List of mnemonics

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This article contains lists of some common mnemonics.

Art[edit]

To remember the Elements of Art: Space, Form, Texture, Shape, Line, Value, Color.

Astronomy[edit]

My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos
Many Very Educated Men Justify Stealing Unique Ninth
Mary's "Virgin" Explanation Made Joseph Suspect Upstairs Neighbour[1]
obsolete:
My Very Earnest Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets
My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets[2]
My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pies
Mary Visits Every Monday Just Stays Until Noon Period
My Very Educated Mother Just Said Uh-oh! No Pluto (Stephen Colbert's tongue-in-cheek mnemonic[3])
Most Volcanoes Erupt Marmalade-Jam Sandwiches Under Normal Pressure
My Very Easy Memory Jingle Seems Useful Naming Planets
My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas

Biology[edit]

Business and Economics[edit]

To remember the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) "Principles of Professional Conduct" from the "Code of Professional Conduct" (Responsibility, The Public Interest, Integrity, Objectivity and Independence, Due Care, Scope and Nature of Services):

Chemistry[edit]

Group 17 in periodic table : Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine (Friends Care Bestfriends Iove Always)

Chronology[edit]

Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
All the rest have thirty-one,
Save February, with twenty-eight days clear,
And twenty-nine each leap year.

Computing[edit]

There are many mnemonics for the seven layers of the OSI Model in computing. Physical / Data Link / Network / Transport / Session / Presentation / Application

Because the layers are numbered from the bottom-up, many mnemonics have been developed in both directions, from the top down and from the bottom up:

  • People Desperately Need To See Pamela Anderson.
  • Please Do Not Throw Sausage/Salami Pizza Away - starts at layer 1 (the bottom),
  • Programmers Like Networks That Seldom Postpone Anything.
  • Another commonly used mnemonic starts with layer 7; All People Seem To Need Data Processing.

The protocol data units (PDUs) for the OSI model can be remembered using:

  • Do Some People Fear Binary? (Data, Segment, Packet, Frame, Bit)

The hard-to-remember PCMCIA standard was ironically encoded as "People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms"

In the Linux kernel, a mnemonic to remember the Magic SysRq key sequence for safe reboot. unRaw / tErminate / kIll / Sync / Unmount / reBoot

  • Raising Elephants Is So Utterly Boring.
  • Reboot Even If System Utterly Broken.

In CSS, a mnemonic for remembering the order of the shorthand versions of some selectors like border, padding, and margin is TRouBLe (Top, Right, Bottom, Left; {margin: Tpx Rpx Bpx Lpx;} ).

Education[edit]

Engineering[edit]

Big brown rabbits often yield great big vocal groans when gingerly slapped [9]
Bad boys run our young girls behind victory garden walls (bad → black, boys → brown, but → blue)[10]

for the colors Black, Brown, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet, Grey, White, Gold, Silver respectively

B B RoyOf Great Britain has a Very Good Wife (B → black, B → brown, Britain → blue) Black, Brown, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet, Grey, White, Gold, Silver respectively

Film[edit]

How to punish bad Daleks before many million earthlings truly see clearly.

Geography[edit]

Geology[edit]

  • Pregnant Camels Ordinarily Sit Down Carefully, Perhaps Their Joints Creak
For Talc(=1) Gypsum(=2) Calcite(=3) Fluorite(=4) Apatite(=5) Orthoclase(=6) Quartz(=7) Topaz(=8) Corundum(=9) Diamond(=10)
  • Toronto Girls Can Flirt And Only Quit To Chase Dwarves .
  • Terrible Giants Can Find Alligators Or Quaint Trolls Conveniently Digestible
  • Tall Girls Can Fight And Other Queer Things Can Do!

History[edit]

All Barons Should Carry Heavy Parcels. Aragon, Boleyn, Seymour, Cleves, Howard, Parr.

The major Roman numerals: 50, 100, 500, 1000:

Languages[edit]

Grammar[edit]

If it's how you feel, or where you are, always use the verb estar.

Onomasty[edit]

Francis (him) and Frances (her)
Don (son) and Dawn (daughter)

Pronunciation[edit]

Ah we soon get old (AIUEO)
Pa let me go too (AEIOU)

Law[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Order of operations[edit]

PEMDAS- Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication & Division, Addition & Subtraction can be remembered by the phrase: "Please excuse my dear Aunt Sally"

BEDMAS - Brackets (parenthesis), Exponents, Division & Multiplication, Addition & Subtraction

Trigonometry[edit]

Remembering the definitions of sine, cosine, and tangent can be done by memorizing SOH-CAH-TOA, which helps to remind you that Sine = Opposite over Hypotenuse, Cosine = Adjacent over Hypotenuse, and Tangent = Opposite over Adjacent.

Other ways to remember SOH-CAH-TOA are:

Another technique is to line up the abbreviations slightly differently: SCT,O/H,A/H,O/A, which stands for Sine Cosine Tangent, Opposite/Hypotenuse, Adjacent/Hypotenuse, Opposite/Adjacent. This mnemonic, "SCTOHAHOA", can be committed to memory as "Sally Can Tell, Oscar Has A Hat On Always". Some students use "Hard On" as opposed to "Hat On", finding that sexual and humorous mnemonics are often easier to recall.

Some people have (sine = perpendicular / hypotenuse) curly brown hair (cosine = base / hypotenuse) through proper brushing (tangent = perpendicular / base) is also used for this purpose.

ASTC stands for All Students Take Calculus, which represents the trigonometric functions that are positive in each quadrant, beginning with the top right and continuing counterclockwise: All, sine, cosine, tangent.

Calculus[edit]

 \frac{d}{d} \frac{hi}{lo} =\frac{ lo\cdot hi' -hi\cdot lo' }{lo^2 }

Another phrase that one may use is: "Bottom d Top, Top d bottom", where "d" stands for derivative (note that this mnemonic does not include the crucial dividing by the bottom squared). Another phrase memorable for sounding like calling a square dance is "Low d high less high d low, Draw the line and square below."

Pi (π)[edit]

Main article: Piphilology

The infinitude of digits in an expansion of the mathematical constant pi has inspired numerous literary and mnemonic writings. See the above referred article for many examples.

Medicine[edit]

Main article: List of medical mnemonics; See also category: Medical mnemonics

'A OF A OF A'

Thenar (lateral to medial-palmar surface):

 Abductor pollicis brevis     Opponens pollicis     Flexor pollicis brevis     Adductor pollicis 

Hypothenar (lateral to medial-palmar surface):

 Opponens digiti minimi     Flexor digiti minimi     Abductor digiti minimi 
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her
So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
Simplly Learn The Positions That The Carpus Has
Send Louis To Paris To Tame Carnal Hungers
VINDICATE
List of mnemonics for the cranial nerves, their respective type and foramen
NERVE:Olfactory nerveOptic nerveOculomotor nervePathic (Trochlear) nerveTrigeminal (dentist) nerveAbducens nerveFacial nerveVestibulo-cochlear (Auditory) nerveGlosso-pharyngeal nerveVagus nerveSpinal Accessory nerveHypoglossal nerve
OphthalmicMaxillaryMandibular
Mnemonic:
(for nerve)[16]
OnOccasionOfPartiesTheAttractiveFacesAreGirlVisitorsSayHi!
TYPE:SensorySensoryMotorMotorBoth (sensory + motor)MotorBothSensoryBothBothMotorMotor
Mnemonic:
(for type)[17]
SomeSayMarryMoney,ButMyBrotherSaysBigBusinessMakesMoney
FORAMINA:Cribriform plateOptic canalSuperior Orbital FissureSuperior Orbital FissureSuperior Orbital FissureForamen RotundumForamen OvaleSuperior Orbital FissureInternal Acoustic MeatusInternal Acoustic MeatusJugular ForamenJugular ForamenJugular ForamenHypoglossal Canal
Mnemonics:
(for foramina)
CleanersOnlySpraySmellyStuffRightOnSmellyIdiotsInJumbledJunkyardsJuggledHigh
CarlOnlySwimsSouth.SillyRogerOnlySwimsInInfinitiJacuzzis.JaneJustHitchhikes.

Music[edit]

Guitar[edit]

  • Eddy Ate Dynamite Good Bye Eddy
  • Every Adult Dog Growls Barks Eats.
  • Every Animal Does Good Before Eating.
  • Easter Angels Don't Give Broken Eggs
  • Every Average Dude Gets Better Eventually
  • Every Acid Dealer Gets Busted Eventually
  • Even After Dinner Giant Boys Eat
  • Elephants And Donkeys Grow Big Ears
  • Elephants Are Dark Grey Bun Eaters
  • Every American Dog Gets Bones Easily
  • Elmer Ate Ducks, Geese, Bunnies Etcetera

Thus we get the names of the strings from 6th string to the 1st string in that order.

Conversely, a mnemonic listing the strings in the reverse order is:

  • Elvis' Big Great Dane Ate Everything
  • Every Big Girl Deserves An Elephant
  • Every Beginning Guitarist Does All Exercises!
  • Easter Bunny Gets Drunk At Easter

Reading music[edit]

  • Every Good Boy Does Fine.[19]
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Footie
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Friendship
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Food
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Fun
  • Every Green Bogey Deserves Flicking
  • Empty Garbage Before Dad Flips
  • Every Green Bus Drives Fast
  • Ernie Gave Bert Dead Fish
  • Elvis' Guitar Broke Down Friday
  • Fat Albert Can Eat
  • F A C E
  • Good Boys Do Fine Always
  • Grizzly Bears Don't Fly Airplanes
  • Great Basses Dig Fine Altos
  • Green Birds Dive For Anchovies
  • Great Big Ducks Fly Away
  • George Bush Drives Fancy Automobiles
  • Greedy Beetles Dig For Ants
  • All Cows Eat Grass
  • All Cars Eat Gas
Yellow cartouche
Red cartouche
Key signatures of C♯ major or A♯ minor (left) and C♭ major or A♭ minor (right)
  • Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle.[20]
  • Fat Cats Go Down Alleys Eating Burgers.
  • Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father.[20]
  • Before Eating A Doughnut Get Coffee First.

Philosophy[edit]

Physics[edit]

Mnemonic for microwave frequency bands in the increasing wavelengths (decreasing frequencies), which are Ku band, X band, C band, S band, L band, respectively is given by, King Xerxes Can Seduce Lovely princesses"[21]

Religion[edit]

Bartholomew, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, James, John, James, Jude, Judas, Simon Peter, Simon, and Matthew
Pride, Avarice (greed), Lust, Envy, Gluttony, Anger (wrath), Sloth
Sloth, Lust, Anger (wrath), Pride, Envy, Greed (avarice), Gluttony
Spectacles (forehead), testicles (stomach), wallet (left shoulder - as when a man's wallet would be carried in the left breast pocket of his jacket), and watch (right shoulder - as when a pocket watch was carried in the right vest pocket)

Spelling[edit]

Characteristic sequence of letters[edit]

In most words like friend, field, piece,pierce, mischief, thief, tier, it is "i" which comes before "e". But on some words with c just before the pair of e and i, like receive, perceive, "e" comes before "i". This can be remembered by the following mnemonic,

I before E, except after C

But this is not always obeyed as in case of weird and weigh,weight,height,neighbor etc. and can be remembered by extending that mnemonic as given below

I before E, except after C
Or when sounded "A" as in neighbor, weigh and weight
Or when sounded like "eye" as in height
And "weird" is just weird

Another variant, which avoids confusion when the two letters represent different sounds instead of a single sound, as in atheist or being, runs

When it says ee
Put i before e
But not after c

Most frequently u follows q. e.g.: Que, queen, question, quack, quark, quartz, quarry, quit, Pique, torque, macaque, exchequer. Hence the mnemonic:

Where ever there is a Q there is a U too[26](But this is violated by some words; see:List of English words containing Q not followed by U)

For words like "oat" or "eat", here the second letter a is silent and first letter o and e respectively are pronounced in the examples

Letters of specific syllables in a word[edit]

Do not believe a lie.
A secretary must keep a secret[26]
The principal is your pal.
There is an ache in every teacher.[26]
Be sure of your measurements before you start work.[26]
A friend is always there when the end comes.
Fri the end of your friend[26]
When Friday ends, you go out with your friends.
The CIA have special agents[26]
Big Elephants Are Ugly[27]
Slaughter is laughter with an S at the beginning.
Pieces of a pie
When you assume, you make an ass of u and me.
Always smell a rat when you spell separate[26]
There was a farmer named Sep and one day his wife saw a rat. She yelled, “Sep! A rat – E!!!”[28]

Distinguishing between similar words[edit]

Advice, Practice, Licence etc. (those with c) are nouns and Advise, Practise, License etc. are verbs.

One way of remembering this is that the word ‘noun’ comes before the word ‘verb’ in the dictionary; likewise ‘c’ comes before ‘s’, so the nouns are ‘practice,licence,advice’ and the verbs are ‘practise,license,advise’.[29]
We hear with our ear.
complement adds something to make it enough
compliment puts you in the limelight[26]
Your principal is your pal
A rule can be called a principle[28]
A sculpture is a kind of picture[28]
Stationery contains er and so does paper; stationary (not moving) contains ar and so does car[26]
A for "at rest", e for envelope

First letter mnemonics of spelling[edit]

Dashing In A Rush, Running Harder Or Else Accident!
Dining In A Rough Restaurant: Hurry, Otherwise Expect Accidents!
Diarrhoea Is A Really Runny Heap Of Endless Amounts[27]
A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream[30]
A Red Indian Thought He Might Eat Tulips In Class
Not Every Cat Eats Sardines (Some Are Really Yummy)[30]
Never Eat Crisps, Eat Salad Sandwiches, And Remain Young![28]
Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants
Big Elephants Cause Accidents Under Small Elephants
Big Elephants Can't Always Use Small Exits
Big Elephants Can’t Always Use Small Entrances[30]
Mnemonics Now Erase Man's Oldest Nemesis, Insufficient Cerebral Storage[28]
George's Elderly Old Grandfather Rode A Pig Home Yesterday.[28]
Trails Of My Old Red Rose Over Window[27]
Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move[30]

Transportation[edit]

  • "Red, Right, Return" reminds the skipper entering ("returning to") an IALA region B port to keep red markers to the starboard of the vessel.
  • The phrase "there's always some red port (wine) left" is used to remember the basics in seafaring. "Red" refers to the color of navigation lights on the port (left) side of a vessel (as opposed to green on the starboard side).[31]
  • "Nuclear Restrictions Constrain Fishing and Sailing, People Say" is used to encode the "order of priority" for which vessels have right of way (earlier in the list has priority over later): Not under command; Restricted; Constrained by draft; Fishing vessel; Sailboat; Powerboat; Seaplane.[31]

  • pre-landing: GUMPS - Gas, Undercarriage, Mixture, Propeller, Speed.
  • pre-final: MARTHA - Missed (procedure), Altitude (limit), Radios (set), Time (limit), Heading (final), Airspeed (descent)
  • pre-high-altitude - FLOWER - Flow (enabled), Lights (test), Oxygen (charged), Water (humidity), Electricity (on), Radio (check)
  • pre-flight-paperwork - ARROW - Airworthiness (certificate), Registration, Required (charts), Operating (checklists), Weight and balance
  • night collision avoidance: Red, Right, Returning - Red nav light on Right implies target is Returning (closing)
  • radio loss Instrument course - CDEF - as Cleared, else Direct to last fix, else as directed to Expect, else as flight plan Filed
  • spin recovery - POKER - Power (off), Opposite (full rudder), Klean (flaps, ...), Elevator (briskly forward), Recover (from dive)

Units of measure[edit]

King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk.
Stands for: kilo-, hecto-, deca-, base unit, deci-, centi-, milli-, in descending order of magnitude. As in centigram, deciliter, meter, etc. Mnemonic's acronym is KHDBdcm.[34]
Also, King Henry Doesn't Bother Dusting Clean Money.
Also, Kangaroos Hop Down British Driveways Carrying Money.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ xkcd: Mnemonics
  2. ^ http://www.feltonfleet.co.uk/departments/science/Resources/mnemonics.pdf
  3. ^ All You Need to Know - Proper Condom Use - The Colbert Report - Video Clip | Comedy Central
  4. ^ E.D. Hirsch, Jr., The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Houghton Mifflin, 1993); E.D. Hirsch, Jr., "What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know: Fundamentals of a Good Fifth-grade Education" (Doubleday, 2005) p308
  5. ^ Scott Hagwood, Memory Power: You Can Develop a Great Memory--America's Grand Master Shows You How (Simon and Schuster, 2007)
  6. ^ Robert A. Wallace, et al., Biology, the Science of Life (Scott, Foresman, 1986) p398
  7. ^ "Life processes - MRS GREN". KS3 Bitesize. BBC. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  8. ^ http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/documents/1158_01.pdf
  9. ^ ^ Jack G. Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard, Fred Eady, Lewin Edwards, David J. Katz, Rick Gentile, Ken Arnold, Kamal Hyder, and Bob Perrin (2008). Embedded Hardware: Know It All. Newnes. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7506-8584-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=HLpTtLjEXqcC&pg=PA17&dq=resistor+color-code+mnemonic+%22big+brown%22&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES&ei=tzaiSZigOZvgkASsy6GNAg
  10. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ApXSoagqrxcC&pg=PA297&dq=resistor+color-code+mnemonic+"big+brown"&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES&ei=tzaiSZigOZvgkASsy6GNAg
  11. ^ Mnemonic: Eras of Life
  12. ^ Mnemonic: Mineral Hardness
  13. ^ Mnemonic: Stalactites and Stalagmites
  14. ^ Mnemonics‏ in English Language Teaching
  15. ^ [1] Mnemonic- Intrinsic muscles of hand
  16. ^ Textbook of Basic Nursing by Caroline Bunker Rosdahl and Mary T. Kowalski (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007) p194; Medical Terminology for Dummies by Beverley Henderson and Jennifer Dorsey (For Dummies, 2008) p327
  17. ^ Caroline Bunker Rosdahl and Mary T. Kowalski, Textbook of Basic Nursing (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007) p194
  18. ^ Welcome englishguitarschool.com - Justhost.com
  19. ^ Every Good Boy Does Fine - What does EGBDF stand for?
  20. ^ a b Schonbrun, Marc (2005). The Everything Music Theory Book, p.68. ISBN 1-59337-652-9.
  21. ^ http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Mnemonic_device
  22. ^ a b http://s3.amazonaws.com/spacenookie/MentatHandbook.pdf Page No 40.
  23. ^ Duodecim Apostoli
  24. ^ PALE GAS | The Stationary Missionary
  25. ^ "Great Mnemonics". Fun-with-words.com. Retrieved 29 Aug 2011. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k http://www.kidsandlearning.com/mnemonics.html
  27. ^ a b c http://www.skillsworkshop.org/sites/skillsworkshop.org/files/resources/word/e1l2mnemonic.pdf
  28. ^ a b c d e f http://www.audiblox2000.com/spelling-mnemonics.htm
  29. ^ Is it practise or practice? - Future Perfect
  30. ^ a b c d Mnemonics > Useful mnemonics
  31. ^ a b c Kuenning, Geoff. "Definitions and Mnemonics for Sailors and Powerboaters". Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  32. ^ http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/imarine/19240.asp in the section "The coming in going out rule"
  33. ^ Useful Aviation Mnemonics (published by Dauntless Software, Inc.)
  34. ^ Schaeffer, Randy S. (April 16, 2007). "Math Mnemonics". Faculty pages for R.S. Schaeffer. Kutztown PA: Kutztown University. Retrieved November 26, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]