List of massacres in the United States

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This is a list of massacres in the United States; death tolls may be approximate.

NameDateLocationStateDeathsNotes


Guadalupe Canyon massacre1881 Aug 13Guadalupe Mountains, Arizona TerritoryArizona51 wounded; cowboys ambushed while sleeping. Perpetrators disputed.[1]
Bisbee massacre1883 Dec 8Bisbee, Arizona TerritoryArizona42 wounded by bandits during a general store robbery; one died soon after and is included in fatalities.[2]
Chinese massacre1871 Oct 24Los Angeles, CaliforniaCalifornia18+killed by hanging and unknown injured in ethnic white mob violence against people and property in Chinatown.[3][4]
Golden Dragon massacre1977 Sep 4San FranciscoCalifornia511 injured[5]
Bloody Island Massacre1850 May 15Clear LakeCalifornia60-100Retaliation by a Cavalry Regiment of the US Army for the murder of Frontiersman Andrew Kelsey and Charles Stone.
Ludlow Massacre1914 Apr 20LudlowColorado19killed by Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families, many of whom were immigrants or minorities.[6]
Columbine Mine massacre1927 Nov 21SereneColorado6miners killed with machine guns during coal mine strike.[7]
Rosewood massacre1923 JanRosewoodFlorida8and the entire population of African-Americans in and near Rosewood, about 350, were forced from their homes and never returned.[8]
Hanapepe massacre1924 Sep 9HanapepeHawaii20101 arrested[9]
Haymarket affair1886 May 4ChicagoIllinois11more than 130 injured by dynamite bomb and crossfire of bullets[10]
Herrin massacre1922 Jun 21HerrinIllinois23strikebreakers and union guards at coal mine.[11]
Saint Valentine's Day massacre1929 Feb 14ChicagoIllinois7Prohibition gang killing.[12]
Brown's Chicken Massacre1994 Feb 14PalatineIllinois7Store robbery with murder
Villisca Massacre1912 Jun 10VilliscaIowa8unsolved axe murders of members of 2 families.[13][14][15]
Pottawatomie Massacre1856 May 24–25Franklin CountyKansas5John Brown and followers killed 5 pro-slavery Kansans.[16][17]
Marais des Cygnes massacre1858 May 19Linn CountyKansas5Last major outbreak of violence in Bleeding Kansas[18]
Lawrence Massacre1863 Aug 21Douglas CountyKansas185-200Confederates killed civilians and burned a quarter of the town.[19]
Wichita Massacre2000 Dec 8-14WichitaKansas5Two brothers committed multiple acts of assault, robbery, rape and the murder of several people and a dog over the course of a week.[20]
Bloody Monday1855 Aug 6LouisvilleKentucky22+scores injured in religious mob violence and arson.[21]
Colfax massacre1873 Apr 13ColfaxLouisiana83-153blacks killed at courthouse and as prisoners afterwards.[22]
Coushatta massacre1874 AugCoushattaLouisiana11-26six whites, remainder black killed as political intimidation.[23][24]
Thibodaux massacre1887 Nov 22ThibodauxLouisiana35+perhaps as many as 300 killed, 5+ injuries to striking black sugar-cane workers.[25][26]
Boston Massacre1770 Mar 5BostonMassachusetts511 civilians injured by British Army soldiers.[27]
Blackfriars Massacre1978 Jun 28BostonMassachusetts4four criminals known to the police and a Boston television investigative news anchorman and reporter, allegedly over the sale of cocaine. Perpetrators never determined.[28]
Haun's Mill massacre1838 Oct 30Fairview TownshipMissouri19mob/militia attacked Mormons[29]
Kansas City massacre1933 Jun 17Kansas CityMissouri5the dead include law enforcement officers and a criminal fugitive shot by members of a gang[30]
Sacking of Osceola1861 Sep 23OsceolaMissouri9-12and town of 3,000 sacked and burned to ground in unauthorized raid by Union Jayhawkers.[31][better source needed]
Centralia Massacre1864 Sep 27CentraliaMissouri24unarmed U.S. soldiers murdered by their Confederate captors including Jesse James. 123 killed in ensuing Battle of Centralia.[32]
Baylor Massacre1778 Sep 27River ValeNew Jersey1554 captured or wounded by British[33]
Shelton Laurel Massacre1863 Jan 18Madison CountyNorth Carolina13unarmed Unionists, including three boys, were shot by Confederates after capture.[34]
Kent State shootings1970 May 4Kent State UniversityOhio4unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard[35]
Greenwood Massacre1921 May 31 and Jun 1City of Tulsa,Oklahoma39-300≥800 wounded. One of the nation's worst incidents of racial violence.
Cherokee Courthouse Shootout1872 Apr 15Tahlequah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma)Oklahoma11died in a shoot out in a crowded courtroom, the dead included 8 Deputy US Marshals and 3 Cherokee citizens. Six Cherokee were wounded including the defendant and the judge.[36]
Chinese Massacre Cove1887 MayWallowa CountyOregon10-34Chinese gold miners ambushed and murdered by a gang of horse thieves.
Lattimer massacre1897 Sep 10near HazletonPennsylvania19coal miners killed by sheriff's posse
Ponce massacre1937 Mar 21PoncePuerto Rico19protestors killed by police
Río Piedras massacre1935 Oct 24Río PiedrasPuerto Rico5protestors killed by police
Orangeburg Massacre1968 Feb 8OrangeburgSouth Carolina328 injured by 9 Highway Patrol officers firing into a crowd of protestors against segregation.
Hamburg Massacre1876 Jul 4HamburgSouth Carolina7town looted in a racially motivated incident during Reconstruction.
Waxhaw Massacre1780 May 29LancasterSouth Carolina118150 wounded, 53 captured by British against American Revolutionary soldiers
Fort Pillow massacre1864 Apr 12HenningTennessee297277 Federal black troops by Confederate soldiers (the Union survivors maintain they had never surrendered)
Dawson Massacre1842 Sep 17near San Antonio de BexarTexas3615 injured Americans killed by Mexican artillery fire after raising white flag.
Goliad massacre1836 Mar 27GoliadTexas300+28 escaped, 100 spared as prisoners in mass killing ordered by Antonio López de Santa Anna
Nueces massacre1862 Aug 10Kinney CountyTexas34German Texans killed by Confederate soldiers
Mountain Meadows massacre1857 Sep 7–11Mountain Meadows, Utah TerritoryUtah100-140Emigrant wagon train annihilated by the Mormon Utah Territorial Militia and some Paiute Native Americans
Midnight Massacre1945 Jul 7–8Salina, UtahUtah9German POWs killed by an American guard
Westminster massacre1775 Mar 13Westminster (then part of the New Hampshire Grants)Vermont2killed by officers of the British crown in endeavoring to subdue a mob.
Everett massacre1916 Nov 5EverettWashington527 injured and scores of labor unionists arrested by police and vigilantes.
Centralia Massacre1919 Nov 11CentraliaWashington6many injured in street conflict between American Legion and Industrial Workers of the World members
Wah Mee massacre1983 Feb 18SeattleWashington131 injured by 3 perpetrators during an armed robbery
Bay View Massacre1886 May 5Bay ViewWisconsin7Labor protesters killed by National Guardsmen
Rock Springs massacre1885 Sep 2Rock SpringsWyoming2815 injured in a racial dispute between white and Chinese miners.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Traywick, Ben T., Wyatt Earp's Thirteen Dead Men: Chapter 6, The Tombstone News, accessdate 26 December 2012.
  2. ^ "John Heath and the Bisbee Massacre". Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  3. ^ Zesch, Scott, "Chinese Los Angeles in 1870—1871: The Makings of a Massacre", Southern California Quarterly, 90 (Summer 2008), 109-158
  4. ^ De Falla, Paul M., "Lantern in the Western Sky", The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 42 (March 1960), 57-88 (Part I), and 42 (June 1960), 161-185 (Part II)
  5. ^ Mullen, Kevin J., Chinatown Squad: Policing the Dragon from the Gold Rush to the 21st Century 978-0926664104 - 208 pages Noir Publications, 1 September 2008
  6. ^ Simmons, R. Laurie, Thomas H. Simmons, Charles Haecker, and Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008), National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony Site PDF (32 KB), National Park Service 
  7. ^ Myers, Richard; Eric Margolis; Joanna Sampson; Phil Goodstein (2005). May, Lowell, ed. Slaughter in Serene: the Columbine Coal Strike Reader. Bread and Roses Workers' Cultural Center & Industrial Workers of the World. ISBN 0-917124-01-4. 
  8. ^ D'Orso, Michael (1996). Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood, Grosset/Putnam. ISBN 0-399-14147-2
  9. ^ Chapin, Helen Geracimos (1996). "Suppressing the News and Contributing to a Massacre". Shaping History: The Role of Newspapers in Hawai'i. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 131–138. ISBN 978-0-8248-1718-3. 
  10. ^ "Lists of National Historic Landmarks". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. March 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  11. ^ Paul M. Angle, Bloody Williamson: A Chapter in American Lawlessness, University of Illinois Press, 1992, page 294
  12. ^ Taylor, Troy 2008. Blood, Roses and Valentines: The haunted history of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre, accessdate 27 December 2012
  13. ^ PDF He said he killed eight at God's command: Iowa preacher studying sermon on 'slay utterly' when impulse to slay seized him. New York Times, 2 September 1917, accessdate 28 December 2012
  14. ^ Villisca Axe Murders, 1912, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  15. ^ Carlson, Mark, 100 Years After Iowa Ax Murders, Case Remains Unsolved KCRG ABC, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  16. ^ PBS Online. People & Events: Pottawatomie Massacre "John Brown's Holy War." The American Experience. WGBH, 1999, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  17. ^ Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights. New York: Vintage, 2005. ISBN 0-375-41188-7.
  18. ^ Kansas Historical Society. Marais des Cygnes Massacre site, June 2011, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  19. ^ Goodrich, Thomas. Bloody Dawn: The Story of the Lawrence Massacre. Kent State University Press 12 December 1992. 978-0873384766. 207 pages.
  20. ^ Crime Library. The Wichita Horror, accessdate 25 October 2014.
  21. ^ Hutcheon, Wallace S., Jr., The Louisville Riots of August, 1855. Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 69 (1971), pp. 150-72
  22. ^ Lane, Charles, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction, Henry Holt & Company, New York. 2008. pp. 54–56
  23. ^ Alexander, Danielle "Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction", Humanities, January/February 2004, Vol.25/No. 1., accessdate 14 Apr 2008
  24. ^ Shoalmire, Jimmy G., Carpetbagger Extraordinary: Marshall H. Twitchell, 1840-1905, dissertation at Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, 1969
  25. ^ Bell, Ellen Baker, Thibodaux Massacre (1887), KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana, 15 September 2011, accessdate 2 January 2013
  26. ^ Rodrigue, John. Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in Louisiana’s Sugar Parishes, 1862–1880. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001.
  27. ^ A Fair Account of the Late Unhappy Disturbance at Boston. London: B. White. 1770. OCLC 535966548.  Original printing of the governor's account.
  28. ^ "Ten Most Wanted". FBI. United States Government. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  29. ^ Baugh, Alexander L. (Spring 2010). Jacob Hawn and the Hawn's Mill Massacre: Missouri millwright and Oregon pioneer. Mormon Historical Studies 11 (1) (Mormon Historic Sites Foundation). OCLC 722375475. 
  30. ^ FBI story of the Kansas City Massacre
  31. ^ Sunderwith, Richard, The Burning of Osceola, Missouri
  32. ^ Quantrell, Charles W., A History of His Guerrilla Warfare on the Missouri And Kansas Border During the Civil War, Kessinger Publishing, 1 March 2005, pages 175-176.
  33. ^ "Skirmish Near Tappan". Rivington's Royal Gazette. 3 October 1778. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  34. ^ Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, Tennessee, The University of Tennessee Press. p. 144.
  35. ^ "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (5 March 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (4 May 2005). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved 9 November 2007. 
  36. ^ Smith, Robert Barr, Blood Bath at Going Snake: The Cherokee Courtroom Shootout. , 2004. Wild West, History Net]