List of monarchs of Afghanistan

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Monarchy of Afghanistan
Former Monarchy
Emblem of Afghanistan (1931-1973).svg
State Emblem
King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan in 1963.jpg
Mohammed Zahir Shah
First monarchMirwais Hotak
Last monarchMohammed Zahir Shah
StyleHis Majesty
Official residence
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began1709
Monarchy ended17 July 1973
Current pretender(s)Ahmad Shah Khan
 
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Monarchy of Afghanistan
Former Monarchy
Emblem of Afghanistan (1931-1973).svg
State Emblem
King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan in 1963.jpg
Mohammed Zahir Shah
First monarchMirwais Hotak
Last monarchMohammed Zahir Shah
StyleHis Majesty
Official residence
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began1709
Monarchy ended17 July 1973
Current pretender(s)Ahmad Shah Khan

In 1709, Mirwais Hotak and his Afghan tribal chiefs from Kandahar organized themselves and successfully freed their land from Persian rule.[1] Mirwais built a large fortress for himself and turned the town of Kandahar to serve as the capital of the Hotaki Empire.[2][3] After a long series of wars, this empire was eventually replaced by the Durrani Afghan Empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747.[4][5] Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as "the Father of the Nation",[6][7][8] Mirwais Hotak as "the Grandfather" and Mohammed Zahir Shah as the last King of Afghanistan.

Hotaki Empire (1709–1738)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Mirwais Hotak
  • Ghafar Hotak
1673 – 171517091715HotakMirwais Hotak of Afghanistan
Abdul Aziz Hotak
? – 171717151717Brother of Mirwais HotakHotakAbdul Aziz Hotak of Afghanistan
Mahmud Hotaki
1697 – 22 April 1725171722 April 1725Son of Mirwais HotakHotakMahmud Hotaki of Afghanistan
Ashraf Hotaki
? – 173022 April 17251730Nephew of Mirwais HotakHotakAshraf Hotaki of Afghanistan
Hussain Hotaki
? – 173822 April 172524 March 1738Son of Mirwais HotakHotakHussain Hotaki of Afghanistan

Durrani Empire (1747–1823)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ahmad Shah Durrani
  • the Father of the Nation
1722 – 16 October 1772174716 October 1772DurraniAhmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Timur Shah Durrani
1748 – 18 May 179316 October 177218 May 1793Son of Ahmad Shah DurraniDurraniTimur Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Zaman Shah Durrani
1770–184418 May 179325 July 1801
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniZaman Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Mahmud Shah Durrani
(1st reign)
1769 – 18 April 182925 July 180113 July 1803
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniMahmud Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Shuja Shah Durrani
(1st reign)
4 November 1785 – 5 April 184213 July 18033 May 1809
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniShuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Mahmud Shah Durrani
(2nd reign)
1769 – 18 April 18293 May 18091818
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniMahmud Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Ali Shah Durrani
? – ?18181819
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniAli Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Ayub Shah Durrani
? – 1 October 183718191823
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniAyub Shah Durrani of Afghanistan

Emirate of Afghanistan (1823–1926)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Dost Mohammad Khan
(1st reign)
23 December 1793 – 9 June 186318232 August 1839
(deposed)
Son of Sardar Payendah KhanBarakzaiDost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan
Shuja Shah Durrani
(2nd reign)
  • Shah Shujah
4 November 1785 – 5 April 18427 August 18395 April 1842Son of Timur Shah DurraniDurraniShuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Akbar Khan
1816–18455 April 18421845Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiAkbar Khan of Afghanistan
Dost Mohammad Khan
(2nd reign)
23 December 1793 – 9 June 186318459 June 1863Son of Sardar Payendah KhanBarakzaiDost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan
Sher Ali Khan
(1st reign)
1825 – 21 February 18799 June 18631865
(deposed)
Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiSher Ali Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Afzal Khan
1811 – 7 October 186718657 October 1867Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiMohammad Afzal Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Azam Khan
? – 21 February 18687 October 186721 February 1868Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiMohammad Azam Khan of Afghanistan
Sher Ali Khan
(2nd reign)
1825 – 21 February 18797 October 186821 February 1879Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiSher Ali Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Yaqub Khan
1849 – 15 November 192321 February 187912 October 1879
(deposed)
Son of Sher Ali KhanBarakzaiMohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Ayub Khan
1857 – 7 April 191412 October 187931 May 1880
(deposed)
Son of Sher Ali KhanBarakzaiMohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan
Abdur Rahman Khan
1840/44 – 1 October 190131 May 18801 October 1901Son of Mohammad Afzal KhanBarakzaiAbdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan
Habibullah Khan
3 June 1872 – 20 February 19191 October 190120 February 1919Son of Abdur Rahman KhanBarakzaiHabibullah Khan of Afghanistan
Nasrullah Khan
1874–192020 February 191928 February 1919
(deposed)
Son of Abdur Rahman KhanBarakzaiNasrullah Khan of Afghanistan
Amanullah Khan
1 June 1892 – 25 April 196028 February 19199 June 1926Son of Habibullah KhanBarakzaiAmanullah Khan of Afghanistan

Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1973)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Amanullah Khan
1 June 1892 – 25 April 19609 June 192614 January 1929
(deposed)
Son of Habibullah KhanBarakzaiAmanullah Khan of Afghanistan
Inayatullah Khan
20 October 1888 – 12 August 194614 January 192917 January 1929
(deposed)
Son of Habibullah KhanBarakzaiInayatullah Khan of Afghanistan
Habibullah Kalakani
1890 – 3 November 192917 January 192916 October 1929
(deposed)
Non-DynasticHabibullah Kalakani of Afghanistan
Mohammed Nadir Shah
9 April 1883 – 8 November 193316 October 19298 November 1933Great-nephew of Dost Mohammed KhanBarakzaiMohammed Nadir Shah of Afghanistan
Mohammed Zahir Shah
15 October 1914 – 23 July 20078 November 193317 July 1973
(deposed)
Son of Mohammed Nadir ShahBarakzaiMohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan

Royal Standard[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  2. ^ Otfinoski, Steven (2004). Afghanistan. Infobase Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 0-8160-5056-2. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  3. ^ Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: Elibron.com. p. 227. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  4. ^ "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-10-23. "Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747." 
  5. ^ "Last Afghan empire". Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree and others. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  6. ^ Ganḍā, Singh (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan. Asia Pub. House. p. 457. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  7. ^ "Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  8. ^ "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.