameSurname derivation[10]
RankFrequency
121,618Horvatethnic name for a Croat
215,160Kovačevićpatronymic, from kovač "blacksmith"
312,840Babićmatronymic, or nickname, from baba "(old) woman", "grandmother"
411,555Marićpatronymic, from Maro - short form of Mavro "Maurice" or Marko "Marcus"
511,163Jurićpatronymic, from Jure or Juro - regional variants of Juraj "George"
610,794Novak1. a newcomer, from novy "new"; 2. topographic name, for peasant who settled on newly cleared land
710,546Kovačićpatronymic, from kovač "blacksmith"
810,334Kneževićfrom knez "prince" or "duke"
910,191Vukovićpatronymic, from Vuk - ancient Slavic name meaning "wolf"
109,854Markovićpatronymic, from Marko "Marcus"
119,614Petrovićpatronymic, from Petar and Peter
129,960Matićpatronymic, possibly from Matija or Matej "Matthew"; or possibly from Mate or Mato
139,464Tomićpatronymic, from Tomo or Toma (short forms of Tomislav)
148,601Pavlovićpatronymic, from Pavao, Pavle, and Pavel "Paul"
158,542Kovačoccupational name, from kovač "blacksmith"
168,258Božićpatronymic, from Božo (from Bože meaning God)
178,152Blaževićpatronymic, from Blaž lat. Blasius "Blaise"
188,010Grgićpatronymic, from Grga or Grgo - regional variants of Grgur "Gregory"
197,538Pavićpatronymic, from Pavo - short or regional variant of Pavao "Paul"
207,406Radićpatronymic, from Rade (meaning happy)
217,351Perićpatronymic, from Pero (Peter)
227,321Filipovićpatronymic, from Filip
237,184Šarić
247,131Lovrićpatronymic, from Lovro (Lawrence)
256,986Vidovićpatronymic, from Vid (Vitus)
266,903Perkovićpatronymic, from Pero or Perko
276,797Popovićpatronymic, from Pop (priest)
286,760Bošnjakethnic name for a Bosniak
296,653Jukić
306,417Barišićpatronymic, from Bariša

Czech Republic[edit]

Feminized names are included (m. Novák/f. Nováková). Figures are from 2009 and provided by Czech Ministry of the Interior.

Statistic of the Czech Republic surnames[11][12][13]
RankNameMeaningNumber of malesNumber of females
1Novák/Novákovánew man/woman34,16835,558
2Svoboda/Svobodováfreeholder25,29226,569
3Novotný/Novotnánewman24,32025,328
4Dvořák/Dvořákovágrange owner22,29923,445
5Černý/Černáblack man/woman17,81318,504
6Procházka/Procházkováwalker16,07416,817
7Kučera/Kučerovácurly man/woman15,18715,689
8Veselý/Veselácheerful, merry man/woman12,88213,494
9Horák/Horákováhighlander12,16512,796
10Němec/NěmcováGerman11,19211,563

Denmark[edit]

2011 Rank[14]#Surname
1271,607Jensen
2269,921Nielsen
3226,040Hansen
4170,061Pedersen
5163,554Andersen
6123,157Christensen
7120,451Larsen
8115,251Sørensen
997,811Rasmussen
1091,521Jørgensen
2011 Rank#Surname
1183,266Petersen
1266,150Madsen
1361,957Kristensen
1449,950Olsen
1539,662Thomsen
1637,974Christiansen
1732,797Poulsen
1831,897Johansen
1930,438Møller
2030,203Knudsen

Estonia[edit]

Data from 2008.[15]

Names of Estonian origin:

Rank#SurnameMeaning
15,241Tammoak
24,352Saarisland/ash (tree)
33,624Seppsmith
43,613Mägihill, mountain
52,847Kaskbirch
62,728Kukkrooster
72,265Rebanefox
82,165Ilveslynx
91,933Pärnlinden tree
101,882Koppelpaddock

Names of Russian origin:

Rank#Surname
16,789Ivanov
23,402Smirnov
33,153Vassiljev
42,932Petrov
52,339Kuznetsov
61,968Mihhailov
71,927Pavlov
81,909Semjonov
91,862Andrejev
101,845Aleksejev

Faroe Islands[edit]

The 20 most common surnames in the Faroe Islands as published in 2009 are shown below beside the number of people of the Faroese population sharing each surname.[16]

RankNameNumber of individuals
1Joensen2,512
2Hansen2,339
3Jacobsen2,169
4Olsen1,784
5Poulsen1,400
6Petersen1,312
7Johannesen1,091
8Thomsen722
9Nielsen682
10Johansen584
RankNameNumber of individuals
11Rasmussen565
12Simonsen543
13Djurhuus528
14Jensen523
15Danielsen518
16Mortensen488
17Mikkelsen457
18Dam433
19Højgaard429
20Andreasen420

Finland[edit]

RankSurnamePopulationPercentage[17]
1Korhonen23,4010.429
2Virtanen23,2240.426
3Mäkinen21,1840.389
4Nieminen21,1360.388
5Mäkelä19,5720.359
6Hämäläinen19,2030.352
7Laine18,7910.345
8Heikkinen17,9730.330
9Koskinen17,8500.327
10Järvinen16,9400.311
11Lehtonen16,7050.306
12Lehtinen15,7180.288
13Saarinen15,3640.282
14Salminen15,1980.279
15Heinonen15,0200.275
16Niemi14,9610.274
17Heikkilä14,5930.268
18Salonen14,3400.263
19Kinnunen14,3070.262
20Turunen13,8540.254
21Salo13,5410.248
22Laitinen13,1220.241
23Tuominen12,9120.237
24Rantanen12,8980.237
25Karjalainen12,8580.236
26Jokinen12,6060.231
27Mattila12,3760.227
28Savolainen11,5940.213
29Lahtinen11,5280.211
30Ahonen11,2450.206

Most of the names on this list are typical examples of surnames that were adopted when modern surnames were introduced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries In the romantic spirit, they refer to natural features: virta "river", koski "rapids", mäki "hill", järvi "lake", saari "island" — often with the suffix -nen added after the model of older, mainly eastern Finnish surnames such as Korhonen and Heikkinen. "Hämäläinen" literally means an inhabitant of Häme. Heikki is a Finnish form of the man's name Henry.

Most common Swedish surnames in Finland[edit]

RankSurnamePopulationPercentage[17]
1Johansson8,6870.159
2Nyman7,5680.139
3Lindholm7,4070.136
4Karlsson7,0840.130
5Andersson6,3930.117

France[edit]

France[18]
Unknown yearSurname
Rank#
1235,846Martin
2105,132Bernard
395,998Dubois
495,387Thomas
591,393Robert
690,689Richard
788,318Petit
884,252Durand
978,868Leroy
1078,177Moreau
1176,655Simon
1275,307Laurent
1374,564Lefebvre
1474,318Michel
1568,720Garcia
1661,762David
1759,817Bertrand
1859,440Roux
1957,351Vincent
2057,047Fournier
2156,760Morel
2255,642Girard
2355,228André
2453,670Lefèvre
2553,622Mercier
2653,405Dupont
2751,543Lambert
2850,999Bonnet
2950,612François
3049,762Martinez

Almost half of those names are also male given names; this might originate from the use to give found children a first name as last name.

Georgia[edit]

RankNameRomanizationTotal Number[19]
(2013)
1ბერიძეBeridze28,289
2მამედოვიMamedovi27,662
3კაპანაძეKapanadze18,966
4ალიევიAlievi18,687
5გელაშვილიGelashvili18,128
6მაისურაძეMaisuradze16,175
7გიორგაძეGiorgadze13,994
8ლომიძეLomidze12,995
9წიკლაურიTsiklauri12,869
10ბოლქვაძეBolkvadze12,306

Germany[edit]

RankSurnameMeaningPercentage[20]
1Mülleroccupational name: miller0.95[21]
2Schmidtoccupational name: blacksmith0.69[22]
3Schneideroccupational name: tailor0.40
4Fischeroccupational name: fisher0.35
5Meyeroccupational name: approximately farmer, originally estate administrator0.33[23]
6Weberoccupational name: weaver0.30
7Schulzoccupational name: approximately constable or mayor0.27
8Wagneroccupational name: wainwright0.27
9Beckeroccupational name: baker0.27
10Hoffmannoccupational name: approximately man of the court0.26

Greece[edit]

See also: Greek name
RankSurname
1Papadopoulos
2Vlahos
3Angelopoulos
4Nikolaidis
5Georgiou
6Petridis
7Athanasiadis
8Dimitriadis
9Papadakis
10Panagiotopoulos
11Papantoniou
12Antoniou

Hungary[edit]

Hungary[24][25]
2011SurnameMeaningOrigin
Rank#
1235,400 (2.4%)NagyGreatHungarian
2228,210 (2.3%)HorváthCroat or CroatianSouth Slavic
3217,359 (2.2%)KovácsSmith (occupational name)West Slavic
4209,549 (2.1%)SzabóTailor (occupational name)Hungarian
5206,954 (2.1%)TóthSlovak/SlavicGermanic or Hungarian
6137,847 (1.4%)VargaLeatherworker (occupational name)Hungarian
7131,435 (1.3%)KissLittleHungarian
8106,942 (1.1%)MolnárMiller (occupational name)Slavic
991,878 (0.9%)NémethGerman/GermanicSlavic
1083,188 (0.8%)FarkasWolfHungarian
1180,575 (0.8%)BaloghLeft-handedHungarian
1252,766 (0.5%)PappPriest (occupational name)Latin
1352,131 (0.5%)TakácsWeaver (occupational name)Slavic
1451,224 (0.5%)JuhászShepherd (occupational name)Hungarian
1547,151 (0.5%)LakatosLocksmith (occupational name)Italian[26]
1640,079 (0.4%)MészárosButcher (occupational name)Slavic
1738,330 (0.4%)OláhVlach/RomanicGermanic
1837,960 (0.4%)SimonSimonHebrew
1935,008 (0.4%)RáczSouth SlavicSouth Slavic
2034,496 (0.3%)FeketeBlack(-haired)Hungarian

2,095,788 individuals (21% of the population) bear the most common 20 names, and 3,347,493 individuals (33.5%) bearing the top 100 names.

Ireland[edit]

See also: Irish name

The prevalence of some of these names is the result of more than one distinct Irish language names being represented by the same anglicised version.

#SurnameModern IrishOriginal IrishMeaning
1MurphyÓ MurchúÓ Murchadha
Mac Murchaidh
Descendant of Murchadh (a personal name meaning "Sea hound/warrior")
2(O')KellyÓ CeallaighDescendant of Ceallach ("strife")
3(O')SullivanÓ SúilleabháinDescendant of Súilleabhán ("dark-eyed one", "one-eyed" or "hawk-eyed")
4WalshBreathnachBreatnach"Breton", "Welshman"
5SmithMac GabhannSon of a smith
6O'BrienÓ BriainDescendant of Brian
7(O')ByrneÓ BroinDescendant of Bran
8(O')RyanÓ RiainÓ Riain
Ó Maoilriain
Ó Ruaidhín
Descendant of Rian (possibly meaning "king")
Descendant of Maoilriaghan ("bald king")
Descendant of Ruaidhín ("little red-haired one")
9O'ConnorÓ ConchobhairDescendant of Conchobhar ("hound/chief assistance")
10O'NeillÓ NéillDescendant of Niall (possibly meaning "cloud", "passionate" or "champion")
11(O')ReillyÓ RaghallaighDescendant of Raghallach
12DoyleÓ DubhghaillDescendant of Dubhghall ("dark-haired foreigner")
13McCarthyMac CárthaighSon of Cárthach ("loving")
14(O')GallagherÓ GallchóirÓ GallchobhairDescendant of Gallchobhar ("foreign assistance")
15(O')DohertyÓ DochartaighDescendant of Dochartach ("hurtful")
16KennedyÓ CinnéideÓ CeannéidighDescendant of Cinnéide ("ugly head")
17LynchÓ LoingsighDescendant of Loingseach ("longboat")
18MurrayÓ MuireadhaighMac Muireadhaigh
Mac Giolla Mhuire
Descendant of Muireadhach ("chieftain")
Descendant of a servant of Mary
19(O')QuinnÓ Cuinn/CoinneDescendant of Conn ("hound/chief")
20(O')MooreÓ MórdhaDescendant of Mórdha ("majestic")

Names starting with O' and Mac/Mc were originally patronymic. Of the names above, with the exception of Smith and Walsh, all originally began with O' or Mac/Mc but many have lost this prefix over time. Mac/Mc, meaning Son, and Ó, meaning From, are used by sons born into the family. In the case of a daughter being born into the family she would use Ní/Nic, for example Ó Muireadhaigh becomes Ní Mhuireadhaigh. A woman who marries into the family and takes her husband's name uses Uí/Mic- e.g. Uí Mhuireadhaigh. [27][28]

Italy[edit]

See also: Italian name

"L'Italia dei Cognomi" (in Italian). www.gens.labo.net. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 

RankNameMeaning
1RossiRed-haired (Central and Northern Italy)
2RussoRed-haired (Southern Italy)
3FerrariSmith
4EspositoExposed (abandoned by parents)
5BianchiWhite, fair-skinned or white-haired (plural)
6RomanoRoman, from Rome
7ColomboDove, used in reference to orphans
8RicciCurly (Northern Italy)
9MarinoSailor, Seaman
10GrecoGreek
11BrunoBrown haired
12GalloLiterally "rooster", probably from the medieval name Gallo
13ContiCount, nobleman (plural)
14De Luca(Son of) Luke
15CostaLiterally "coast", inhabitant of the coast
16GiordanoJordan, from the Latin cognomen Iordanus
17ManciniLeft-handed (plural)
18RizzoCurly (Southern Italy)
19LombardiLombards, from Lombardy
20MorettiBlack-haired (plural)
21SanteVariant of Santi (sacred), from Piedmont
22RavelliDiminutive of Ravelino (tailor), from Piedmont

Kosovo[edit]

See also: Albanian name
E,Lo[citation needed]
Surname
Hoxha
Gashi
Krasniqi
Morina
Kelmendi
Beqiri
Jakupi
Kastrati
Avdiu
Shala
Ademi
Sejdiu

Latvia[edit]

Latvia[29][30]
2005SurnameMeaning
Rank
1Bērziņšbirch
2Kalniņšhill
3Ozoliņšoak
4Jansonsson of Jānis
5Ozolsoak
6Liepiņšlinden
7Krūmiņšbush
8Balodispigeon/dove
9Eglītisfir
10Zariņšbranch
11Pētersonsson of Pēteris
12Vītolswillow
13Kļaviņšmaple
14Kārkliņšwillows, from kārklis, syn. for "willow" (see Vītols)
15Vanagshawk

Lithuania[edit]

Lithuania[31]
2009
RankMenWomen[note 1]
1KazlauskasKazlauskienė
2PetrauskasPetrauskienė
3JankauskasJankauskienė
4StankevičiusStankevičienė
5VasiliauskasVasiliauskienė
6ŽukauskasŽukauskienė
7ButkusButkienė
8PaulauskasPaulauskienė
9UrbonasUrbonienė
10KavaliauskasKavaliauskienė

Luxembourg[edit]

Out of 236000 entries in the EDITUS phone book:

Luxembourg[32]
2009Surname
Rank#
11929Schmit
21473Muller
31380Weber
41335Hoffmann
51300Wagner
61027Thill
7939Schmitz
8793Schroeder
9712Reuter
10706Klein
11674Becker
12660Kieffer
13650Kremer
14610Faber
15556Meyer
16550Schneider
17543Weiss
18538Schiltz
19537Simon
20533Welter
21504Hansen
22496Majerus
23467Ries
24459Meyers
25451Kayser
26441Steffen
27438Krier
28421Braun
29411Wagener
30405Diederich

Malta[edit]

Malta[33]
2005Surname
Rank%#
13.313,169Borg
23.112,643Camilleri
32.911,785Vella
42.911,549Farrugia
52.39,424Zammit
62.18,519Galea
72.18,356Micallef
81.97,828Grech
91.87,340Attard
101.87,233Spiteri

Macedonia[edit]

  • Andov – son of Ande
  • Angelov – son of Angel
  • Bogdanov – son of Bogdan
  • Bozinov – son of Bozhin
  • Brankov – son of Branko
  • Damcevski
  • Davidov – son of David
  • Dimitrov – son of Dimitar
  • Donev – son of Doncho
  • Filipov – son of Filip
  • Georgiev – son of Georgi
  • Ivanov – son of Ivan
  • Ivanovski – son of Ivan
  • Janev – son of Jane
  • Kitanovski
  • Kostovski – son of Kosta
  • Kostov
  • Manasievski – son of Manas
  • Markov – son of Marko
  • Matovski – son of Mato
  • Mladenovski – son of Mladen
  • Nikolovski – son of Nikola
  • Penov – son of Peni
  • Petkov – son of Petko
  • Petrevski – son of Petar
  • Petrovski
  • Popov – Priest
  • Popovski
  • Ristevski – son of Risto
  • Stojanov – son of Stojan
  • Trajanovski – son of Trajan
  • Trajcevski
  • Trajkovski

Netherlands[edit]

See also: Dutch name and List of Dutch family names

The most recent complete count of surnames in the Netherlands is based on the September 2007 county registrations.

RankNameNumber in 2007PercentNumber in 1947English equivalent or (when lacking) meaning
1De Jong86,5340.53%55,256Young
2Jansen75,6990.46%49,213Johnson
3De Vries73,1570.45%49,298the Frisian
4Van den Berg *60,1300.37%37,678of/from the mountain (or, more realistically, the hill)
5Van Dijk, Van Dyk57,9440.35%36,578of/from the dike
6Bakker56,8640.35%37,483Baker
7Janssen55,3940.34%32,824Johnson
8Visser50,9290.31%34,721Fisher
9Smit43,4930.27%29,783Smith
10Meijer, Meyer41,4970.25%28,256Bailiff or steward
11De Boer39,5760.24%25,662Farmer
12Mulder37,2500.23%24,665Miller
13De Groot37,2210.23%24,724The big/great/large
14Bos36,4780.22%23,790Bush or Woods
15Vos31,1540.19%19,461Fox
16Peters30,8640.19%18,583Peters
17Hendriks30,1990.18%18,538Henderson
18Van Leeuwen28,7740.18%17,754From Leeuwen/Leuven; Levi (leeuwen is the plural of lion)
19Dekker28,6820.17%18,782Thatcher
20Brouwer26,2240.16%17,468Brewer
21De Wit24,9040.15%15,156White
22Dijkstra24,1750.15%15,647(Frisian) of/from the dike
23Smits23,8160.15%15,151Smith
24De Graaf21,6990.13%13,718The count/earl/administrator
25Van der Meer21,3540.13%13,011of/from the lake

If closely related names are combined, the top 15 become:

NameNumber of people
1Jansen, Janssen, Janse135,003
2de Jong, de Jonge, de Jongh, Jong108,240
3Smit, Smits, Smid, de Smit, Smet, Smith76,604
4de Vries, Vries, de Vriese74,058
5vd Berg, vd Bergh, vd Berge, vd Bergen*69,080
6Visser, Visscher, Vissers, de Visser68,952
7van Dijk, van Dyk, Dijk, van Dijck64,070
8Bakker, Bekker, de Bakker, Backer62,183
9de Boer, Boer, den Boer, van de Boer57,072
10Mulder, Muller, Müller, Mulders, de Mulder52,394
11Peters, Peeters, Pieters, Peterse, Peter52,389
12vd Veen, vd Ven, van Veen, van 't Veen *49,935
13Bos, Bosch, de Bos47,995
14Meijer, Meyer, Meijers47,761
15de Groot, Groot, de Groote47,511
* "vd" stands for "van de", "van den", or "van der"

Source: Nederlands Repertorium van Familienamen, Meertens-Instituut, 1963-2009. Data can be viewed in the Corpus of Family Names in the Netherlands See specifically De top 100 van de familienamen in Nederland (Dutch)

Names ending in -stra or -ma are usually of Frisian origin. For example Terpstra, Bijlsma, Halsema.

Names ending in -ink or -ing are usually of Low Saxon origin. For example Hiddink, Roeterdink, Mentink.

Norway[edit]

Norway[34]
2010Surname
Rank#
155,260Hansen
251,763Johansen
351,495Olsen
438,864Larsen
538,027Andersen
636,046Pedersen
735,864Nilsen
824,116Kristiansen
923,604Jensen
1021,933Karlsen
1121,063Johnsen
1220,659Pettersen
1319,487Eriksen
1418,306Berg
1514,557Haugen
1614,265Hagen
1713,673Johannessen
1812,313Andreassen
1912,085Jacobsen
2011,762Halvorsen

Poland[edit]

RankSurnameMeaningPopulation[35]
1Nowak"newman"207,348
2Kowalskifrom kowal "smith"140,471
3Wiśniewskifrom wiśnia "cherry"111,174
4Wójcikfrom wójt, a noun describing chief officer of a municipality (gmina), from a popular name Wojciech; from the word "wojak" (warrior)100,064
5Kowalczykfrom kowal "smith", literally "smith's son"98,739
6Kamińskifrom kamień "stone"95,816
7Lewandowskifrom lawenda "lavender"93,404
8Zielińskifrom zielony "green"; from zioło, ziele "herb"91,522
9Szymańskifrom Szymon, equivalent to Simon89,698
10Woźniakfrom woźny, "usher"89,015
11Dąbrowskifrom dąbrowa "oak grove"87,304
12Kozłowskifrom kozioł "buck"76,657
13Jankowskifrom Janek, a diminutive of John69,280
14MazurFormerly, 'a Mazovian person'68,090
15Kwiatkowskifrom kwiatek "flower (dim.)"66,917
16Wojciechowskifrom the name Wojciech; from the word "wojak" (warrior)66,879
17Krawczykfrom krawiec "tailor", "tailor's son"64,543
18Kaczmarekfrom karczmarz "innkeeper"62,399
19Piotrowskifrom Piotr (Peter)61,844
20Grabowskifrom grab "hornbeam" or grabarz 'gravedigger"59,052

Polish names which end with -ski or -cki have both male and female forms - Kamiński / Kamińska, Wielicki / Wielicka, etc. This needs to be considered when taking a count by, for instance, scanning a telephone book.

See also: Polish name

Portugal[edit]

The 50 most frequent surnames in Portugal are:[36][37]

OrderSurnameFrequency
%
Frequency
(in thousands)
1Silva9.44%995
2Santos5.96%628
3Ferreira5.25%553
4Pereira4.88%514
5Oliveira3.71%391
6Costa3.68%387
7Rodrigues3.57%376
8Martins3.23%340
9Jesus2.99%315
10Sousa2.95%311
11Fernandes2.82%297
12Gonçalves2.76%291
13Gomes2.57%271
14Lopes2.52%265
15Marques2.51%265
16Alves2.37%250
17Almeida2.27%239
18Ribeiro2.27%239
19Pinto2.09%220
20Carvalho1.97%208
21Teixeira1.69%178
22Moreira1.54%162
23Correia1.53%161
24Mendes1.39%146
25Nunes1.32%139
26Soares1.28%135
27Vieira1.2%127
28Monteiro1.11%117
29Cardoso1.07%113
30Rocha1.04%110
31Neves0.98%103
32Coelho0.97%102
33Cruz0.94%99
34Cunha0.93%98
35Pires0.92%97
36Ramos0.86%91
37Reis0.85%90
38Simões0.85%90
39Antunes0.82%86
40Matos0.82%86
41Fonseca0.81%86
42Machado0.76%80
43Araújo0.69%73
44Barbosa0.69%72
45Tavares0.67%71
46Lourenço0.65%68
47Castro0.62%66
48Figueiredo0.62%65
49Azevedo0.60%64
50Freitas0.60%63

Romania[edit]

Romania[38]
RankSurnameMeaning
1PopaPriest
2Popescufrom Popa (Priest)
3Popshort form of Popa
4RaduHappy
5Dumitru
6Stanshortened form of Stanislav
7Stoica
8Gheorgheform of George
9MateiRomanian form of Matthew
10CiobanuShepherd

Russia[edit]

See also: Russian name
See also: Список общерусских фамилий (in Russian Wikipedia)

The 20 most common widespread Russian surnames from the European part of Russia, as calculated by Balanovskaya et al. (2005):[39]

RankSurnameTransliterationMeaningPercentage[39]
1Смирно́вSmirnovobedient one's1.61
2Ивано́вIvanovIvan's1.30
3Кузнецо́вKuznetsovsmith's0.90
4Попо́вPopovpriest's0.79
5СоколовSokolovfalcon's0.73
6ЛебедевLebedevswan's0.65
7Козло́вKozlovhe-goat's0.58
8Но́виковNovikovnewman's (see novik for historical details)0.54
9Моро́зовMorozovfrost's0.53
10ПетровPetrovPyotr's0.44
11ВолковVolkovwolf's0.44
12СоловьёвSolovyovnightingale's0.44
13ВасильевVasilyevVasily's0.42
14ЗайцевZaytsevhare's0.41
15Па́вловPavlovPavel's0.39
16СемёновSemyonovSemyon's0.35
17ГолубевGolubevpigeon's0.32
18Виногра́довVinogradovgrape's0.32
19БогдановBogdanovBogdan's0.31
20ВоробьёвVorobyovsparrow's0.30

Those Russian surnames that end with -ov/-ev or -in/-yn are originally patronymic or metronymic genitive adjectivals with the meaning "son of" or "daughter/wife of" (the feminine is formed with the -a ending - Smirnova, Ivanova, etc.). In older documents such surnames were written with the word syn "son", for example, Ivanov syn "John's son" or Il'yin syn "Elijah's son"; the last word was later dropped. Such names are roughly equivalent to the English or Welsh surnames Richardson or Richards.

The Russian equivalent of "Smith, Jones, and Brown" (that is, the generic most popular surnames) is Ivanov, Petrov, Sidorov, or "Jones, Peters, and Isidores", although Sidorov is now ranked only 66th.[39]

Serbia[edit]

Serbia[40]
RankSurnameCyrillic scriptMeaning
1JovanovićЈовановићSon of Jovan
2PetrovićПетровићSon of Petar
3NikolićНиколићSon of Nikola
4MarkovićМарковићSon of Marko
5ĐorđevićЂорђевићSon of Đorđe
6StojanovićСтојановићSon of Stojan
7IlićИлићSon of Ilija
8StankovićСтанковићSon of Stanko
9PavlovićПавловићSon of Pavle
10MiloševićМилошевићSon of Miloš

Slovakia[edit]

Slovakia[41][42]
2003SurnameMeaning
Rank#
130,813Horváth"Croat" (from Croatian Hrvat)
229,079Kováč"Blacksmith" (from Slavic, from Indo-European)
321,650Varga"Leatherworker, cobbler" (from Hungarian, from Ugric)[25]
421,604Tóth"Slovak (Slav)" (from Germanic or from old Hungarian)[25][42]
519,341Nagy"Large/Tall" (from Hungarian, from Ugric)[25]
614,114Baláž"Blessed" (from Hungarian via Latin Blasius and Old Church Slavonic "blessed", from Indo-European)
713,998Szabó"Tailor" (from Hungarian, from Ugric)[25]
812,632Molnár"Miller" (from Germanic, from Slavic, from Latin, from Indo-European or from Hungarian)[25]
910,872Balog"Left-handed" (from Ugric (Hungarian),[25] or from Slavic "marsh", or both)
109,718Lukáč"Luke" (from Latin Lucas, from Greek)

Note: The most common surnames in Slovakia are a mixture of Indo-European and Ugric roots reflecting the 900-year-long coexistence of the Indo-European Slovaks and speakers of other Indo-European languages with Ugric Hungarians in the Kingdom of Hungary, under Hungarian assimilation pressure throughout the 19th century (see Magyarization, see History of Slovakia). In 1910 Hungarians made up one-third of the population of present-territory of Slovakia.[43] Hungarians are currently an 8% minority[42] in Slovakia due to population exchanges and Slovakization.[44] (see Demographics of Slovakia). While ethnic Hungarians are relatively few in Slovakia, their large presence on the list of most common names reflects the intra-lingual frequency of the frequent names in Hungary.

Slovenia[edit]

Slovenia[45]
2014Surname
Rank#
111,196HorvatCroat
29,762Novaknew man
35,640Kovačičson of blacksmith
45,585Krajncfrom Carniola
55,019Zupančičson of mayor
64,729Potočniknear stream
74,729Kovačblacksmith
83,957Mlakarnear puddle
93,905Kosblackbird
103,885VidmarKing Of Slovenia
113,855Golobpigeon
123,506TurkTurk
133,421BožičChristmas
143,418KraljKing
153,285Korošecfrom Carinthia
163,256Zupanmayor
173,209Bizjak
183,136Hribarfrom hill
193,069Kotnikfrom corner
203,003Kavčič
212992Rozman
222.873Kastelic
232,841Oblakcloud
242,828Žagarsawer
252.821PetekFriday
262,808Hočevar
272,807Kolar
282,738Košir
292,598Koren
302,399Klemenčič

Spain[edit]

The top ten surnames cover about 20% of the population, with important geographical differences. The regional distribution of surnames within Spain was homogenized mostly through internal migrations, especially since 1950. Names typical of the old crown of Castile have become the most common all over the country. Most of the common Spanish surnames originating from Germanic first names were introduced in Spain during the fifth to seventh centuries by the Visigoths, so almost all are from the Visigoth tradition.

  1. García - 1,378,000 people (3.48%) Pre-Roman, Basque.
  2. Fernández - 851,000 (2.15%) Son of Fernando, Fredenand, or Fridnand; Germanic
  3. González - 839,000 (2.12%) Son of Gonzalo, from the Latinised form Gundisalvus; Germanic
  4. Rodríguez - 804,000 (2.03%) Son of Rodrigo, Roderic; Germanic
  5. López - 796,000 (2.01%) Son of Lope, Latin Lupus, meaning wolf
  6. Martínez - 788,000 (1.97%) Son of Martin, Latin Martis, genitive form of Mars
  7. Sánchez - 725,000 (1.83%) Son of Sancho, Latin Sanctius
  8. Pérez - 709,000 (1.79%) Son of Pedro, Latin Petrus
  9. Martín - 459,000 (1.16%)
  10. Gómez - 440,000 (1.11%) Son of Gomes, Gomo, or Gomaro; Germanic
  11. Ruiz - 321,000 (0.81%) Son of Rui, variation or short for Rodrigo
  12. Hernández - 305,000 (0.77%) Son of Hernando, variation of Fernando
  13. Jiménez - 293,000 (0.74%) son of Jimeno, Xemeno. or Ximeno
  14. Díaz - 293,000 (0.74%) Son of Diego
  15. Álvarez - 273,000 (0.69%) Son of Alvaro, from Alvar; Germanic
  16. Moreno - 261,000 (0.66%) Brown-haired, tanned, brunet
  17. Muñoz - 241,000 (0.61%) Son of Munio; Pre-Roman
  18. Alonso - 206,000 (0.52%) Variation of Alfonso; Germanic
  19. Gutiérrez - 170,000 (0.43%) Son of Gutier, Gutierre, or Gualtierre; Germanic
  20. Romero - 170,000 (0.43%) (pilgrim)
  21. Navarro - 158,400 (0.40%) Navarrese, "from Navarre"; toponym
  22. Torres - 134,600 (0.34%) Towers; toponym
  23. Domínguez - 134,600 (0.34%) Son of Domingo, from Latin Domenicus, Dominus, "master"
  24. Gil - 134,600 (0.34%) From older form Egidio; patronymic
  25. Vázquez - 130,000 (0.33%) Son of Vasco or Velasco
  26. Serrano - 122,700 (0.31%) "Highlander"
  27. Ramos - 118,000 (0.30%) Branches; meaning born during Christian festivity Palm Sunday
  28. Blanco - 118,000 (0.30%) "White"
  29. Sanz - 106,900 (0.27%)
  30. Castro - 102,900 (0.26%) "village" castro
  31. Suárez - 102,900 (0.26%) Son of Suero or Suaro; unknown origin
  32. Ortega - 99,000 (0.25%) From Ortiga, nettle plant
  33. Rubio - 99,000 (0.25%) Blond, fair-haired; Latin Rubeus, meaning ruddy, reddish
  34. Molina - 99,000 (0.25%) (Mill, place with mills
  35. Delgado - 95,000 (0.24%) "Thin man"
  36. Ramírez - 95,000 (0.24%) Son of Ramiro, Radamir, or Radmir; Germanic
  37. Morales - 95,000 (0.24%) Blackberry groves
  38. Ortiz - 87,120 (0.22%) Son of Ortún; Latin Fortunius, meaning fortunate one
  39. Marín - 83,160 (0.21%) Latin Marinus, meaning sailor
  40. Iglesias - 83,160 (0.21%) "Churches"

Source:[46] - Data from December 1999. (2004 data confirmation of top 25)

Canary Islands[edit]

RankNameApproximate percentage
1González4.79
2Rodríguez4.64
3Hernández4.01
4Pérez3.35
5García3.25
6Martín2.21
7Santana2.18
8Díaz1.86
9Suárez1.38
10Sánchez1.29
11López1.21
12Cabrera1.18
13Ramos0.88
14Medina0.87
15Fernández0.75
16Morales0.73
17Delgado0.70
18Marrero0.70
19León0.69
20Alonso0.61
21Herrera0.59
22Cruz0.58
23Domínguez0.55
24Gutiérrez0.52
25Reyes0.50
26Torres0.48
27Alvarez0.66
28Rivero0.44
29Armas0.42
30Trujillo0.40

Sweden[edit]

Source: World Family Names

Sweden[47]
2012Surname
Rank#
1251,621Andersson
2251,495Johansson
3223,151Karlsson
4171,360Nilsson
5147,514Eriksson
6124,686Larsson
7114,280Olsson
8107,911Persson
9101,834Svensson
1097,536Gustafsson
1196,011Pettersson
1273,869Jonsson
1350,170Jansson
1443,926Hansson
1534,302Bengtsson
1632,249Jönsson
1727,533Lindberg
1826,793Jakobsson
1926,562Magnusson
2026,424Olofsson

Switzerland[edit]

Surnames of the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino

RankName
1Bianchi
2Bernasconi
3Fontana
4Crivelli
5Galli
6Cereghetti
7Colombo
8Rossi
9Ferrari
10Cavadini

German-speaking cantons (1998): Source: [4]

Rank#Surname
131,000Müller
219,150Meier
316,900Schmid
413,000Keller
511,850Weber
610,550Huber
710,350Meyer
810,300Schneider
98,950Steiner
108,200Fischer
118,100Brunner
128,000Baumann
137,950Gerber
147,750Frei
157,500Moser

Turkey[edit]

Main article: Turkish name
RankNameMeaning
1Yılmazunbeatable/dauntless
2Kayarock
3Demiriron
4Şahinfalcon
5Çeliksteel
6Yıldızstar
7Yıldırımthunderbolt
8Öztürkpure Turk
9Aydınenlightened
10Özdemirpure iron

Source: Turkish General Directorate of Population and Citizenships[48]

Ukraine[edit]

Many of the surnames use the same root but different suffixes, or even different roots of the same meaning, depending on the part of Ukraine the person hails from.[49]

RankSurnameMeaning
1Melnykmiller
2Shevchenkoshoemaker's
3Boykotenacious/feisty
4Kovalenkosmith's
5Bondarenkocooper's
6Tkachenkoweaver's
7Kovalchuksmith's
8Kravchenkotailor's
9Oliynykoil maker
10Shevchukshoemaker's apprentice
11Kovalsmith
12Polishchukfrom Polesia
13Bondarcooper
14Tkachukweaver's
15Morozfrost
16MarchenkoMark's
17Lysenkofox's
18Rudenkored's
19SavchenkoSavva's
20PetrenkoPeter's

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

RankSurnamePercentage[50]
1Smith1.26
2Jones0.75
3Taylor0.59
4Brown0.56
5Williams0.39
6Wilson0.39
7Johnson0.37
8Davies0.34
9Robinson0.32
10Wright0.32
11Thompson0.31
12Evans0.30
13Walker0.30
14White0.30
15Roberts0.28
16Green0.28
17Hall0.28
18Wood0.27
19Jackson0.27
20Clarke0.26
Greater London

The following list is for Greater London.[51]

Northern Ireland[edit]

Data from University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper. Numbers in brackets indicate percentages.

  1. Wilson (0.75)
  2. Campbell (0.75)
  3. Kelly (0.74)
  4. Johnston (0.69)
  5. Moore (0.62)
  6. Thompson (0.61)
  7. Smyth (0.60)
  8. Brown (0.59)
  9. O’Neill (0.57)
  10. Doherty (0.54)
  11. Stewart (0.54)
  12. Quinn (0.51)
  13. Robinson (0.50)
  14. Murphy (0.49)
  15. Graham (0.48)
  16. Martin (0.45)
  17. McLaughlin (0.45)
  18. Hamilton (0.44)
  19. Murray (0.43)
  20. Hughes (0.41)

Scotland[edit]

Data from University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper. Numbers in brackets indicate percentages.

  1. Smith (1.28)
  2. Brown (0.94)
  3. Wilson (0.89)
  4. Robertson (0.78)
  5. Thomson (0.78)
  6. Campbell (0.77)
  7. Stewart (0.73)
  8. Anderson (0.70)
  9. Scott (0.55)
  10. Murray (0.53)
  11. MacDonald (0.52)
  12. Reid (0.52)
  13. Taylor (0.49)
  14. Clark (0.47)
  15. Ross (0.43)
  16. Young (0.42)
  17. Mitchell (0.41)
  18. Watson (0.41)
  19. Paterson (0.40)
  20. Morrison (0.40)
  21. Sanders (0.40)

Wales[edit]

Data from University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper. Numbers in brackets indicate percentages.

  1. Jones (5.75)
  2. Williams (3.72)
  3. Davies (3.72)
  4. Evans (2.47)
  5. Thomas (2.43)
  6. Roberts (1.53)
  7. Lewis (1.53)
  8. Hughes (1.23)
  9. Morgan (1.16)
  10. Griffiths (0.96)
  11. Edwards (0.93)
  12. Smith (0.85)
  13. James (0.82)
  14. Rees (0.81)
  15. Jenkins (0.69)
  16. Owen (0.67)
  17. Price (0.67)
  18. Phillips (0.65)
  19. Moss (0.63)
  20. Driscoll (0.53)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Lithuanian language has different endings for surnames for men and women. The ending of a woman's surname indicates whether she is married or not. Last names of married women end in -ienė while those of unmarried girls end in -ytė, -iūtė, -utė, -aitė.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WienerSprachblätter, 2006, issue 4, p. 4. "Alles Gruber in Östereich und nicht Müller wie in Deutschland" (in German). Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  2. ^ "Какие самые распространенные фамилии в Азербайджане?". 1news.az (in Russian). Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  3. ^ Ale.by - Самая распространенная фамилия в Минске - Иванов
  4. ^ Statistics Belgium, Demographic Statistics, most common surnames
  5. ^ Statistics Belgium, Demographic Statistics, total population
  6. ^ Јањатовић, Ђорђе (1993). ПРЕЗИМЕНА СРБА У БОСНИ. ПРОСВЕТА-ТРГОВИНА" д. д. СОМБОР. 
  7. ^ "Most frequent Croatian surnames". www.croatian-genealogy.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  8. ^ "Most frequent surnames, Census 2011". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  9. ^ "Names and surnames in Republic of Croatia". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  10. ^ "What's in a name?". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 2 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Heather Bowne (2005-01-16). "What's in a name?". ABC of Czech (Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha). Retrieved 2008-01-28. "The most common surname in the Czech Republic is Novák, which is closest to the English "Newman"." 
  12. ^ Mužská příjmení - občané ČR a cizí státní příslušníci - 20 nejčetnějších
  13. ^ Ženská přijmení - občanky ČR a cizí státní příslušnice - 20 nejčetnějších
  14. ^ "Navne TOP-20 for hele Danmarks befolkning pr. 1. januar 2011" (in Danish). www.dst.dk. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  15. ^ "Top 500: Eesti kõige levinumad perekonnanimed" (in Estonian). ekspress.ee. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  16. ^ Hagstova Føroya. "Eftirnøvn (2001-2009)" (in Faroese). Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  17. ^ a b Population Register Centre, 2 December 2013. Percentages are based on the population of Finland on 2 December 2013.
  18. ^ "Les noms de famille les plus portés France" (in French). linternaute.com. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  19. ^ Georgian Civil Registry Agency. "Popular Names". Accessed 26 Sept 2013. (Russian)
  20. ^ Rank and percentage of population from: Kunze, Konrad (2004). Namenkunde, Vor- und Familiennamen im deutschen Sprachgebiet, 4th edn (series: dtv-Atlas). München, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 255 pp.
  21. ^ In northern Germany, the alternative form 'Möller' is more common;
  22. ^ Heterograph: Schmitt. In southernmost Germany, the alternative form 'Schmid' is the most common. All forms taken collectively would be #1 surname
  23. ^ Heterographs: Meier, which is common to the north, like Meyer, and Mayer, which is commoner to the south. All forms taken collectively would be #2 surname
  24. ^ "Családnév statisztika 2011. január 1." (xls) (in Hungarian). Népességnyilvántartó Hivatal (Bureau of Population Registration). Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Farkas, Tamás. "Régi magyar családnevek névvégmutató szótára (Reverse dictionary of historical Hungarian family names)". ELTE Magyar Nyelvtudományi és Finnugor Intézet, Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság (Budapest University, Faculty of Hungarian Philology and Finno-Ugric Institute, Hungarian Philology Association), Budapest, 2009. 
  26. ^ Gábor Zaicz (editor-in-chief): Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (Etymological Dictionary: The Origin of Hungarian Words and Suffixes), Tinta Kiadó (Tinta Publisher), 2006, ISBN 963-7094-01-6
  27. ^ The Top 500 Irish & British Surnames, The Observer, 15 April 2007.
  28. ^ [1] Retrieved on 23 September 2008. Registration required.
  29. ^ "Latvians". li.lv. 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  30. ^ Latvian Surname Project http://www.celmina.com/surnames.html
  31. ^ "Įdomioji statistika" (in Lithuanian). stat.gov.lt. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  32. ^ [2]
  33. ^ "Census 2005: A focus on surnames in Malta". nso.gov.mt. 5 June 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  34. ^ "Top 100 last names". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  35. ^ Ministry of Interior (Poland). Statystyka najpopularniejszych nazwisk występujących w Polsce in 2009 (The most popular surnames in Poland in 2009). Retrieved on August 19, 2013.
  36. ^ © 2005 SOCIEDADE PORTUGUESA DE INFORMAÇÃO ECONÓMICA S.A. - SPIE.
  37. ^ Os 100 Apelidos mais frequentes da População Portuguesa
  38. ^ "Cele mai comune nume de familie din Romania, 2013". Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  39. ^ a b c Балановская Е. В., Балановский О. П. (2007). Русский генофонд на Русской равнине (in Russian). Moscow. pp. 165–216. ISBN 978-5-87140-267-2.  See also the web version of the list.
  40. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. године у Републици Србији; Посебна публикација: Најчешћа имена и презимена" (in Serbian Cyrillic). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  41. ^ Najčastejšie priezviska na Slovensku
  42. ^ a b c Votruba, Martin. "Most Common Slovak Last Names". Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh. 
  43. ^ Károly Kocsis (DSc, University of Miskolc) – Zsolt Bottlik (PhD, Budapest University) – Patrik Tátrai: Etnikai térfolyamatok a Kárpát-medence határon túli régióiban, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) – Földrajtudományi Kutatóintézet (Academy of Geographical Studies); Budapest; 2006.; ISBN 963-9545-10-4, CD Atlas
  44. ^ Gyurgyík, László. "An analysis - in a complex approach - of assimilation processes among the Hungarians of Slovakia". Nyelvhatárok, etnikai kontaktuszónák a Kárpát-medence három régiójában. MTA Etnikai-nemzeti Kisebbségkutató Intézet (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ethnic and National Minorities. 
  45. ^ "Most frequent family names". stat.si. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  46. ^ http://www.ociototal.com/recopila2/r_aficiones/apellidos.html
  47. ^ "Namnstatistik". [3]. 15 September 2013. 
  48. ^ "Most Popular Surnames, 2013". Turkish General Directorate of Population and Citizenships. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  49. ^ https://sites.google.com/site/uaname/popularnist-prizvis/misca-1---10000 Популярні призвища та імена України
  50. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/paediatric-epidemiology/pdfs/Signficance_Surnames_Paper.pdf University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper
  51. ^ Most common surnames in Greater London, UK