List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

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This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots, e.g. arthr- + -o- + logy = arthrology. But generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem; e.g. arthr- + itis = arthritis, instead of arthr-o-itis. Second, medical roots generally go together according to language, i.e., Greek prefixes occur with Greek suffixes and Latin prefixes with Latin suffixes. Although international scientific vocabulary is not stringent about segregating combining forms of different languages, it is advisable when coining new words not to mix different lingual roots.

Prefixes and suffixes[edit]

The following is an alphabetical list of medical prefixes and suffixes, along with their meanings, origin, and an English example.

A[edit]

Prefix or suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
a-, an-not, withoutAncient Greek ἀ-/ἀν- (a-/an-), not, withoutAnalgesic, apathy
ab-from; away fromLatinAbduction
abdomin(o)-Of or relating to the abdomenLatin abdōmen, abdomen, fat around the bellyAbdomen
-ac, -acalpertaining toGreek -ακός (-akos)cardiac, hydrophobiac
acanth(o)-thorn or spineAncient Greek ἄκανθα (akantha), thornacanthion, acanthocyte, acanthoma, acanthulus
acous(io)-Of or relating to hearingGreek ἀκουστικός (acoustikos), of or for hearingacoumeter, acoustician
acr(o)-extremity, topmostGreek ἄκρον (akron), highest or farthest pointAcrocrany, acromegaly, acroosteolysis, acroposthia
-acusishearingGreek ἀκουστικός (acoustikos), of or for hearingparacusis
-adtoward, in the direction ofdorsad
ad-at, increase, on, towardLatinAdduction
aden(o)-, aden(i)-Of or relating to a glandAncient Greek ἀδήν, ἀδέν- (adēn, aden-), an acorn; a glandAdenocarcinoma, adenology, adenotome, adenotyphus
adip(o)-Of or relating to fat or fatty tissueLatin (adeps, adip-), fatAdipocyte
adren(o)-Of or relating to adrenal glandsLatinadrenal artery
-aemia (BrE)blood conditionGreek ἀναιμία, without bloodAnaemia
aer(o)-air, gasGreek ἀήρ, ἀέροςAerosinusitis
aesthesio- (BrE)sensationGreek αἴσθησιςAnesthesia
-alpertaining toLatin -alisabdominal, femoral
alb-Denoting a white or pale colorLatin albus, whiteAlbino
alge(si)-painGreek ἄλγοςAnalgesic
-algia, alg(i)o-painGreekMyalgia
all(o)-Denoting something as different, or as an additionAncient Greek ἄλλος (allos), another, otherAlloantigen, allopathy
ambi-Denoting something as positioned on both sides; describing both of twoLatin (ambi-, ambo), both, on both sidesAmbidextrous
amni-Pertaining to the membranous fetal sac (amnion)Greek ἄμνιονAmniocentesis
amph(i)-,on both sidesGreek ἀμφί (amphi)Amphicrania, amphismela, amphomycin
an-not, withoutGreekAnalgesia
ana-back, again, upGreekAnaplasia
an-anusLatinanal
andr(o)-pertaining to a manGreek ἀνήρ, ἀνδρ-Android, andrology
angi(o)-blood vesselGreek ἀγγεῖονAngiogram
aniso-Describing something as unequalAncient Greek ἄνῑσος (anīsos), unequalAnisocytosis, anisotropic
ankyl(o)-, ancyl(o)-Denoting something as crooked or bentAncient Greek ἀγκύλος (ankýlos), crooked, curvedAnkylosis
ante-Describing something as positioned in front of another thingLatin (āntē), before, in front ofantepartum
anti-Describing something as 'against' or 'opposed to' anotherAncient Greek αντι (anti), againstAntibody, antipsychotic
apo-away, separated from, derived fromAncient Greek ἀπόApoptosis
arch-first, primitiveAncient Greekarchinephron
arsen(o)-Of or pertaining to a male; masculineGreek (arsein)arsenoblast
arteri(o)-Of or pertaining to an arteryAncient Greek ἀρτηρία (artēría), a wind-pipe, artery (used distinctly versus a vein)Arteriole, artery
arthr(o)-Of or pertaining to the joints, limbsAncient Greek αρθρος (arthros), a joint, limbArthritis
articul(o)-jointLatin articulumArticulation
-arypertaining toLatin -ariusbiliary tract
-aseenzymeGreek διάστασις, divisionLactase
-astheniaweaknessGreek, ἀσθένειαMyasthenia gravis
atel(o)-imperfect or incomplete developmentatelocardia
ather(o)-fatty deposit, soft gruel-like depositAtherosclerosis
-ationprocessLatinmedication
atri(o)-an atrium (esp. heart atrium)Latinatrioventricular
aur(i)-Of or pertaining to the earLatin (auris), the earAural
aut(o)-selfGreek αὐτο-Autoimmune
aux(o)-increase; growthAuxocardia  : enlargement of the heart, Auxology
axill-Of or pertaining to the armpit (uncommon as a prefix)Latin (axilla), armpitAxilla
azo(to)-nitrogenous compoundazothermia : raised temperature due to nitrogenous substances in blood

B[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
balano-Of the glans penis or glans clitoridisGreek βάλανος - balanos, acorn, glansBalanitis
bi-twice, doubleLatinBinary
bio-lifeAncient Greek βίοςBiology
blast(o)-germ or budGreek βλαστόςBlastomere
blephar(o)-Of or pertaining to the eyelidAncient Greek βλέφαρον (blépharon), eyelidBlepharoplast
brachi(o)-Of or relating to the armLatin (bracchium), from Ancient Greek βραχίων (brachiōn), armBrachium of inferior colliculus
brachy-Indicating 'short' or less commonly 'little'Ancient Greek βραχύς (brachys), short, little, shallowbrachycephalic
brady-'slow'Ancient Greek βραδύς (bradys), slowBradycardia
bronch(i)-of or relating to the bronchusBronchiolitis obliterans
bucc(o)-Of or pertaining to the cheekLatin (bucca), cheekBuccolabial
burs(o)-bursa (fluid sac between the bones)LatinBursitis

C[edit]

Prefix or suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
capill-Of or pertaining to hairLatin (capillus), hairCapillus
capit-Pertaining to the head (as a whole)Latin (caput, capit-), the headCapitation
carcin(o)-cancerGreek καρκίνος (karkinos), crabCarcinoma
cardi(o)-Of or pertaining to the heartAncient Greek καρδία (kardía), heartCardiology
carp(o)-Of or pertaining to the wristLatin (carpus) < Ancient Greek καρπός (karpós), wrist; NOTE: This root should not be confused with the mirror root carp(o)- meaning fruit.Carpopedal
cata-down, underGreek κατά (kata)Cataract
-celepouching, herniaAncient Greek κήλη (kēlē)Hydrocele, Varicocele
-centesissurgical puncture for aspirationAncient Greek κέντησις (kentēsis)Amniocentesis
cephal(o)-Of or pertaining to the head (as a whole)Ancient Greek κεφαλή (képhalē), the headCephalalgy
cerat(o)-Of or pertaining to the cornu; a hornAncient Greek κέρας, κερατ- (kéras, kerat-), a hornCeratoid
cerebell(o)-Of or pertaining to the cerebellumLatin (cerebellum), little brainCerebellum
cerebr(o)-Of or pertaining to the brainLatin (cerebrum), brainCerebrology
cervic-Of or pertaining to the neck, the cervixLatin (cervix, cervīc-), neck, cervixCervicodorsal
chem(o)-chemistry, drugGreek χημείαChemotherapy
chir(o)-, cheir(o)-Of or pertaining to the handAncient Greek χείρ, χειρο- (cheir, cheiro-), handChiropractor
chlor(o)-Denoting a green colorAncient Greek χλωρός (chloros), green, yellow-greenChlorophyll
chol(e)-Of or pertaining to bileAncient Greek χολή (cholē), bileCholaemia (UK)/ Cholemia (US), Cholecystitis
cholecyst(o)-Of or pertaining to the gallbladderAncient Greek χοληκύστις (cholēkýstis), gallbladder < χολή (cholē), bile, gall + κύστις (kýstis), bladderCholecystectomy
chondr(i)o-cartilage, gristle, granule, granularAncient Greek χονδρός (chondros)Chondrocalcinosis
chrom(ato)-colorAncient Greek χρῶμαHemochromatosis
-cidal, -cidekilling, destroyingLatinbacteriocidal
cili-Of or pertaining to the cilia, the eyelashes; eyelids< Latin (cilium), eyelash; eyelidCiliary
circum-Denoting something as 'around' anotherLatin (circum), aroundCircumcision
cis-on this sideLatin (cis)
clastbreakGreek κλαστόςosteoclast
co-with, together, in associationLatincoenzymes
col-, colo-, colono-colonColonoscopy
colp(o)-Of or pertaining to the vaginaAncient Greek κόλπος (kólpos), bosom, womb; hollow, depthColposcopy
com-with, togetherLatin
contraagainstLatinContraindicate
cor-with, togetherLatin
cor-, core-, coro-Of or pertaining to eye's pupilAncient Greek κόρη (kórē), girl, doll; pupil of the eyeCorectomy
cordi-Of or pertaining to the heart [Uncommon as a prefix]Latin (cor, cordi-), heartCommotio cordis
cornu-Applied to processes and parts of the body describing them likened or similar to hornsLatin (cornū), hornGreater cornu
coron(o)-crownLatin corōna (“garland, crown”)coronary
cost(o)-Of or pertaining to the ribsLatin (costa), ribCostochondral
cox-Of or relating to the hip, haunch, or hip-jointLatin (coxa), hipCoxopodite
crani(o)-Belonging or relating to the craniumLatin (cranium) < Ancient Greek κρᾱνίον (krānion), the cranium, skull, bones enclosing the brainCraniology
-crine, crin(o)to secreteεκκρίνει ecrineEndocrine
cry(o)-coldGreek κρύοςCryoablation
cutane-skinLatin cutisSubcutaneous
cyan(o)-Denotes a blue colorAncient Greek κύανος, κυάνεος (kýanos, kyáneos), blueCyanopsia
cycl-circle, cycleGreek κύκλος (kuklos)
cyph(o)-Denotes something as bent (uncommon as a prefix)Ancient Greek κυφός (kȳphós), bent, hunchbackCyphosis
cyst(o)-, cyst(i)-Of or pertaining to the urinary bladderAncient Greek κύστις (kýstis); bladder, cystCystotomy
cyt(o)-cellGreek κύτοςCytokine
-cytecellGreekLeukocyte

D[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
dacryo-tearGreek δάκρυDacryocystitis
-dactyl(o)-Of or pertaining to a finger, toeAncient Greek δάκτυλος (dáktylos), finger, toedactylology, polydactyly
de-away from, cessationLatin de-dehydrate
dent-Of or pertaining to teethLatin (dens, dentis), toothDentist
dermat(o)-, derm(o)-Of or pertaining to the skinAncient Greek δέρμα, δέρματ- (dérma, démat-), skin, human skinDermatology
-desisbindingGreek δέσις (desis)arthrodesis
dextr(o)-right, on the right sideLatin dexterDextrocardia
di-twoGreek δι-Diplopia
di-apart, separationLatin
dia-through, during, acrossAncient Greek διά (diá), through, during, acrossdialysis
dif-apart, separationLatindifferent
digit-Of or pertaining to the finger [rare as a root]Latin (digitus), finger, toeDigit
-dipsiasuffix meaning "(condition of) thirst"'Greek dipsapolydipsia, hydroadipsia, oligodipsia
dis-separation, taking apartLatin dis-Dissection
dors(o)-, dors(i)-Of or pertaining to the backLatin (dorsum), backdorsal, Dorsocephalad
dromo-running, conduction, courseGreek dromosDromotropic
duodeno-duodenum, twelve: upper part of the small intestine (twelve inches long on average), connects to the stomachLatin duodeniDuodenal atresia
dynam(o)-force, energy, powerGreek δύναμις (dunamis)Hand strength dynamometer
-dyniapainVulvodynia
dys-bad, difficult, defective, abnormalGreek δυσ-Dysphagia, dysphasia

E[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
-ealpertaining toLatinadenohypophyseal, corneal, esophagus, perineal
ec-out, awayGreek ἐκ- (ek-)Ectopia, ectopic pregnancy
ect(o)-outer, outsideGreek ἐκτόςEctoblast, ectoderm
-ectasia, -ectasisexpansion, dilationAncient Greek ἔκτασιςBronchiectasis, telangiectasia
-ectomyDenotes a surgical operation or removal of a body part. Resection, excisionAncient Greek ἐκτομή (ectomē), excisionMastectomy
-emesisvomiting conditionGreek ἕμεσιςHematemesis
-emiablood condition (AmE)Greek ἀν-αιμία, without bloodAnemia
encephal(o)-Of or pertaining to the brain. Also see Cerebro.Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enképhalos), the brainEncephalogram
endo-Denotes something as 'inside' or 'within'Ancient Greek ἐνδο- (endo-), inside, internalEndocrinology, endospore
eosin(o)-RedEosin comes from Eos, the Greek word for 'dawn' and the name of the Greek goddess of the dawn.Eosinophil granulocyte
enter(o)-Of or pertaining to the intestineAncient Greek ἔντερον (énteron), intestineGastroenterology
epi-on, uponAncient Greek ἐπι- (epi-), before, upon, on, outside, outside ofEpicardium, epidermis, epidural, episclera, epistaxis
episi(o)-Of or pertaining to the pubic region, the loinsAncient Greek ἐπίσιον- (epísion), the pubic area, loins; vulvaEpisiotomy
erythr(o)-Denotes a red colorAncient Greek ἐρυθρός (erythros), redErythrocyte
-esophageal, -esophago-gullet (AmE)Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophágos)Esophagus
esthesio-sensation (AmE)Greek αἴσθησις (aisthēsis)Esthesia
eu-true, good, well, newGreekEukaryote
ex-out of, away fromLatinExcision, exophthalmos
exo-Denotes something as 'outside' anotherAncient Greek ἐξω- (exo-), outside of, externalExoskeleton
extra-outsideLatinExtradural hematoma

F[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
faci(o)-Of or pertaining to the faceLatin (faciēs), the face, countenanceFacioplegic
fibr-fiberLatin (fibra), fiber, filament, entrails[1]fibril, fibrin, fibrinous pericarditis, fibroblast
filli-fine, hair-likeLatin (filum), thread
-formUsed to form adjectives indicating 'having the form of'Latin (forma), form, shapecruciform, cuneiform, falciform
fore-before or aheadforegut
fossaA hollow or depressed area; trench or channelLatin (fossa), ditch, pitfossa ovalis
front-Of or pertaining to the foreheadLatin (frōns, front-), the foreheadfrontonasal

G[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
galact(o)-milkGreek γάλα, γαλακτ-Galactorrhea
gastr(o)-Of or pertaining to the stomachAncient Greek γαστήρ (gastēr), γαστρ-, stomach, bellyGastric bypass
-gen(1) Denotes the sense 'born in, from' (2) Denotes the sense 'of a certain kind'Ancient Greek -γενής (-genēs), from γεν-νάειν (gen-náein), to be born(1) Endogen; (2) Heterogenous
-genicFormative, pertaining to producingGreekCardiogenic shock
genu-Of or pertaining to the kneeLatin (genū), kneeGenu valgum
-geusiaTasteAncient Greek γεῦσις (geusis)Ageusia, dysgeusia, hypergeusia, hypogeusia, parageusia
gingiv-Of or pertaining to the gumsLatin gingīva, gumGingivitis
glauc(o)-Denoting a grey or bluish-grey colourAncient Greek γλαυκός (glaukos), grey, bluish-greyGlaucoma
gloss(o)-, glott(o)-Of or pertaining to the tongueAncient Greek γλῶσσα, γλῶττα (glōssa, glōtta), tongueGlossology
gluco-sweetGreek γλυκός, sweetGlucocorticoid
glyc(o)-sugarAncient GreekGlycolysis
gnath(o)-Of or pertaining to the jawAncient Greek γνάθος (gnáthos), jawGnathodynamometer
-gnosisknowledgeGreekdiagnosis, prognosis
gon(o)-seed, semen; also, reproductiveAncient Greek γόνοςGonorrhea
-gram, -grammerecord or pictureGreek γράμμα (gramma)Angiogram
-graphinstrument used to record data or pictureAncient Greek -γραφία (-graphía), written, drawn, graphic interpretationElectrocardiograph
-graphyprocess of recordingAncient GreekAngiography
gyno-, gynaeco- (BrE), gyneco- (AmE)womanGreek γυνή, γυναικ-Gynecomastia

H[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
halluc-to wander in mindClassical Latin to wander in mindHallucinosis
hemat-, haemato- (haem-, hem-)Of or pertaining to bloodLatin (hæma) < Ancient Greek αἵμα, αἱματ- (haima, haimat-), bloodHematology, older form Haematology
hema or hemo-blood (AmE)GreekHematological malignancy
hemangi or hemangio-blood vesselsHemangioma
hemi-one-halfAncient Greek ἡμι- (hēmi-), "half"Cerebral hemisphere
hepat- (hepatic-)Of or pertaining to the liverAncient Greek ἥπαρ, ἡπατο- (hēpar, hēpato-), the liverHepatology
heter(o)-Denotes something as 'the other' (of two), as an addition, or differentAncient Greek ἕτερος (héteros), the other (of two), another; differentHeterogeneous
hidr(o)-sweatGreek ἱδρωτ-Hyperhidrosis
hist(o)-, histio-tissueGreek ἱστόςHistology
home(o)-similarAncient Greek ὅμοιος (homoios)Homeopathy
hom(o)-Denotes something as 'the same' as another or commonAncient Greek ὁμο- (homo-), the same, commonHomosexuality
humer(o)-Of or pertaining to the shoulder (or [rarely] the upper arm)Incorrect Etymology < Latin (umerus), shoulderHumerus
hydr(o)-waterGreek ὕδωρHydrophobe
hyper-Denotes something as 'extreme' or 'beyond normal'Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hyper), over, above; beyond, to the extremeHypertension
hyp(o)-Denotes something as 'below normal'Ancient Greek ὑπ(ο)- (hypo-), below, underHypovolemia,
hyster(o)-Of or pertaining to the womb, the uterusAncient Greek ὑστέρα (hystéra), wombHysterectomy, Hysteria

I[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
-i-asisconditionGreek -ίασιςMydriasis
iatr(o)-Of or pertaining to medicine, or a physician [uncommon as a prefix; common as as suffix, see -iatry]Ancient Greek ἰᾱτρός (iātrós), healer, physicianIatrochemistry
-iatryDenotes a field in medicine of a certain body componentAncient Greek ἰᾱτρός (iātrós), healer, physicianPodiatry, Psychiatry
-icpertaining toGreek -ικός (-ikos)Hepatic artery
-iclesmallLatinOvarian follicle
-icsorganized knowledge, treatmentLatin -ica < Greek < -ικάObstetrics
idio-self, one's ownGreek ἴδιος, idios, "one's own"Idiopathic
ileo-ileumGreek ἰλεόςIleocecal valve
infra-belowLatinInfrahyoid muscles
inter-between, amongLatinInterarticular ligament
intra-withinLatinintramural
ipsi-sameLatinIpsilateral hemiparesis
irid(o)-irisGreek ἴριςIridectomy
isch-restrictionGreek ἴσχωIschemia
ischio-Of or pertaining to the ischium, the hip-jointAncient Greek ἰσχιόν (ischión), hip-joint, ischiumIschioanal fossa
-ismcondition, diseaseDwarfism
-ismusspasm, contractionGreek -ισμόςHemiballismus
iso-Denoting something as being 'equal'Ancient Greek ἴσος (ísos), equalIsotonic
-istone who specializes inGreek -ιστής (-istes)Pathologist
-itethe nature of, resemblingGreek -ίτηςHermaphrodite
-itisinflammationTonsillitis
-iumstructure, tissuepericardium

J[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
Juxta (iuxta)Near to, alongside or next toLatinJuxtaglomerular apparatus

K[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
kal-potassiumHyperkalemia
karyo-nucleusGreek κάρυον, "nut"Eukaryote
kerat(o)-cornea (eye or skin)GreekKeratoscope
kin(e)-, kin(o), kinesi(o)-movementGreek κινέωKinesthesia
koil(o)-hollowGreek κοῖλος (koilos)Koilocyte
kyph(o)-humpedGreek κυφόςKyphoscoliosis

L[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
labi(o)-Of or pertaining to the lipLatin (labium), lipLabiodental
lacrim(o)-tearLatinLacrimal canaliculi
lact(i)-, lact(o)milkLatinLactation
lapar(o)-Of or pertaining to the abdomen-wall, flankAncient Greek λαπάρᾱ (lapárā), flankLaparotomy
laryng(o)-Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower throat cavity where the voice box isAncient Greek λάρυγξ, λαρυγγ- (lárynx, laryng-), throat, gulletLarynx
latero-lateralLatinLateral pectoral nerve
lei(o)-smoothGreek λεῖοςLeiomyoma
-lepsis, -lepsyattack, seizureGreek λῆψιςEpilepsy, narcolepsy
lept(o)-light, slenderGreek λεπτός (leptos)Leptomeningeal
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)-Denoting a white colorAncient Greek λευκός (leukos), white, brightLeukocyte
lingu(a)-, lingu(o)-Of or pertaining to the tongueLatin (lingua), tongueLinguistics
lip(o)-fatGreek λίπος (lipos)Liposuction
lith(o)-stone, calculusGreek λίθος (lithos)Lithotripsy
log(o)-speechGreek λόγος (logos)
-logistDenotes someone who studies a certain field: _____-logy; a specialist; one who treatsAncient Greek λογιστής (logistēs), studier, practitionerOncologist, pathologist
-logyDenotes the academic study or practice of a certain field; The study ofAncient Greek λόγoς (logos) studyhematology, urology
lymph(o)-lymphGreek λέμφος, λύμφηLymphedema
lys(o)-, -lyticdissolutionGreekLysosome
-lysisDestruction, separationGreek λύσιςParalysis

M[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
macr(o)-large, longGreek μακρόςMacrophage
-malaciasofteningGreek μαλακίαOsteomalacia
mamm(o)-Of or pertaining to the breastLatin (mamma), breast; udderMammogram
mammill(o)-Of or pertaining to the nippleLatin mammilla, nipplemammillaplasty, mammillitis
manu-Of or pertaining to the handLatin (manus), handManufacture
mast(o)-Of or pertaining to the breastAncient Greek μαστός (mastós), breast, women's breast; man's pectoral muscleMastectomy
meg(a)-, megal(o)-, -megalyenlargement, millionGreek μέγαςSplenomegaly, megameter
melan(o)-black colorAncient Greek μέλας, μελανο- (melas, melano-), black; darkMelanin
melosextremityAncient Greek μέλοςerythromelalgia
mening(o)-membraneGreek μῆνιγξ, μηνιγγ-Meningitis
mero-partGreek μέρος (meros), partmerocrine, meroblastic
mes(o)-middleAncient Greek μέσος (mesos), "middle"Mesoderm
meta-after, behindGreek μετάMetacarpus
-meterinstrument used to measure or countGreek μέτρονSphygmomanometer
-metryprocess of measuringGreek -μετρίαOptometry
metr(o)-Pertaining to conditions or instruments of the uterusAncient Greek μήτρᾱ (mētrā), womb, uterusMetrorrhagia
micro-denoting something as small, or relating to smallness, millionthAncient Greek μικρός (mikros), smallMicroscope
milli-thousandthLatin mille, thousandmilliliter
mon(o)-singleGreek μονός (monos)Infectious mononucleosis
morph(o)-form, shapeGreek μορφή (morphē)Morphology
muscul(o)-muscleLatinMusculoskeletal system
my(o)-Of or relating to muscleAncient Greek μῦς, μυ- (mys, my-), muscle; mouse; musselMyoblast
myc(o)-fungusGreek μύκης, μυκητ-Onychomycosis
myel(o)-Of or relating to bone marrow or spinal cordAncient Greek μυελόν (myelon), marrow; bone-marrowMyeloblast
myl(o)-Of or relating to molar teeth or lower jawGreek (myle)Mylohyoid nerve
myri-ten thousandAncient Greek μύριοι (mýrioi), myriadmyriad
myring(o)-eardrumLatin myringaMyringotomy
myx(o)-mucusGreek μύξαMyxoma

N[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
narc(o)-numb, sleepGreek νάρκηnarcolepsy
nas(o)-Of or pertaining to the noseLatin (nāsum), nosenasal
necr(o)-deathGreek νεκρόςNecrosis, necrotizing fasciitis
neo-newGreek νέοςNeoplasm
nephr(o)-Of or pertaining to the kidneyAncient Greek νεφρός (nephrós), kidneyNephrology
nerv-Of or pertaining to nerves and the nervous system [Uncommon as a root: neuro- mostly always used]Latin (nervus), tendon; nerve; Cognate with the Greek νευρον (neuron) (see below)Nerve, nervous system
neur(i)-, neur(o)-Of or pertaining to nerves and the nervous systemAncient Greek νεῦρον (neuron), tendon, sinew; nerveNeurofibromatosis
normo-normalLatinNormocapnia

O[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
ocul(o)-Of or pertaining to the eyeLatin (oculus), the eyeOculist
odont(o)-Of or pertaining to teethAncient Greek ὀδούς, ὀδοντ- (odoús, odont-), toothorthodontist
odyn(o)-painGreek ὀδύνηstomatodynia
-oesophageal, oesophago- (BrE)gulletGreek οἰσοφάγος
-oidresemblance toGreek -οειδήςSarcoidosis
olesmall or littleLatin
olig(o)-Denoting something as 'having little, having few'Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos), fewOligotrophy
om(o)-Of or pertaining to the shoulderAncient Greek ὠμός (ōmos), shoulderOmoplate
-oma (singular), -omata (plural)tumor, mass, collectionGreek -ωμαSarcoma, teratoma
omphal(o)-Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicusAncient Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalós), navel, belly-buttonOmphalotomy
onco-tumor, bulk, volumeGreek ὄγκοςOncology
onych(o)-Of or pertaining to the nail (of a finger or toe)Ancient Greek ὄνυξ, ὀνυχο- (ónyx, ónycho-), nail; claw; talonOnychophagy
oo-Of or pertaining to the an egg, a woman's egg, the ovumAncient Greek ᾠόν, ᾠο- (ōón, ōo-), egg, ovumOogenesis
oophor(o)-Of or pertaining to the woman's ovaryNeoclassical Greek ᾠοφόρον (ōophóron), ovary, egg-bearingOophorectomy
ophthalm(o)-Of or pertaining to the eyeAncient Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós), the eyeOphthalmology
optic(o)-Of or relating to chemical properties of the eyeMiddle French (optique) < Greek ὀπτικός (optikós); ώψ(opsi), vision. Cognate with Latin oculus, relating to the eyeOpticochemical, biopsy
or(o)-Of or pertaining to the mouthLatin (ōs, or-), mouthOral
orchi(o)-, orchid(o)-, orch(o)-testisGreek ὀρχις (orkhis, orkhi-)Orchiectomy, orchidectomy
orth(o)-Denoting something as straight or correctAncient Greek ὀρθός (orthos), straight, correct, normalOrthodontist
-osisa condition, disease or increaseGreek -ωσιςHarlequin type ichthyosis, psychosis, osteoperosis
osseo-bonyLatinOsseous
ossi-boneLatinPeripheral ossifying fibroma
ost(e)-, oste(o)-boneGreek ὀστέονOsteoporosis
ot(o)-Of or pertaining to the earAncient Greek οὖς, ὠτ- (ous, ōt-), the earOtology
-ouspertaining toLatin -osus
ovari(o)-Of or pertaining to the ovariesLatin (ōvarium), ovaryOvariectomy
ovo-, ovi-, ov-Of or pertaining to the eggs, the ovumLatin (ōvum), egg, ovumOvogenesis
oxo-addition of oxygenGreek ὀξύς
oxy-sharp, acid, acute, oxygenGreek ὀξύς(oxus)

P[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
pachy-thickGreek παχύςpachyderma
palpebr-Of or pertaining to the eyelid [uncommon as a root]Latin (palpebra), eyelidPalpebra
pan-, pant(o)-Denoting something as 'complete' or containing 'everything'Ancient Greek πᾶς, παν- (pas, pan-), all, everypanophobia, panopticon
papill-Of or pertaining to the nipple (of the chest/breast)Latin (papilla), nipple; diminutive of papula (see below)papillitis
papul(o)-Indicates papulosity, a small elevation or swelling in the skin, a pimple, swellingLatin (papula), pimple, pustle; a small elevation or swelling in the skinPapulation
para-alongside of, abnormalAncient Greek παρά (para)paracyesis
-paresisslight paralysisGreek πάρεσιςhemiparesis
parvo-smallLatin parvusParvovirus
path(o)-diseaseGreek πάθοςPathology
-pathyDenotes (with a negative sense) a disease, or disorderAncient Greek πάθος (pathos), suffering, accidentsociopathy, neuropathy
pauci-FewLatin paucusPauci-immune
pector-breastLatin pectuspectoralgia, pectoriloquy, pectorophony
ped-, -ped-, -pesOf or pertaining to the foot; -footedLatin pēs, pēd-, footPedoscope
ped-, pedo-Of or pertaining to the childAncient Greek παιδός, childpediatrics. pedophilia
pelv(i)-, pelv(o)-hip boneLatinPelvis
-peniadeficiencyGreek πενίαosteopenia
peo-Of or pertaining to the penisGreek πέος (peos)Peotomy
-pepsiaDenotes something relating to digestion, or the digestive tract.Ancient Greek πεπτός (peptós) cooked, digested < πέσσω (péssō) I boil, cook; digestDyspepsia
per-throughLatin
peri-Denoting something with a position 'surrounding' or 'around' anotherAncient Greek περί (peri), aroundPeriodontal
-pexyfixationGreek πῆξιςNephropexy
phaco-lens-shapedGreek φακόςphacolysis, phacometer, phacoscotoma
-phage, -phagiaForms terms denoting conditions relating to eating or ingestionAncient Greek φαγία (phagía) eating < φαγεῖν (phagein) to eatSarcophagia
-phago-eating, devouringGreek -φάγοςphagocyte
phagist-:Forms nouns that denote a person who 'feeds on' the first element or part of the wordAncient Greek φαγιστής (phagistēs) eater; see -phagiaLotophagi
-phagyForms nouns that denotes 'feeding on' the first element or part of the wordAncient Greek φαγία (phagia) eating; see -phagiahematophagy
phallo-phallusGreek φαλλός (phallos)Aphallia
pharmaco-drug, medicationGreek φάρμακονpharmacology
pharyng(o)-Of or pertaining to the pharynx, the upper throat cavityAncient Greek φάρυγξ, φαρυγγ- (phárynx, pháryng-), throat, windpipe; chasmPharyngitis, Pharyngoscopy
-phil(ia)attraction forGreek φιλίαHemophilia
phleb(o)-Of or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a veinAncient Greek φλέψ, φλεβ- (phleps, phlebo-), blood-vessel, veinPhlebography, Phlebotomy
-phobiaexaggerated fear, sensitivityGreek φόβοςarachnophobia
phon(o)-soundGreek φωνήphonograph, symphony
phos-Of or pertaining to light or its chemical properties, now historic and used rarely. See the common root phot(o)- below.Ancient Greek φῶς, φωτ- (phōs, phōt-), lightPhosphene
phot(o)-Of or pertaining to lightAncient Greek φῶς, φωτ- (phōs, phōt-), lightPhotopathy
phren(i)-, phren(o)-, phrenicothe mindGreek φρήν, φρεν-Phrenic nerve, schizophrenia, diaphragm
phyt-to growhydrophyte
piri-PearLatin pirum, pearPiriformis muscle
-plasiaformation, developmentGreek πλάσιςAchondroplasia
-plastysurgical repair, reconstructionGreek πλαστόςrhinoplasty
-plegiaparalysisGreek πληγήparaplegia
pleio-more, excessive, multipleGreek pleionpleiomorphism
pleur(o)-, pleur(a)Of or pertaining to the ribsLatin (pleura) from Ancient Greek πλευρόν (pleurón), rib, side of the bodyPleurogenous
-plexystroke or seizureGreek πλῆξιςCataplexy
pneum(o)-Of or pertaining to the lungsAncient Greek πνεύμων, πνευμον- (pneumōn, pneumon-), lung < πνεῦμα (pneuma), wind, spiritPneumonocyte, Pneumonia
pneumat(o)-air, lungAncient Greek
pod-, -pod-, -pusOf or pertaining to the foot, -footedAncient Greek πούς, ποδ- (poús, pod-), footPodiatry
-poiesisproductionhematopoiesis
polio-Denoting a grey colorAncient Greek πολιός (poliós), greyPoliomyelitis
poly-Denotes a 'plurality' of somethingAncient Greek πολυς (polys), much, manyPolymyositis
por(o)-pore, porous
porphyr(o)-Denotes a purple colorAncient Greek πορπύρα (porphýra), purplePorphyroblast
post-Denotes something as 'after' or 'behind' anotherLatin (post), after, behindPostoperation, Postmortem
pre-Denotes something as 'before' another (in [physical] position or time)Medieval Latin (pre-) < (Classical) Latin (præ), before, in front ofPremature birth
presby(o)-old ageGreekPresbyopia
prim-Denotes something as 'first' or 'most-important'Latin prīmus, first, most importantPrimary
pro-Denotes something as 'before' another (in [physical] position or time)Ancient Greek προ (pro), before, in front ofProcephalic
proct(o)-anus, rectumproctology
prosop(o)-faceGreek (prosopon), face, maskProsopagnosia
prot(o)-Denotes something as 'first' or 'most important'Ancient Greek πρωτος (prōtos), first; principal, most importantProtoneuron
pseud(o)-Denotes something false or fakeAncient GreekPseudoephedrine
psych(e)-, psych(o)Of or pertaining to the mindAncient Greek ψυχή (psyché), breath, life, soulPsychology, psychiatry
pterygo-Pertaining to a wingGreekLateral pterygoid plate
psor-ItchingPsoriasis
-ptosisfalling, drooping, downward placement, prolapseApoptosis, nephroptosis
-ptysis(a spitting), spitting, hemoptysis, the spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubeshemoptysis
pulmon-, pulmo-Of or relating to the lungs.Latin (pulmo, pulmōn-, usually used in plural), a lungpulmonary
pyel(o)-pelvisAncient Greek (pyelos)Pyelonephritis
pykno-to thicken (as the nucleus does in early stages of cell death)Greek πυκνωνω, to thicken/condensePyknosis
py(o)-pusGreek πύονPyometra
pyr(o)-feverGreek πῦρ, πυρετόςAntipyretic

Q[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
quadr(i)-fourLatinquadriceps

R[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
radio-radiationLatinradiowave
re-again, backwardLatinrelapse
rect(o)-rectumLatin
ren(o)-Of or pertaining to the kidneyLatin (rēnes), kidneyrenal
reticul(o)-netLatinreticulocyte
retro-backward, behindLatinretroversion, retroverted
rhabd(o)-rod shaped, striatedGreek ῥάβδοςrhabdomyolysis
rhachi(o)-spineGreek ῥάχιςrachial, rachialgia, rachidian, rachiopathy
rhin(o)-Of or pertaining to the noseAncient Greek ῥίς, ῥῑνο- (rhīs, rhīno-), noserhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhod(o)-Denoting a rose-red colorAncient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon), roserhodophyte
-rrhageburst forthGreek -ρραγίαHemorrhage
-rrhagiarapid flow of bloodGreek -ρραγίαmenorrhagia
-rrhaphysurgical suturingGreek ῥαφή
-rrhea (AmE)flowing, dischargeGreek -ρροιαGalactorrhea, Diarrhea
-rrhexisruptureGreek ῥῆξιςKaryorrhexis
-rrhoea (BrE)flowing, dischargeGreek -ρροιαdiarrhoea
rubr(o)-Of or pertaining to the red nucleus of the brainLatin (ruber), redRubrospinal
-ruptBreak or burstLatinErupt, Interrupt

S[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
salping(o)-Of or pertaining to tubes e.g. fallopian tubesAncient Greek σάλπιγξ, σαλπιγγ-, (sálpinx, salpingo-) trumpet (literally)Salpingectomy, salpingopharyngeus muscle
sangui-, sanguine-Of or pertaining to bloodLatin (sanguis, sanguin-), bloodSanguine
sarco-muscular, fleshlikeGreek σάρξ, σαρκ-sarcoma
schist(o)-split, cleftGreek σχιστός (schistos)schistocyte
schiz(o)-Denoting something 'split' or 'double-sided'Ancient Greek σχιζω; irregular formation of the verb σχίζειν (schizein), to cut, splitSchizophrenia
scler(o)-hardGreek σκληρόςScleroderma
-sclerosishardeningGreek σκλήρωσιςAtherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis
scoli(o)-twistedGreek σκολιός (skolios)scoliosis
-scopeinstrument for viewingGreek -σκόποςstethoscope
-scopyuse of instrument for viewingGreek -σκοπίαendoscopy
scoto-darknessGreek σκότος (skotos)scotopic vision
semi-one-half, partlyLatinsemiconscious
sial(o)-saliva, salivary glandGreek σίαλος (sialos)sialagogue
sigmoid(o)-sigmoid, S-shaped curvatureGreek σιγμοειδήςsigmoid colon
sinistr(o)-left, left sideLatin
sinus-Of or pertaining to the sinusLatin (sinus), a curve, bend, baySinusitis
sito-food, grainGreek σῖτος (sitos)Sitophobia
somat(o)-, somatico-body, bodilyGreek σῶμα (sōma)somatic
-spadiasslit, fissureGreek σπάδωνhypospadias, epispadias
spasmo-spasmGreek σπασμόςSpasmodic dysphonia
sperma-, spermo-, spermato-semen, spermatozoaGreek σπέρμα (sperma)Spermatogenesis
splanchn(i)-, splanchn(o)-visceraGreek σπλάγχνονsplanchnology
splen(o)-spleenGreek σπλήν, σπλην-Splenectomy
spondyl(o)-Of or pertaining to the spine, the vertebraGreek σπόνδυλος / σφόνδυλος, (spóndylos, sphóndylos), the spineSpondylitis
squamos(o)-Denoting something as 'full of scales' or 'scaly'Latin sqāmōsus, full of scales; scalySquamous cell
-stalsiscontractionGreek στάλσιςPeristalsis
-stasisstopping, standingGreek στάσιςCytostasis, homeostasis
-staxisdripping, tricklingGreek στάξις, στακτός
sten(o)-Denoting something as 'narrow in shape' or pertaining to narrownessAncient Greek στενός (stenos); narrow, shortStenography
-stenosisabnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structureAncient Greek στένωσις (stenōsis)Restenosis, stenosis
steth(o)-Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest, the area above the breast and under the neckAncient Greek στῆθος (stēthos), chest, cuirassStethoscope
stheno-strength, force, powerGreek σθένος
stom(a)mouthGreek στόμα
stomat(o)-Of or pertaining to the mouthAncient Greek στόμα, στοματ- (stóma, stomat-), mouthStomatogastric, stomatognathic system
-stomycreation of an openingGreek -στομίαcolostomy
sub-beneathLatinsubcutaneous tissue
super-in excess, above, superiorLatinsuperior vena cava
supra-above, excessiveLatinsupraorbital vein
sy, syl-, sym-, syn-, sys-Indicates similarity, likeness, or being together; Assimilates before some consonants: before l to syl-, s to sys-, before a labial consonant to sym-.Ancient Greek συν- (syn), with, togetherSymptom, synalgia, synesthesia, syssarcosis

T[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
tachy-Denoting something as fast, irregularly fastAncient Greek ταχύς (tachys), fast, quicklyTachycardia
-tension, -tensivepressureLatinHypertension
tetan-rigid, tenseAncient Greek tetanostetanus
thec-case, sheathAncient Greek θήκη (theke)Intrathecal
thel-Of or pertaining to a nipple [uncommon as a prefix]Ancient Greek θηλή (thēlē), a teat, nippleTheleplasty
thely-Denoting something as 'relating to a woman, feminine'Ancient Greek θῆλυς (thēlys), female, feminineThelygenous
therap-treatmentAncient Greek (therapeía)hydrotherapy, therapeutic
therm(o)-heatAncient Greek θερμός (thermós)
thorac(i)-, thorac(o)-, thoracico-Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest; the area above the breast and under the neckLatin (thōrāx) < Ancient Greek θώραξ (thōrax), chest, cuirassThorax
thromb(o)-Of or relating to a blood clot, clotting of bloodAncient Greek θρόμβος (thrómbos), lump, piece, clot of bloodThrombus, thrombocytopenia
thyr(o)-thyroidGreek θυρεο-ειδής
thym-emotionsGreek: "thymos", spirit, soul; courage; breath, mind, emotionsdysthymia
-ticpertaining toGreek -τικός
toco-childbirthGreek τόκος
-tomecutting instrumentGreek τομή
-tomyact of cutting; incising, incisionGreek -τομίαGastrotomy
tono-tone, tension, pressureGreek τόνος (tonos)
-tonytensionGreek -τονία
top(o)-place, topicalGreek τόποςTopical anesthetic
tort(i)-twistedLatin tortusTorticollis
tox(i)-, tox(o)-, toxic(o)-toxin, poisonGreek τοξικόνToxoplasmosis
trache(a)-tracheaGreek τραχείαTracheotomy
trachel(o)-Of or pertaining to the neckAncient Greek τράχηλος (tráchēlos), necktracheloplasty
trans-Denoting something as moving or situated 'across' or 'through'Latin trāns, across, throughTransfusion
tri-threeLatintriangle
trich(i)-, trichia, trich(o)-Of or pertaining to hair, hair-like structureAncient Greek θρίξ, τριχ(ο)- (thríx, trich(o)-), hairTrichocyst
-tripsycrushingGreek τρίψιςLithotripsy
-trophynourishment, developmentGreek -τροφία, τροφήPseudohypertrophy
tympan(o)-eardrumGreek τύμπανονTympanocentesis

U[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
-ula, -ulesmallLatinNodule
ultra-beyond, excessiveLatin
umbilic-Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicusLatin (umbilīcus), navel, belly-buttonUmbilical
ungui-Of or pertaining to the nail, a clawLatin (unguis), nail, clawUnguiform, Ungual
un(i)-oneLatin (unus)Unilateral hearing loss
ur(o)-Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system; (specifically) pertaining to the physiological chemistry of urineAncient Greek οὖρον (ouron), urineUrology
uri(c)-, urico-uric acidGreek οὐρικός
urin-Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary systemLatin (ūrīna), urine < Ancient Greek ουρον (ouron), see above.Uriniferous
uter(o)-Of or pertaining to the uterus or wombLatin (uterus), womb, uterusUterus

V[edit]

Prefix or suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExamples
vagin-Of or pertaining to the vaginaLatin (vāgīna), sheath, scabbardVagina
varic(o)-swollen or twisted veinLatin varixvaricose
vas(o)-duct, blood vesselLatinvasoconstriction
vasculo-blood vesselLatin vāsculum
ven-Of or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a vein (used in terms pertaining to the vascular system)Latin (vēna), blood-vessel, veinVein, Venospasm
ventr(o)-Of or pertaining to the belly; the stomach cavitiesLatin (venter), the belly, the stomach; the wombVentrodorsal
ventricul(o)-Of or pertaining to the ventricles; any hollow region inside an organLatin (venter), the ventricles of the heart, the ventricles of the brainCardiac ventriculography
-versionturningLatin versiōanteversion, retroversion
vesic(o)-Of or pertaining to the bladderLatin (vēsīca), bladder; blistervesical arteries
viscer(o)-Of or pertaining to the internal organs, the visceraLatin (viscera), internal organs; plural of (viscerum), internal organViscera

X[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
xanth(o)-Denoting a yellow color, an abnormally yellow colorAncient Greek ξανθός (xanthós), yellowXanthopathy
xen(o)-Foreign, differentGreek ξένος (xenos), strangerXenograft
xer(o)-dry, desert-likeGreek ξερός (xeros), dryXerostomia

Y[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
-ycondition or process ofLatin -ia < Greek -ίαSurgery

Z[edit]

Prefix/suffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
zo(o)-animal, animal lifeGreek ζῷονzoology
zym(o)-fermentationGreek ζύμηenzyme, lysozyme

English meanings[edit]

This section contains lists of different root classification (e.g. body components, quantity, description, etc.). Each list is alphabetized by English meanings, with the corresponding Greek and Latin roots given.

Roots of the body[edit]

Roots of bodily concepts[edit]

Bodily conceptGreek rootLatin rootOther root
Digestion-pepsia--
Disease-pathy--
Eating-phagia--

Roots of body parts and components[edit]

(Internal anatomy, external anatomy, body fluids, body substances)

Body part or componentGreek rootLatin rootOther root
abdomenlapar(o)-abdomin--
aortaaort(o)-aort(o)--
armbrachi(o)---
armpit-axill--
arteryarteri(o)---
back-dors--
big toe-allic--
bladdercyst(o)-vesic(o)--
bloodhaemat-, hemat- (haem-, hem-)sangui-, sanguine--
blood clotthromb(o)---
blood vesselangi(o)-vascul-, vas--
bodysomat-, som-corpor--
boneoste(o)-ossi--
bone marrow, marrowmyel(o)-medull--
brainencephal(o)-cerebr(o)-, pector--
breastmast(o)-mamm(o)--
cheststeth(o)---
cheek-Zygomaticbucc--
earot(o)-aur(i)--
eggs, ovaoo-ov--
eyeophthalm(o)-ocul(o)-optic(o)- [French]
eyelidblephar(o)-cili-, palpebr--
faceprosop(o)-faci(o)--
fallopian tubessalping(o)---
fat, fatty tissuelip(o)-adip--
fingerdactyl(o)-digit--
forehead-front(o)--
gallbladdercholecyst(o)-fell--
genitals, sexually undifferentiatedgon(o)-, phall(o)---
glandaden(o)---
glans penis or clitoridisbalan(o)---
gums-gingiv--
hairtrich(o)-capill--
handcheir(o)-, chir(o)-manu--
headcephal(o)-capit(o)--
heartcardi(o)-cordi--
hip, hip-joint-cox--
horncerat(o)-cornu--
intestineenter(o)---
jawgnath(o)---
kidneynephr(o)-ren--
kneegon-genu--
lipcheil(o)-, chil(o)-labi(o)--
liverhepat(o)-, (hepatic-)jecor--
loins, pubic regionepisi(o)-pudend--
lungspneumon-pulmon(i)-, (pulmo-)-
marrow, bone marrowmyel(o)-medull--
mindpsych-ment--
mouthstomat(o)-or--
musclemy(o)---
nailonych(o)-ungui--
navelomphal(o)-umbilic--
necktrachel(o)-cervic--
nerve; the nervous systemneur(o)-nerv--
nipple, teatthele-papill-, mammill--
noserhin(o)-nas--
ovaryoophor(o)-ovari(o)--
pelvispyel(o)-pelv(i)--
penispe(o)---
pupil (of the eye)cor-, core-, coro---
ribpleur(o)-cost(o)--
rib cagethorac(i)-, thorac(o)---
shoulderom(o)-humer(o)--
sinus-sinus--
skindermat(o)-, (derm-)cut-, cuticul--
skullcrani(o)---
stomachgastr(o)-ventr(o)-
testisorchi(o)-, orchid(o)--
throat (upper throat cavity)pharyng(o)--
throat (lower throat cavity/voice box])laryng(o)--
thumb-pollic-
toothodont(o)-dent(i)-
tonguegloss-, glott-lingu(a)-
toedactyl(o)-digit-
tumourcel-, onc(o)-tum-
ureterureter(o)-ureter(o)-
urethraurethr(o)-, urethr(a)-urethr(o)-, urethr(a)-
urine, urinary Systemur(o)-urin(o)-
uterine tubessarping(o)-sarping(o)-
uterushyster(o)-, metr(o)-uter(o)-
vaginacolp(o)-vagin-
veinphleb(o)-ven-
vulvaepisi(o)-vulv-
wombhyster(o)-, metr(o)-uter(o)-
wristcarp(o)-carp(o)-

Roots of color[edit]

ColorGreek root in EnglishLatin root in EnglishOther root
blackmelano-nigr-
bluecyano-
gray, greypolio-
greenchlor(o)-vir-
purpleporphyr(o)-purpur-, purpureo-
rederythr(o)-, rhod(o)-rub-, rubr-
red-orangecirrh(o)-
whiteleuc-, leuk-alb-
yellowxanth(o)-flav-jaun – [French]

Roots of description[edit]

(Size, shape, strength, etc.)

DescriptionGreek root in EnglishLatin root in EnglishOther root
bad, incorrectcac(o)-, dys-mal(e)-mis-
bent, crookedankyl(o)-prav(i)-
bigmega-, megal(o)-magn(i)-
biggestmegist-maxim-
broad, wideeury-lat(i)-
coldcry(o)-frig(i)-
deadnecr(o)-mort-
equalis(o)-equ(i)-
falsepseud(o)-fals(i)-
female, femininethely--
flatplaty-plan(i)-
good, welleu-ben(e)-, bon(i)-
greatmega-, megal(o)-magn(i)-
hardscler(o)-dur(i)-
heavybar(o)-grav(i)-
hollowcoel(o)-cav(i)-
hugemegal(o)-magn(i)-
incorrect, badcac(o)-, dys-mal(e)-mis-
irregularpoikil(o)
large; extremely largemega-magn(i)-
largestmegist-maxim-
longmacr(o)-long(i)-
male, masculinearseno-vir-
narrowsten(o)-angust(i)-
newne(o)-nov(i)-
normal, correctorth(o)-rect(i)-
oldpaleo-veter-
sharpoxy-ac-
shortbrachy-brev(i)-
smallmicr(o)-parv(i)- (rare)
smallest-minim-
slowbrady-tard(i)-
fasttachy-celer-
softmalac(o)-moll(i)-
straightorth(o)-rect(i)-
thickpachy-crass(i)-
varied, variouspoikilo-vari-
well, goodeu-ben(e)-
wide, broadeury-lat(i)-

Roots of position[edit]

DescriptionGreek root in EnglishLatin root in EnglishOther root
aroundperi-circum-
leftlevo-laev(o)-, sinistr-
middlemes(o)-medi-
rightdexi(o)-dextr(o)-
surroundingperi-circum-

Prefixes of quantity[edit]

(Amount, quantity)

DescriptionGreek root in EnglishLatin root in EnglishOther root
doublediplo-dupli-
equaliso-equi-
fewoligo-pauci-
halfhemi-semi-demi- (French)
many, muchpoly-multi-
twicedis-bis-

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

"Root Words: Quick Reference." LearnThatWord. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013.