Megachurch

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NorthRidge megachurch Plymouth, Michigan

A megachurch is a church having 2,000[1] or more[2] in average weekend attendance.[3] The Hartford Institute's database lists more than 1,300 such Protestant churches in the United States. According to that data, approximately 50 churches on the list have attendance ranging from 10,000 to 47,000.[4] While 3,000 individual Catholic parishes (churches) have 2,000 or more attendants for an average Sunday Mass, these churches are not seen as part of the megachurch movement.[5]

Globally, these large congregations are a significant development in Protestant Christianity. In the United States, the phenomenon has more than quadrupled in the past two decades.[6] It has since spread worldwide. In 2007, five of the ten largest Protestant churches were in South Korea.[7] The largest mega church in the United States is Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas with more than 40,000 members every weekend and the current largest megachurch in the world is South Korea's Yoido Full Gospel Church, with more than 830,000 members as of 2007.[7][8]

Contents

History

The origins of the megachurch movement, with a large number of local congregants who return on a weekly basis can be traced to the 1950s.[9] There were large churches earlier in history, but they were considerably rarer. Examples include Charles Spurgeon's Baptist Metropolitan Tabernacle in London which attracted 5,000 weekly for years in the late 19th century, and religious broadcaster Aimee Semple McPherson's Angelus Temple in Los Angeles, which was similarly large.[10] The advent of television in the 1950s, and the Internet in the 1990s and 2000s have been seen as a motivator for megachurches as megachurch services are often broadcast.[citation needed]

Criticism

A common criticism of megachurches is that they draw members away from other churches.[11] This has led to use of the derisive term, "big box churches". The majority of North American churchgoers attend small churches of fewer than 200 members.[12]

Critics of megachurches claim that such churches are more concerned with entertainment than religion.[13] Al Sharpton has claimed that such churches focus on personal morality issues while ignoring social justice.[14]

Critics have also raised issues with the application of corporate business models,[15] e.g., from Wal-Mart; a seeker-friendly approach, intensive market research, heavy reliance upon opinion polls, polished advertising targeted at affluent young professionals, unconventional worship styles and Eastern influences.

Some megachurches, such as the Christian Open Door, are sometimes criticized by former members and anti-cult associations for an alleged use of cultic practices.[16] A number of pastors of megachurch have also faced allegations of sex- and drug-related crimes. These include but are not limited to Ted Haggard, who admitted to methamphetamine use, paying to have sex with a male prostitute, and having sex with a male member of his congregation,[17][18] and Eddie Long, who is accused of luring two male teenagers into attending his church and forcing sex upon them.[19][20] Also, Earl Paulk was accused of child molestation and a number of affairs,[21] including committing an adultery with his wife's sister and fathering a child by her.[22]

Another concern with megachurches is their tax-exempt status. These churches generate millions of dollars in revenue and are not subject to the same disclosures that charities are on tax-exempt revenues. This has received attention from the US Senate.[23] A megachurch was investigated by a media outlet for allegedly illegal contributions to the political campaigns of Republican candidates[24][25] and one has been accused of embezzlement.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Biard, Julia (2006-02-23). "The good and bad of religion-lite". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-11-05. 
  2. ^ "MegaChurches: large congregations spread across Black America". CBS Interactive. 2004. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  3. ^ USA Churches : Church Sizes Columbus:USAChurches.org. Retrieved 2011-02-05
  4. ^ "Hartford Institute for Religion Research, database of Megachurches". Hirr.hartsem.edu. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/megachurch/database.html. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  5. ^ "Megachurch Definition". Hirr.hartsem.edu. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/megachurch/definition.html. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  6. ^ http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=tflynn_26_5
  7. ^ a b "O come all ye faithful". Special Report on Religion and Public Life (The Economist). 2007-11-03. p. 6. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  8. ^ In Pictures: America's 10 Biggest Megachurches, Forbes.
  9. ^ "Exploring the Megachurch Phenomena: Their characteristics and cultural context". Hirr.hartsem.edu. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/bookshelf/thumma_article2.html. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  10. ^ National Historic Landmarks Program, Angelus Temple
  11. ^ "EEUU: las megaiglesias atraen sobre todo a menores de 45 años (U.S.: megachurches attract mostly younger than 45 years)". http://www.protestantedigital.com/new/nowleernoticia.php?r=283&n=13879. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  12. ^ "National Congregations Study, Cumulative Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)". http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Downloads/NCSCUM_DL.asp. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
  13. ^ Littlefield, Christina. "Long reach of a big church". http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/lv-other/2006/sep/17/566669895.html. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
  14. ^ "Black Leaders Blast Megachurches, Say They Ignore Social Justice". Associated Press. 2005-12-06. Retrieved 2006-11-05. 
  15. ^ "Earthly Empire:How evangelical churches are borrowing from the business playbook". Business Week. 2005-05-23. Retrieved 2006-11-05. 
  16. ^ Naegelen, Lucien (21 Apri 1996). "Le supermarché de Dieu" (PDF). Alsace (in French). Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  17. ^ By RITA HEALY/DENVER Friday, Nov. 03, 2006 (2006-11-03). "A Mega-Scandal for a Mega-Church". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1554388,00.html. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  18. ^ "Church forces out Haggard for 'sexually immoral conduct' - CNN". Articles.cnn.com. 2006-11-03. http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-03/us/haggard.allegations_1_sexually-immoral-conduct-morning-services-church-forces?_s=PM:US. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  19. ^ "Bishop Eddie Long Scandal: Megachurch Flock Stands by Besieged Pastor — Crimesider". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504083_162-20018748-504083.html. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  20. ^ "Sex scandal snares mega-church pastor Eddie Long". Tri-statedefenderonline.com. 2010-09-23. http://tri-statedefenderonline.com/articlelive/articles/5281/1/Sex-scandal-snares-mega-church-pastor-Eddie-Long/Page1.html. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  21. ^ Lewis, Donna (2009-03-29). "Atlanta Metro News". ajc.com. http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/dekalb/stories/2009/03/29/earl_paulk_dies_atlanta.html. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  22. ^ Updated 37 minutes ago 11/30/2011 12:34:10 AM +00:00 (2007-11-19). "Sex scandal hits Georgia megachurch — US news — Faith — msnbc.com". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21888916/ns/us_news-faith/t/megachurch-leader-mega-sized-sex-scandal/#.TpCmhxW-aj0. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  23. ^ "Senator Probes Megachurches' Finances". NPR. 2007-12-04. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16860611. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  24. ^ "First Read — Church directed money to FL gov?". Firstread.msnbc.msn.com. http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2008/04/04/4436565-church-directed-money-to-fl-gov. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  25. ^ http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/msnbc/sections/news/2006email2.pdf
  26. ^ "Crystal Cathedral Scandal 'a Bad Picture of the Church, Christianity', Christian News". Christianpost.com. http://www.christianpost.com/news/crystal-cathedral-scandal-a-bad-picture-of-the-church-christianity-57590/. Retrieved 2011-11-30.