List of events named massacres

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FBI assault on Mount Carmel Center April 19, 1993, killing 76, has been described as a massacre.

This is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre".[1] Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers". It also states that the term is used "in the names of certain massacres of history".[2] The first recorded use in English of the word massacre in the name of an event is "Marlowe (c. 1600) (title) The massacre at Paris",[2] (a reference to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre). Massacre can also be used as a verb, as "To kill (people or, less commonly, animals) in numbers, esp. brutally and indiscriminately".[3] The first usage of which was "(c. 1588) Men which make no conscience for gaine sake, to breake the law of the æternall, and massaker soules (...) are dangerous subjects",[3] and this usage is not recorded in this list.

Massacre is also used figuratively and idiomatically for events that do not involve any deaths, such as the Saturday Night Massacre, which refers to the firing and resignations of political appointees during the Watergate scandal. Such events are not listed in the table below.

List of events[edit]

Note: the location column will sort by the following sub regions: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central America, North America, South America, Eastern Asia, South-eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, and Oceania

DateLocationNameDeathsDescription
00061-01-0161Anglesey, BritanniaMenai Massacre0,000,001unknownGaius Suetonius Paulinus ordered the Roman army to destroy the Celtic Druid stronghold on Anglesey in Britain, sacking Druidic colleges and sacred groves. The massacre helped impose Roman religion on Britain and sent Druidism into a decline from which it never recovered.[4][5]
00390-01-01390Thessaloniki, MacedoniaMassacre of Thessaloniki0,007,0007,000Emperor Theodosius I of Rome ordered the executions after the citizens of Thessaloniki murdered a top-level military commander during a violent protest against the arrest of a popular charioteer.[6][7]
00782-01-01782Verden, Lower Saxony, GermanyMassacre of Verden0,004,5004,500Charlemagne ordered the massacre of 4,500 imprisoned rebel pagan Saxons in response to losing two envoys, four counts, and twenty nobles in battle with the Saxons during his campaign to conquer and Christianize the Saxons during the Saxon Wars.[8]
00878-01-01878Syracuse, SicilyMassacre of Syracuse by MuslimsJa'far ibn Muhammad (r. 875–902)The Emir of Ifriqiya was determined to finally capture Syracuse. He appointed a new governor for the island, Ja'far ibn Muhammad, and sent a fleet from Ifriqiya to his assistance. Ja'far began his campaign in 877, raiding the Byzantine territories and occupying some outlying forts around Syracuse, before settling down to besiege the city. The Muslims, well supplied with siege weapons, launched incessant attacks on the city's defenders, but Syracuse received scant reinforcements from Constantinople, where the bulk of the imperial fleet was apparently occupied with carrying building materials for a sumptuous new church built by Emperor Basil. During nine months of siege, the Arabs gradually occupied the outer defenses, and finally, on 21 May 878, stormed the city. The population was massacred or enslaved, and the city thoroughly looted over two months.[9]
01002-11-13November 13, 1002various cities, EnglandSt. Brice's Day massacre0,000,001unknownKing Ethelred II of England ordered all Danes living in England killed. The Danes were accused of aiding Viking raiders. The King of Denmark, Swein Forkbeard, invaded England and deposed King Ethelred.[10][11][12]
01066-12-30December 30, 1066Granada, Al-AndalusGranada massacre0,004,0004,000Apparently angered by a rumour that Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela intended to assassinate the king and take the throne for himself, a Muslim mob killed him and hung his body on a cross. The mob went on to kill the Jewish population of the city.[13][14][15][16]
01182-05-01May 1182Constantinople, Byzantine EmpireMassacre of the Latins[17]0,060,00060,000–80,000Wholesale massacre of all Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople by a mob.
01209-01-011209FranceMassacre at Béziers0,060,00015,000+First major military action of the Albigensian Crusade
01325-01-011325Crow Creek Site, Great Plains, North AmericaCrow Creek massacre[18][19]0,000,500500[20]Native Americans indigenous to the area that is now South Dakota killed Central Plains villagers.[20][21]
01520-11-08November 8, 1520Stockholm, SwedenStockholm Massacre
(Stockholm Bloodbath)
0,000,08080–90[22]Days after his coronation in Stockholm, King Christian II of Denmark – trying to maintain the personal union between Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and thus keep up his claims to the Swedish throne – liquidated nobles and bishops who earlier had opposed him, or who might stir up fresh opposition.[23][24][25]
01570-01-011570CyprusCyprus massacre0,030,00030,000–50,000[26][27][28][29]Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus killed mostly Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants.
01572-08-23August 23, 1572Paris, FranceSt. Bartholomew's Day massacre[30][31]0,070,0005,000 - 70,000[32]A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.[32][33][34]
01580-10-10October 10, 1580Kerry, IrelandSmerwick (Dun an Oir) massacre0,000,600c600English troops commanded by Grey de Wilton massacre Papal invasion forces at Dun an Oir in West Kerry[35]
01622-03-22March 22, 1622Jamestown, VirginiaJamestown Massacre[36][37]0,000,347347The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.
01637-05-26May 26, 1637Mystic, ConnecticutMystic Massacre[38]0,000,400400-700English settlers under Captain John Mason and Narragansett and Mohegan allies set fire to a fortified Pequot village near the Mystic River.
01641-01-0116411641Ulster, IrelandUlster Massacres0,000,100~4,000 - ~12,000The Ulster Massacres were a series of massacres and resulting deaths amongst the ~40,000 Protestant settlers which took place in 1641 during the Irish Rebellion.[39][40][41]
01641-11-01November 1641November, 1641Portadown, IrelandPortadown Massacre0,000,100~100The Portadown Massacre took place in November 1641 at what is now Portadown, County Armagh. Up to 100 mostly English Protestants were killed in the River Bann by a group of armed Irishmen. This was the biggest massacre of Protestant colonists during the 1641–42 uprising.[42]
01644-05-28May 28, 1644Bolton, EnglandBolton Massacre0,000,200200–1,600Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.[43][44][45]
01645-01-011645Yangzhou, ChinaYangzhou massacre0,800,000Up to 800,000Qing troops killed residents of Yangzhou as punishment for resistance[46][47]
01692-02-13February 13, 1692ScotlandMassacre of Glencoe[48]0,000,03838[49]Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.[49]
01755-10-16October 16, 1755Snyder County, PennsylvaniaPenn's Creek Massacre0,000,1414[50]A group of Indians attacked settlers on Penn's Creek
01768-05-10May 10, 1768Southwark in South LondonMassacre of St George's Fields0,000,007 7British troops fired at a mob that was protesting at the imprisonment of John Wilkes, whose crime was criticizing King George III.
01770-03-05March 5, 1770Boston, Province of Massachusetts BayBoston Massacre0,000,0055[51]British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution even though an all-colonist jury found the soldiers innocent.[52][53]
01771-07-17July 17, 1771Kugluktuk, NunavutBloody Falls Massacre0,000,02020[54]Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.[55][56][57]
01778-09-28September 28, 1778River Vale, New JerseyBaylor Massacre0,000,01515[58]British infantry troops attacked sleeping Continental Light Dragoons using bayonets.[58]
01780-05-29May 29, 1780Lancaster, South CarolinaWaxhaw Massacre0,000,113113[59]Loyalist troops under the command of British Colonel Banastre Tarleton slashed and bayoneted fallen American troops during the late stages of the Battle of Waxhaws. Conflicting contemporary accounts claim violation of an American white flag by one or the other of the sides involved.[60]
01780-09-11September 11, 1780Luzerne County, PennsylvaniaSugarloaf Massacre0,000,1515[61]A group of loyalists and Indians during the American Revolutionary War led by Roland Montour attacked a group of American soldiers.
01781-02-24February 24, 1781Alamance County, North CarolinaPyle's Massacre0,000,09393Patriot militia leader Colonel Henry Lee deceived Loyalist militia under Dr. John Pyle into thinking he was British commander Banastre Tarleton sent to meet them. Lee's men then opened fire, surprising and scattering Pyle's force.
01782-03-08March 8, 1782Gnadenhutten, OhioGnadenhutten massacre[62]
(Moravian massacre)
0,000,09696Pennsylvania militia men attacked a Moravian mission and killed 96 peaceful Christian American Indians there in retaliation for unrelated deaths of several white Pennsylvanians.[62][63]
01792-01-011792FranceSeptember Massacres[64][65]0,001,440~1440Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.[66]
01794-01-011794Warsaw, PolandMassacre of Praga0,020,00020,000Inhabitants of the Warsaw district Praga were massacred by pillaging Russian troops following the Battle of Praga.
01809-12-01December 1809Whangaroa, New ZealandBoyd massacre0,000,06666Whangaroa Māori killed and ate 66 crew and passengers on ship The Boyd.[67]
01817-12-09December 9, 1817Madulla,Central Province, Sri LankaMadulla massacre0,000,02222British troops killed 22 unarmed native civilians who were hiding in a cave.[68][69]
01818-01-011818Uva Province, Sri LankaUva-Wellassa MassacreMale population above the age of 18 in the Uva ProvinceMale population above the age of 18[70][71]The 1818 Uva-Wellassa Uprising also known as the Great Rebellion resulted in multiple atrocities against the local Sri Lankans by the British imperialists, including razing and annihilation of villages. The entire Uva region male population above the age of 18 years were killed in revenge for resistance against the British imperialist occupation.[70][71]
01819-08-16August 16, 1819Manchester, EnglandPeterloo Massacre0,000,01111[67]Armed cavalry charged a peaceful pro-democracy meeting of 60,000 people.[67]
01821-03-01March 1821ConstantinopleMassacre of Constaninopolitan GreeksSee Constantinople Massacre of 1821Hundreds of Greeks were massacred by the Ottomans, including the Greek patriarch, bishops and officials.
01821-09-01September 1821Peloponnese, GreeceTripolitsa Massacre0,035,00035,000[72]Up to 30,000 Turks were killed in Tripolitsa and the whole Jewish population was wiped out.[67]
01821-08-19August 19, 1821Navarino, Peloponnese, GreeceNavarino Massacre0,003,0003,000[73]The whole Turkish population of Navarino, which was around 3000, were killed by Greeks.[73]
01822-01-011822Chios, GreeceChios massacre0,020,000about 20,000Tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios were slaughtered by Ottoman troops in 1822.
01838-01-01January 1838Waterloo Creek, AustraliaWaterloo Creek massacre[74]0,000,100100–300Aboriginal Australians killed by a force of colonial mounted police.[75]
01838-06-10June 10, 1838Myall Creek, AustraliaMyall Creek massacre[74]0,000,02828A white posse killed Aboriginal Australians. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.[76]
01838-10-30October 30, 1838Caldwell County, Missouri, United StatesHaun's Mill massacre[77]0,000,01919About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators militiamen and volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one non-Mormon friend.[78][79]
01840-01-011840Gippsland, AustraliaGippsland massacres[80]0,000,450~450[81]A series of massacres spanning several years: 1840 – Nuntin, 1840 – Boney Point, 1841 – Butchers Creek – 30–35, 1841 – Maffra, 1842 – Skull Creek, 1842 – Bruthen Creek – "hundreds killed", 1843 – Warrigal Creek – between 60 and 180 shot, 1844 – Maffra, 1846 – South Gippsland – 14 killed, 1846 – Snowy River – 8 killed, 1846–47 – Central Gippsland – 50 or more shot, 1850 – East Gippsland – 15–20 killed, 1850 – Murrindal – 16 poisoned, 1850 – Brodribb River – 15–20 killed.[81] See also Angus McMillan.
01842-01-06January 6, 1842AfghanistanMassacre of Elphinstone's Army0,016,00016,000Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.[82][83][84]
01857-04-08April 8, 1857Caborca, Sonora, MexicoCrabb Massacre0,000,08484Mexican rebels fight American rebels at Caborca, Sonora. Out of less than ninety Americans, about thirty were killed in battle and the rest were executed by the Mexicans.
01857-09-11September 11, 1857Mountain Meadows, Utah, United StatesMountain Meadows massacre0,000,120120–140[85][86]Mormon militia, some dressed as Indians, and Paiute tribesmen killed and plundered unarmed members of the Baker-Fancher emigrant wagon train.[87]
01857-11-01November 1857Utah Territory, United StatesAiken massacre0,000,0066[88]Six well-to-do Californians travelling through the territory during the so-called Mormon War, were arrested by Mormons as spies, released, then killed and robbed.[89]
01863-01-18January 18, 1863Madison County, North Carolina, United StatesShelton Laurel Massacre0,000,01313Thirteen boys and men, accused of being Union sympathizers and spies, were summarily executed by members of the 64th North Carolina Regiment of the Confederate Army.[90]
01863-01-29January 29, 1863Washington Territory near present day Preston, Idaho United StatesBear River massacre0,000,225~225[91]3rd Regiment California Volunteer Infantry destroyed a village of Shoshone in southeastern Idaho.[92]
01863-08-21August 21, 1863Lawrence, Kansas, United StatesLawrence Massacre0,000,150~150[93][94]Pro-Confederate bushwhackers attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War in retaliation for the Union attack on Osceola, Missouri.[95][96]
01864-04-12April 12, 1864Henning, Tennessee, United StatesFort Pillow Massacre0,000,350350[97]After their surrender following the Battle of Fort Pillow, most of the Union garrison – consisting primarily of Black troops – as well as civilians, including women and children, were massacred by Confederate forces under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest.[98][99][100][101]
01864-11-29November 29, 1864Kiowa County, Colorado, United StatesSand Creek massacre0,000,200~200[102]Colorado Territory 90-day militia destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.[103][104]
01868-11-27November 27, 1868Indian Territory, United StatesWashita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
0,000,02929–150Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.[105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115]
01876-04-30April 30, 1876Batak Ottoman EmpireBatak massacre[116][117][118]0,003,0003,000–5,000Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.[119]
01885-04-02April 2, 1885Frog Lake, North-West Territories, CanadaFrog Lake Massacre0,000,0099Cree warriors, dissatisfied with the lack of support from the Canadian Government for Treaty Indians, and exacerbated by food shortages resulting from the near-extinction of bison, killed nine white settlers, including Indian agent Thomas Quinn.[120][121]
01885-09-02September 2, 1885Rock Springs, Wyoming, United StatesRock Springs massacre0,000,02828Rioting white immigrant miners killed 28 Chinese miners, wounded 15, and 75 Chinese homes burned.[122][123][124]
01890-12-29December 29, 1890Wounded Knee, South Dakota, United StatesWounded Knee Massacre0,000,200200–300[125]The U.S. 7th Cavalry intercepted a band of Lakota Sioux people on their way to the Pine Ridge Reservation for shelter from the winter; as they were disarming them, a gun was fired, and the soldiers turned their artillery on the Lakota, killing men women and children.[126][127]
01894-01-0118941894–1896Anatolia, Ottoman EmpireHamidian massacres0,100,000100,000–300,000[128]

Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered Ottoman forces to kill Armenians across the empire.[128][129][130]

01897-09-10September 10, 1897Pennsylvania, United StatesLattimer massacre0,000,01919Unarmed striking miners were shot in the back: many were wounded and 19 were killed.
01900-01-18January 18, 1900 January 18, 1900Guaymas, MexicoMazocoba Massacre0,000,400~400Mexican Army troops attack Yaqui hostiles west of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.
01902-01-31January 31, 1902Leliefontein, Northern Cape, South AfricaLeliefontein massacre[131]0,000,03535During the Second Boer War, Boer forces under Manie Maritz massacred 35 Khoikhoi for being British sympathisers.
01906-03-10March 10, 1906Bud Dajo, Jolo Island, PhilippinesMoro Crater massacre[132][133]0,000,800800–1,000A U.S. Army force of 540 soldiers under the command of Major General Leonard Wood, accompanied by a naval detachment and with a detachment of native constabulary, armed with artillery and small firearms, attacked a Muslim village hidden in the crater of a dormant volcano.[134]
01907-12-21December 21, 1907ChileSanta María School massacre0,002,2002,200–3,600[citation needed]Was a massacre of striking workers, mostly saltpeter (nitrate) miners, along with wives and children, committed by the Chilean Army in Iquique, Chile. It occurred during the peak of the nitrate mining era, which coincided with the Parliamentary Period in Chilean political history (1891–1925). With the massacre and an ensuing reign of terror, not only was the strike broken, but the workers' movement was thrown into limbo for over a decade.[citation needed]
01909-04-01April 1909April–May 1909Adana Province, Anatolia, Ottoman EmpireAdana massacre0,015,00015,000–30,000In April 1909, a religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana, amidst governmental upheaval, resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district, resulting in an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.[135][136][137][138][139]
01914-04-20April 20, 1914Ludlow, Colorado, United StatesLudlow massacre0,000,02020Twenty people, 11 of them children, died during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado. The event led to wider conflict quelled only by Federal troops sent in by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.[140][141][142]
01919-04-13April 13, 1919Amritsar, IndiaJallianwala Bagh massacre0,000,379379–1526[143][broken citation][144][145]90 British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer, opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. The firing lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, until they ran out of ammunition.[144][145]
01920-11-21November 21, 1920Dublin, IrelandCroke Park Massacre0,000,02323[146]British Auxiliary police and Black and Tans fired at Gaelic football spectators at Croke Park.[146][147]
01923-01-01January 1923Rosewood, Florida, United StatesRosewood Massacre0,000,0088Several days of violence by white mobs, ranging in size up to 400 people, resulted in the deaths of six blacks and two whites and the destruction of the town of Rosewood, which was abandoned after the incident.[148]
01927-05-18May 18, 1927Bath Township, Michigan, United StatesBath School massacre
(Bath School disaster)
0,000,454537 children and a 30 year-old teacher at Bathtown elementary school were killed by a major explosion set off by school board treasurer Andrew Kehoe. About a half hour after the explosion, Kehoe then detonated dynamite in his truck, killing himself and five others, including a fourth grader and four adults. Also, some hours before the event, Kehoe killed his wife at their Bath Township home. This event was the most deadliest mass murder in a school in United States history.
01929-02-14February 14, 1929Chicago, United StatesSaint Valentine's Day massacre0,000,0077[149]Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.[150]
01929-08-01August 1929Hebron, Mandatory Palestine1929 Hebron massacre0,000,06969[151]Arabs kill 69 Jews after being incited by religious leaders. Survivors were relocated to Jerusalem, "leaving Hebron barren of Jews for the first time in hundreds of years."[151]
01929-08-01August 1929Safed, Mandatory Palestine1929 Safed massacre0,000,01818[152]Arabs killed 18 Jews, wounded around 40, and some 200 houses were burned and looted.[153]
01930-04-23April 23, 1930Peshawar, British RajQissa Khwani bazaar massacre0,000,200200–250[154][155]Soldiers of the British Raj fired on unarmed non-violent protestors of the Khudai Khidmatgar with machine guns during the Indian independence movement[154][155]
01930-07-01July 1930Van Province, TurkeyZilan massacre0,004,5004,500[156] - 47,000[157]Turkish troops massacred Kurdish residents during the Ararat rebellion.
01933-08-01August 1933IraqSimele massacre0,003,0003,000[158]Iraqi Army killed 3,000 Assyrian men women and children.[158] The massacre amongst other things included rape, cars running over children and bayoneting pregnant women and children.[158]
01937-03-21March 21, 1937Ponce, Puerto RicoPonce massacre0,000,01919[159]The Insular Police fired on unarmed Nationalist demonstrators peacefully marching to commemorate the ending of slavery in Puerto Rico.[159] It was the biggest massacre in Puerto Rican history.[160]
01937-01-011937–1938Tunceli Province, TurkeyDersim Massacre0,013,16013,160[161]-70,000[162]Turkish troops massacred Alevi residents during the Dersim Rebellion.
01937-12-01December 1937December 1937 – January 1938Nanjing, ChinaNanking Massacre[163][164]
0,260,000Up to 200,000[165]The Imperial Japanese Army pillaged and burned Nanking while, at the same time, murdering, enslaving, and torturing prisoners of war and civilians.[166]
01940-04-01April 1940April–May 1940Katyn, Soviet UnionKatyn massacre0,022,00021,857–25,700[167][168][169]Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.[170][171]
01941-06-01June 1941June–October 1941Soviet Union, Baltic statesNKVD prisoner massacres0,09,0009,000–100,000[172]The Soviet People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del, or NKVD) executed thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.[172][173]
01941-09-29September 29, 1941UkraineBabi Yar massacre0,030,00130,000[174]Nazi Einsatzgruppen killed the Jewish population of Kiev.[174][175][176][177][178]
01941-10-20October 20, 1941October 20–21, 1941SerbiaKragujevac massacre0,002,7962,796-5,000Nazi soldiers massacred Serb and Roma hostages in retaliation for attacks on the occupying forces.
01941-10-22October 22, 1941October 22–24, 1941Odessa, Soviet UnionOdessa Massacre0,025,00025,000–34,000Romanian and German troops, supported by local authorities, massacred Jews in Odessa and the surrounding towns in Transnistria after a bomb detonated in the Romanian HQ.[179]
01941-11-25November 25, 1941November 25 and 29, 1941Kaunas, LithuaniaNinth Fort massacres of November 19410,025,0004,934The first systematic mass killings of German Jews during the Holocaust.
01942-02-01February 1942Laha Airfield, Ambon IslandLaha massacre0,000,300~300[180]The Japanese killed surrendered Australian soldiers.[180][181]
01942-06-10June 10, 1942Protectorate of Bohemia and MoraviaLidice massacre0,000,340340[182]Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.[182][183][184]
01943-01-011943Volhynia, UkraineMassacres of Poles in Volhynia0,050,00150,000-100,000The murders of Polish citizens of the Wołyń Voivodeship, orchestrated, and conducted in most part by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) supported by the civil Ukrainian peasants in years 1943-1947. The peak of the massacres took place in July and August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the extermination of the entire Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age.[185][186][187]
01943-09-21September 21, 1943Kefalonia, GreeceMassacre of the Acqui Division0,005,0005,000Wehrmacht troops executed POWs from the Italian 33 Infantry Division Acqui.
01943-10-07October 7, 1943Wake IslandWake Island massacre0,000,9898Japanese forces under Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara massacred the remaining 98 U.S. civilians in fear of the anticipation U.S. invasion of Wake Island two days after a U.S. air raid on the island.[188][189]
01943-12-13December 13, 1943Kalavryta, GreeceMassacre of Kalavryta0,000,511511-1200The extermination of the male population and the subsequent total destruction of the town of Kalavryta, in Greece, by German occupying forces during World War II on 13 December 1943. It is the most serious case of war crimes committed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
01944-01-27January 27, 1944Chechnya, Soviet UnionKhaibakh massacre0,000,700700The Khaibakh massacre refers to a report of mass execution of the ethnically Chechen population of the aul of Khaibakh, in the mountainous part of Chechnya, by Soviet forces under a NKVD colonel Mikhail Gveshiani.
01944-04-01April 1, 1944Ascq, FranceAscq massacre0,000,08686The Waffen-SS killed 86 men after a bomb attack in the gare d'Ascq.
01944-06-10June 10, 1944Oradour-sur-Glane, FranceOradour-sur-Glane massacre0,000,642642[190]The Waffen-SS killed 642 men, women and children without giving any specific reasons for their actions.[190][191][192][193][194][195]
01944-06-10June 10, 1944Distomo, GreeceDistomo massacre0,000,218218Nazi war crime perpetrated by members of the Waffen-SS in the village of Distomo, Greece, during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
01944-08-08August 8, 1944Warsaw, PolandWola massacre0,040,00040,000–100,000Special groups of SS and German soldiers of the Wehrmacht went from house to house in Warsaw district Wola, rounding-up and shooting all inhabitants.
01944-08-12August 12, 1944Sant'Anna di Stazzema, ItalySant'Anna di Stazzema massacre0,000,560560Retreating SS-men of the II Battallion of SS-PanzergrenadierRegiment 35 of 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS, rounded up 560 villagers and refugees — mostly women, children and older men — shot them and then burned their bodies.
01944-08-01August 1944Warsaw, PolandOchota massacre0,010,00010,000Mass murders of citizens of Warsaw district Ochota in August 1944, committed by Waffen-SS.
01944-08-26August 26, 1944Rüsselsheim, GermanyRüsselsheim massacre0,000,66The townspeople of Rüsselsheim killed six American POWs who were walking through the bombed-out town while escorted by two German guards.
01944-10-01October 1944ItalyMarzabotto massacre0,000,700700–1,800[196]The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.[196][197]
01944-12-01December 1944Malmedy, BelgiumMalmedy massacre0,000,08888Nazi Waffen SS soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).[198][199]
01945-01-01January 1945Chenogne, BelgiumChenogne massacre0,000,06060German prisoners of war were shot by American soldiers in an unauthorized retaliation for the Malmedy Massacre.
01945-02-01February 1945Manila, PhilippinesManila massacre0,100,000100,000Japanese occupying forces massacred an estimated 100,000 Filipino civilians during the Battle of Manila.
01945-04-10April 10, 1945Celle, GermanyCeller Hasenjagd0,000,300300The Celler Hasenjagd ("hare chase of Celle") was a massacre of concentration camp inmates that took place in Celle at the end of the Second World War.
01945-05-15May 15, 1945Bleiburg, AustriaBleiburg massacre[6]0,050,000~80,000 [7]Yugoslav Partisans led by Josip Broz Tito committed a genocide and brutal war crimes against Croatian people (also some Slovenes, Serbs, Montenegrins) at Bleiburg (Austria) known under the name Bleiburg tragedy and Croatian "Way of the Cross". A huge responsibility for this tragedy lies on British Army who extradited POWs to Yugoslav Partisans.[200][201]
01945-05-01May 1945Sétif, AlgeriaSétif massacre0,006,0006,000Muslim villages were bombed by French aircraft and the cruiser Duguay-Trouin standing off the coast, in the Gulf of Bougie, shelled Kerrata. Pied noir vigilantes lynched prisoners taken from local gaols or randomly shot Muslims[202][203][204]
01945-07-31July 31, 1945Ústí nad Labem, today Czech republicÚstí massacre0,006,00080-2700The Ústí massacre (Czech: Ústecký masakr, German: Massaker von Aussig) was a lynching of ethnic Germans in Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig an der Elbe), a largely ethnic German city in northern Bohemia ("Sudetenland") shortly after the end of the World War II, on July 31, 1945.

[205][206][207]

01947-02-28February 28, 1947Taiwan228 Incident0,001,60018,000~28,000It was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan, and was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang government.
01947-12-30December 30, 1947Haifa, Palestine MandateHaifa Oil Refinery massacre0,001,60045Zionist group Irgun throws a bomb on a group of 100 Palestinian refinery workers, killing 6 and 42. In retaliation, Palestinian workers lynch local Jews, resulting in 39 deaths and 49 injuries,[208]
01947-12-31December 31, 1947Haifa, Mandatory PalestineBalad al-Shaykh massacre0,001,60017-71Haganah attacks residents of Palestinian Balad al-Shaykh village, killing 21 while residents were asleep.
01948-04-03April 3, 1948Jeju island, South KoreaJeju massacre0,025,00025,000[209]-60,000[210]Brutal suppression of an uprising. Many Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops whilst putting down the rebellion. Between 25,000 to 60,000 people died during the uprising.[210]
01948-04-09April 9, 1948Deir Yassin, Mandatory PalestineDeir Yassin Massacre0,000,107107The Deir Yassin massacre took place when the Irgun and Lehi Zionist terrorist groups attacked the Palestinian Arab village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, population of 750. Villagers had signed an non-aggression pact with Zionist forces and were asleep at the time of the attack. Arab fatalities estimate 107.[211]
01948-04-13April 13, 1948Mount Scopus, Palestine MandateHadassah medical convoy massacre0,000,07979Convoy, escorted by Haganah militia, bringing medical and fortification supplies and personnel to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus was ambushed by Arab forces. 78 Jews, mainly doctors and nurses, were killed in the ambush.[212]
01948-05-13May 13, 1948Kfar Etzion, Palestine MandateKfar Etzion massacre0,000,0157157Arab armed forces attacked a Jewish kibbutz the day before the Declaration of Independence of the state of Israel[213][214]
01948-07-11July 11, 1948Lod, IsraelLydda massacre0,000,0250250-42680 Palestinian Muslim worshipers are machine-gunned inside a mosque and 20 more after cleaning up the scene of the massacre. Afterwards hundreds of Palestinians, men, women and children, were massacre and expelled during a so-called "death march" as Israeli soldiers of the 89th Brigade, led by Moshe Dayan, throw grenades inside Palestinian houses. Survivors who fled to the streets were shot at by Zionist militants.[215]
01948-10-31October 31, 1948October 31 – November 1, 1948Hula, LebanonHula Massacre0,000,03535The Hula massacre took place October 31 – November 1, 1948. Hula is a Lebanese Shi'a Muslim village near the Lebanese Litani River. It was captured by the Carmeli Brigade of the Israel Defense Forces without any resistance. 35–58 captured men were reportedly shot down in a house which was later blown up on top of them. Two officers were responsible for the massacre; one served a one year prison sentence and later received presidential amnesty. Shmuel Lahis was later to become Director General of the Jewish Agency.[216][217]
01948-10-31October 31, 1948Saliha, Mandatory PalestineSaliha massacre0,000,0949494 Palestinian villagers are packed inside an abode, which was then blown up over their heads by the Zionist Seventh Brigade.[218]
01948-12-12December 12, 1948Batang Kali, MalayaBatang Kali massacre0,000,02424Villagers were purportedly shot by British troops before the village was burnt.[219][220][221]
01949-12-24December 24, 1949Mungyeong, South KoreaMungyeong massacre0,000,08686-88[222][223]Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops.
01950-06-28June 28, 1950South KoreaBodo League massacre0,100,000100,000[224]-200,000[225]During the Korean War, communist sympathizer civilians or prisoners were killed by South Korean troops. The number of victims was likely between 100,000 and 200,000.[224][225]
01950-06-28June 28, 1950Seoul, South KoreaSeoul National University Hospital Massacre0,000,900900[226]During the Korean War, medical personnels, inpatients and wounded soldiers were killed by North Korean troops. The victims were 900[226]
01950-07-26July 26, 1950July 26–29, 1950No Gun Ri, South KoreaNo Gun Ri Massacre0,000,100163-400Early in the Korean War, South Korean refugees trying to cross U.S. lines at No Gun Ri were killed by U.S. troops fearing North Korean infiltrators. In 2005, the South Korean government certified the names of 150 dead, 13 missing and 55 wounded, some of whom died of wounds, and said reports on many more victims were not filed.[227] Survivors estimated 400 dead.[228]
01950-08-14August 14, 1950Waegwan, South KoreaHill 303 massacre0,000,04141[229]During the Korean War, American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army on August 14, 1950.[229]
01950-10-01October 1950October 1950 – early 1951Namyangju, North KoreaNamyangju Massacre0,000,460460[230]During the Korean War, South Korean citizens were massacred by South Korean Police between October 1950[231] to early 1951.[232]
01950-10-09October 9, 1950October 9–31, 1950Goyang, South KoreaGoyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre0,000,153153[233]During the Korean War, South Korean citizens were massacred by South Korean Police between October 9 to October 31, 1950.[233]
01950-10-17October 17, 1950October 17 – December 7, 1950Sinchon, North KoreaSinchon Massacre0,030,00030,000[230]The North Korean government claims that North Korean citizens were massacred by United States forces between October 17 to December 7, 1950.[230] This is widely disputed.
01951-01-06January 6, 1951January 6–9, 1951Ganghwa, South KoreaGanghwa massacre0,000,212212[234]-1,300[235]During the Korean War, Communist collabolator civilians were massacred by South Korean forces, South Korean Police forces and pro-South Korea forces Militia.
01951-02-07February 7, 1951Sancheong and Hamyang, South KoreaSancheong and Hamyang massacre0,000,705705[236]During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army on February 7, 1951.[236]
01951-02-09February 9, 1951February 9–11, 1951Geochang, South KoreaGeochang massacre0,000,719719[237]During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army between February 9 and February 11, 1951.[237]
01953-03-26March 26, 1953Lari near Nairobi, KenyaLari Massacre0,000,150~150About 150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.[238][239]
01956-10-29October 29, 1956Kafr Qasim, IsraelKafr Qasim massacre0,000,04848-49Israeli Border Police shoot Israeli Arab farmers who returned to their village, unaware of the curfew imposed on it. The police command ordered that civilians caught disobeying the curfew be shot. Over half the casualties were women and children.
01960-03-21March 21, 1960Sharpeville, South AfricaSharpeville massacre0,000,07272–90[240]South African police shot down black protesters.[241]
01960-06-16June 16, 1960Mueda, MozambiqueMueda massacre0,000,200200–325Makonde nationalists organized a demonstration in front of the Mueda District headquarters on the Mueda town square demanding independence from Portugal, apparently the district administrator had invited them to present their grievances.[242] The administrator ordered the leaders arrested, and the crowd protested.[243] The Portuguese administrator ordered his pre-assembled troops to fire on the crowd,[244] and then many more were thrown to their death into a ravine.[245] The number of dead is in dispute.[246] However, resentment generated by these events led ultimately to independentist guerrilla FRELIMO gaining needed momentum in the outset of the Mozambican War of Independence.[243][244]
01961-10-17October 17, 1961Paris, FranceParis massacre of 19610,000,200200–325French police, commanded by Maurice Papon, crushed a pacific demonstration of Algerians independentists.
01962-06-02June 2, 1962Novocherkassk, Soviet UnionNovocherkassk massacre0,000,02323–70[247][248]The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.[249]
01962-07-05July 5, 1962Oran, AlgeriaOran massacre of 19620,000,20095–548Massacre of European, mostly French—civilians by the Algerian FLN, at the end of the Algerian War (1954–62).
01964-01-18January 18, 1964January 18–21, 1964ZanzibarMassacres during the Zanzibar Revolution0,008,0008,000–17,000[250][251]Following the overthrow of the Sultan, thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred by John Okello's forces.[252][253][254]
01966-02-12February 12, 1966 February 12 – March 17, 1966Tay Vinh massacre village in Tây Sơn District
of Bình Định Province, South Vietnam
Tay Vinh massacre0,001,2001,200[255]South Korean soldiers killed 1,200 South Vietnamese villagers.[255]
01966-02-26February 26, 1966Gò Dài hamlet, Binh An village in Tây Sơn District
of Bình Định Province, South Vietnam
Gò Dài massacre0,000,380380[255]South Korean soldiers killed 380 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.[255]
01966-08-01August 1, 1966Austin, Texas, United StatesUniversity of Texas massacre0,000,1616University of Texas was the site of a massacre by Charles Whitman, who killed his mother and wife at their homes before killing 15 and wounding 32 others at the University atop the university tower before the police killed him.
01966-10-09October 9, 1966Binh Tai village in Phước Bình District of Sông Bé Province, South VietnamBinh Tai Massacre0,000,06868[256]South Korean soldiers killed 68 South Vietnamese villagers.[256]
01966-10-09October 9, 1966 October 9–10, 1966Tinh Son village, Quảng Ngãi Province, South VietnamDiên Niên - Phước Bình massacre0,000,280280[257]South Korean soldiers killed 280 South Vietnamese villagers.[257]
01966-12-03December 3, 1966December 3–6, 1966Binh Hoa village in Quảng Ngãi Province, South VietnamBình Hòa massacre0,000,422422-430[258][259]South Korean soldiers killed South Vietnamese villagers.[258]
01968-01-31January 31, 1968 January 31 – February 28, 1968Huế, South VietnamHuế massacre0,002,8002,800–6,000[260]During the Vietnam War, unarmed South Vietnamese civilians were massacred by Vietnam People's Army and Vietcong.
01968-01-011968 1968Corregidor, PhilippinesJabidah Massacre11-200[261][262][263]
01968-02-12February 12, 1968Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat hamlets,
Dien Ban District of Quảng Nam Province, South Vietnam
Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat massacre0,000,07979[264]South Korean soldiers killed unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.
01968-02-25February 25, 1968Hà My village, Quảng Nam Province, South VietnamHà My massacre0,000,135135[265]South Korean soldiers killed unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.
01968-03-16March 16, 1968Mỹ Lai and Mỹ Khê hamlets,
Sơn Mỹ, Quảng Ngãi, South Vietnam
My Lai Massacre0,000,504504[266]U.S. soldiers murdered, tortured and assaulted 347–504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers–suspected of aiding Vietcong–ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.[266][267]
01968-10-02October 2, 1968Mexico City, MexicoTlatelolco massacre0,000,02525–250[268][269]Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 250 (according to human rights activists, CIA documents[270] and independent investigations) students 10 days before the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre.[269][271]
01970-05-04May 4, 1970Kent State University, Ohio, United StatesKent State massacre0,000,0044[272]29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.[272][273][274]
01971-05-15May 15, 1971Barisal District, East PakistanKetnar Bil massacre0,000,120More than 500Massacre of unarmed Bengali Hindus in Ketnar Bil region of Barisal District by the Pakistan Occupation Army.
01971-06-10June 10, 1971Mexico City, MexicoCorpus Christi massacre0,000,120? (officially)-120 (according to independent investigations)Similar to the Tlatelolco Massacre, the Corpus Christi Massacre took place on Thursday, June 10, 1971 when a student march got brutally attacked by a shock group called Los Halcones.
01972-01-30January 30, 1972Derry, Northern IrelandBogside Massacre
(Bloody Sunday)[275]
0,000,01414[276]British paratroopers fired on unarmed civil rights protesters, killing 14.[277] The government sponsored Saville Report, released in June 2010, found all those killed were innocent civil rights demonstrators, prompting an apology by UK Prime Minister David Cameron. As of that time, no one had been prosecuted for the killings.[278]
01972-05-30May 30, 1972Lod, IsraelLod Airport massacre0,000,02626[279]Three members of the Japanese Red Army, on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, killed 26 people and injured 80 others at Tel Aviv's Lod airport (now Ben Gurion International Airport).[279][280][281][282][283]
01972-09-05September 5, 1972Munich, GermanyMunich Massacre[284]0,000,01212[285]Members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by the Palestinian Black September group. A West German police officer was also killed.
01973-05-25May 25, 1973Ezeiza, ArgentinaEzeiza Massacre[286]0,000,01313[286]Members of the right wing of the Peronist party shot and killed at least 13 after Peron's return to Argentina.
01974-05-15May 15, 1974Ma'alot, IsraelMa'alot massacre[287][288]0,000,02929[288]Members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrate Israel from Lebanon, shoot and kill a Christian Arab woman and a Jewish couple and their 4-year-old son, and then take hostage and kill 22 high school students and three of their adult escorts.[288]
01974-08-14August 14, 1974Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda, CyprusMaratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre[289][290][291]0,000,126126[292]EOKA-B gunmen massacred the Turkish Cypriot inhabitants of the villages of Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda.[289][292]
01975-07-31July 31, 1975Northern IrelandMiami Showband massacre0,000,0055Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.[293][294][295][296][297]
01976-01-05January 5, 1976Northern IrelandKingsmill massacre0,000,01010[298]Irish republicans shot ten Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.[298][299]
01976-01-18January 18, 1976LebanonKarantina massacre0,001,5001,500Lebanese Christian militias overrun the Karantina district in East Beirut and kill up to 1,500 Palestinians and Muslims during the Lebanese Civil War.[300]
01976-01-20January 20, 1976LebanonDamour massacre0,000,582582[301]Palestinian militia aligned with the Lebanese National Movement kill 150 to 582 Christian civilians in the village of Damour during the Lebanese Civil War, in retaliation for the Karantina massacre.[301]
01976-08-12August 12, 1976LebanonTel al-Zaatar massacre0,001,5001,500 to 3000Lebanese Christian militias enter the Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp and kill up to 3,000 people during the Lebanese Civil War.[302][303]
01978-03-11March 11, 1978IsraelCoastal Road massacre0,000,03535[304]Palestinian Fatah members based in Lebanon land on a beach north of Tel Aviv, kill an American photographer, and hijack an inter-city bus driving along Israel's Coastal Highway. 35 civilians are killed and 80 wounded.[304][305][306][307]
01979-01-31January 31, 1979Marichjhapi,West Bengal, IndiaMarichjhapi massacre0,015,00010,000-15000Marichjhapi massacre refers to the forcible eviction of Bengali Hindu refugees and their subsequent death by starvation, exhaustion and police firing in the period between January to June, 1979. The Hindu refugees who had fled East Pakistan in the sixties, had settled in Dandakaranya. In the seventies, the Left Front leaders launched a campaign for the return of the Bengali Hindu refugees to their native land. By April, 1978, around 30,000 Bengali Hindu refugees had settled in the island of Marichjhapi in the Sundarbans. The Left Front government imposed economic sanctions on Marichjhapi and cordoned off the island with police. When the inhabitants tried to swim across to other islands, they were shot dead. Out of the 14,388 families that had settled in the island 4,128 died of starvation, exhaustion and police firing.
01980-05-18May 18, 1980South KoreaGwangju Democratization Movement0,002,0002000An escalated popular uprising in the city of Gwangju, South Korea during which some of the civilian protesters armed themselves by raiding police stations and military depots led to the South Korean army violently ending the protests, causing hundreds of deaths.
01980-06-27June 27, 1980Palmyra, SyriaTadmor Prison massacre0,001,000about 1,000The massacre occurred the day after a failed attempt to assassinate Syrian president Hafez el-Assad. Members of the units of the Defence Brigades, under the command of Rifaat El Assad, brother of the president, entered in Tadmor Prison and assassinated about a thousand prisoners in the cells and the dormitories.
01981-12-11December 11, 1981El SalvadorEl Mozote Massacre0,001,0011,000The El Mozote Massacre took place in the village of El Mozote, in Morazán department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when Salvadoran armed forces trained by the United States military killed at least 1000 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign.[308]
01982-01-14January 14, 1982MexicoTula Massacre0,000,0131313 tortured bodies were found at Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico at the time of Arturo Durazo Moreno Administration
01982-02-02February 2, 1982SyriaHama massacre0,007,0007,000–35,000[309][dead link]The Syrian Army killed an estimated 30,000 people in the city of Hama. Instances of mass execution and torture by the Syrian military were documented during the attacks.[310]
01982-09-16September 16, 1982September 16–18, 1982LebanonSabra and Shatila massacre0,000,700700–3,500Residents of Sabra and Shatila, mostly Palestinian refugees and Lebanese Shia, are killed by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia in the refugee camps, with the help of Israeli forces that encircled the area. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.[311][312][313]
01983-04-03April 3, 1983PeruLucanamarca massacre0,000,06969Maoist Shining Path guerrillas massacre 69 men, women and children with axes, machetes and guns in and around the town of Lucanamarca, Peru.[314]
01984-07-18July 18, 1984San Diego, United StatesSan Ysidro McDonald's Massacre0,000,02121Gunman James Oliver Huberty killed 21 people in a McDonald's restaurant before being fatally shot by a SWAT team sniper.[315][316][317]
01984-10-31October 31, 1984October 31–November 3, 1984India1984 Sikh Massacre0,000,0212,700–20,000Mobs composed primarily of Indian National Congress workers and local hoodlums chase down and lynch Sikhs in northern India following the assassination of India PM, Indira Gandhi, at the hands of her Sikh guards.
01985-03-23March 23, 1985IraqDujail Massacre0,000,129129[318]
(33 died in detention before trial)
Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein by the Shiite Dawa Party, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to arrest all Dawa members and their families, imprisoning 787 men, women and children. In March 1985, 96 of the 148 who had confessed to having taken part in the assassination attempt were executed.[318][319][320][321]
01985-05-14May 14, 1985Sri LankaAnuradhapura massacre0,000,047146[322]Tamil Tiger gunmen shoot dead 146 Sinhalese civilians including Buddhist nuns and monks and injure 85 others as they were praying at Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, a sacred Buddhist shrine in Anuradhapura.[323]
01985-08-14August 14, 1985PeruAccomarca massacre0,000,04747–74[324][325][326]An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.[325]
01987-06-02June 2, 1987Sri LankaAranthalawa Massacre0,000,04732Tamil Tigers stop a bus carrying Buddhist monks in Arantalawa and massacre all except of one monk. Killed in the massacre are Chief Priest Ven. Hegoda Indrasara and several novice monks (under the age of 18)[327]
01987-08-09August 9, 1987Clifton Hill, Victoria, AustraliaHoddle Street massacre0,000,077[328]The Hoddle Street massacre of 9 August 1987 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 7 people and wounded 19 others at Hoddle Street in Clifton Hill in north-eastern Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.[329]
01987-08-19August 19, 1987Hungerford, EnglandHungerford massacre0,000,01616[330]A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.[331]
01987-11-08November 8, 1987Enniskillen, Northern IrelandRemembrance Day bombing
(Poppy Day Massacre)
0,000,01212Provisional IRA bombing at the town's cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday.[332]
01987-12-08December 8, 1987Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaQueen Street massacre0,000,088[328]The Queen Street massacre of 8 December 1987 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 8 people and wounded 5 others in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.[329]
01988-03-16March 16, 1988Belfast, Northern IrelandMilltown massacre0,000,0033Ulster Defence Association (UDA) member Michael Stone kills three people and injures 60 others in a gun and grenade attack at the funeral of three IRA members being held in Milltown Cemetery, Belfast.[333][334]
01989-06-04June 4, 1989Tiananmen Square, Beijing, ChinaTiananmen Square Massacre0,000,400400–3,000[335]The mourning of Hu Yaobang eventually evolved into a large-scale anti-corruption and democratic demonstration, which was ended in a violent suppression by state-controlled army. The actual number of deaths is still unknown.[336][337]
01989-12-06December 6, 1989École Polytechnique, Montreal, CanadaÉcole Polytechnique massacre[338]0,000,01414Marc Lépine, a misogynist and anti-feminist, shot and killed 14 female students of the École Polytechnique de Montréal and wounded 14 other people before turning his gun on himself. The event led to stricter gun control laws[339] and changes in police tactical response to shootings in Canada.[340]
01990-09-05September 5, 1990Batticaloa District, Sri LankaEastern University massacre,0,000,158158[341]Eastern University massacre is the massacre of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.[341][342][343]
01990-09-09September 9, 1990Batticaloa District, Sri LankaSathurukondan massacre0,000,184184[344][345]Sathurukondan massacre, also known as the 1990 Batticaloa massacre is the massacre of 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.[344][345][346][347][348]
01990-11-13November 13, 1990Aramoana, New ZealandAramoana massacre0,000,01313Lone gunman David Malcolm Gray began shooting indiscriminately at people, killing 13 people before being killed by police himself, allegedly after a dispute with his next door neighbor. It remains New Zealands deadliest criminal shooting.[349][350][351][352]
01991-10-16October 16, 1991Killeen, Texas, United StatesLuby's massacre0,000,02222George Jo Hennard drove his pickup truck into a Luby's Cafeteria and shot and killed 22 people, wounded another 20 and then committed suicide by shooting himself.[353][354][355][356][357]
01991-11-03November 3, 1991Lima, PeruBarrios Altos massacre0,000,02222Fifteen people were killed and four injured when Grupo Colina, the anticommunist paramilitary squad, opened fire on a neighborhood barbecue which they had mistaken for a gathering of Maoist Shining Path rebels.[358]
01991-11-18November 18, 1991November 18–21, 1991Vukovar, CroatiaVukovar massacre0,000,264264Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.[359][360][361][362]
01992-02-26February 26, 1992Khojaly, Nagorno-Karabakh, AzerbaijanKhojaly Massacre0,000,613613[363]Armenian armed forces, reportedly with help of the Russian 366th Motor Rifle Regiment, raided the town of Khojaly and massacred its Muslim civilian population. The death toll according to the Government of Azerbaijan was 613 civilians, of whom 106 were women and 83 were children.[364][365][366]
01992-06-17June 17, 1992Boipatong, South AfricaBoipatong massacre0,000,04545[367]45 African National Congress (ANC) supporters were killed by members of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).
01992-07-18July 18, 1992Lima, PeruLa Cantuta massacre0,000,04545[368]9 students and a professor on La Cantuta University were kidnapped and killed by Grupo Colina, an anticommunist paramilitary group.
01992-09-07September 7, 1992Bisho, Ciskei/South AfricaBisho massacre0,000,0292928 African National Congress (ANC) supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march.
01992-10-02October 2, 1992São Paulo, BrazilCarandiru massacre0,000,111111The massacre was triggered by a prisoner revolt within the prison. The police made little if any effort to negotiate with the prisoners before the military police stormed the building, as the prison riot became more difficult for prison guards to control. The resulting casualties were of 111 prisoners killed.
01993-01-08January 8, 1993Palatine, Illinois, United StatesBrown's Chicken massacre0,000,0077Seven people were murdered at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine[369]
1992-1993Autonomous republic of Abkhazia, GeorgiaEthnic cleansing of Georgians0,000,11117,000-22,000The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia',[370][371][372][373]

[374][375][376][377][378][379][380][381] also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia"[382][383] and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia"[384] — refers to ethnic cleansing,[385] massacres[386] and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians.

01993-04-19April 19, 1993Waco, Texas, United StatesWaco massacre0,000,08282Seventy-six members of the Branch Davidian church died after a 51 day siege in a fire started either accidentally or by church members after a Federal Bureau of Investigation tank attack upon the main building. Earlier, on on February 28, 1993, six others died by gunfire after the original Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms raid.[387]
01993-06-01June 1993June – July 1993BrazilYanomami Massacre0,000,01616–73[388][389]Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.
01993-07-02July 2, 1993Sivas, TurkeySivas massacre0,000,0333333 Alevi intellectuals were killed when a mob of radical Islamists set fire to the hotel where the group had assembled.[390][391][392]
01993-07-25July 25, 1993Cape Town, South AfricaSt James Church massacre0,000,0111111 People were killed during a church service by Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) armed with assault rifles and grenades.
01993-10-30October 30, 1993Greysteel, Northern IrelandGreysteel massacre0,000,0088Ulster Defence Association (UDA) opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol. Eight civilians were killed and thirteen wounded.[393][394][395][396][397][398][399][400]
01994-02-25February 25, 1994West BankCave of the Patriarchs massacre[401][402]
(Ibrahimi Mosque massacre)[403]
0,000,02929Baruch Goldstein opens fire with an assault rifle killing 29 Palestinian Muslims and wounding 150 at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque before being subdued and beaten to death by survivors.[404][405]
01994-01-011994 et seq.AlgeriaAlgerian Village Massacres of the 1990s0,010,00110,000[406][407]During the 1990s, many large-scale massacres of villagers in Algeria were perpetrated by groups attacking villages at night and cutting the throats of the inhabitants. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) has avowed its responsibility for many of them. The massacres peaked in 1997 (with a smaller peak in 1994). According to a few reports former Algerian army officer, Habib Souaidia testified to his government's involvement in the massacres. The differing accounts are not yet reconciled.[406][408][409][410] The academic consensus is that at least the majority of the massacres were carried out by Islamist radicals, however, the government notably failed to intervene in a number of these massacres.[411]
01994-03-28March 28, 1994Johannesburg, South AfricaShell House massacre0,000,01919Security guards of the African National Congress (ANC) fired on 20,000 Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) marchers.[412][413][414]
01994-06-18June 18, 1994Loughinisland, Northern IrelandLoughinisland massacre0,000,0066Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) opened fire in a crowded bar using assault rifles, killing six civilians and wounding five.[415][416][417][418][419][420][421]
01995-01-22January 22, 1995IsraelBeit Lid massacre0,000,02222[422]First suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad, killing 22 and wounding 69. Carried out by two bombers; the second waited until emergency crews arrived to assist the wounded and dying before detonating his bomb.[423][424][425][426]
01995-04-19April 19, 1995Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United StatesOklahoma City bombing0,000,168 167[427]The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It would remain the most destructive act of terrorism on American soil until the September 11, 2001 attacks. The Oklahoma blast claimed 167 lives, including 19 children under the age of 6,[427] and injured more than 680 people.[427]
01996-03-13March 13, 1996ScotlandDunblane massacre0,000,01717[428]A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.[429][430][431]
01996-04-29April 29, 1996Port Arthur, Tasmania, AustraliaPort Arthur massacre0,000,03535[328]The Port Arthur massacre of 28 April 1996 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 35 people and wounded 21 others mainly at the historic tourist site Port Arthur in south-eastern Tasmania, Australia. It later emerged that the gunman had severe mental retardation.[432] The massacre remains Australia's deadliest mass killing spree and remains one of the deadliest such incidents worldwide in recent times.[329]
01996-04-18April 18, 1996LebanonFirst Qana Massacre[433][434]0,000,106106Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately two hundred Lebanese civilians. The Israeli military said the strike was in error and that they were not targeting the UN shelter. An amateur film was released showing that, contrary to Israeli assertions, an Israeli drone was spying on the UN compound just before it was shelling.[435] The UN concluded that the attack was intentional. Amnesty International also concluded, "the IDF intentionally attacked the UN compound.[436][437][438][439][440][441]
01997-02-05February 5, 1997Ghulja, ChinaGhulja Massacre0,000,0099After two days of protests during which the protesters had marched shouting "God is great" and "independence for Xinjiang" the demonstrations were crushed by the People's Liberation Army. Official reports put the death toll at 9 while dissident reports estimated the number killed at more than 100.[442][443][444][445][446][447]
01997-11-17November 17, 1997Luxor, EgyptLuxor massacre0,000,06464Massacre carried out by Egyptian Islamist militants, in which 64 people (including 59 visiting tourists) were killed using automatic weapons and machetes.[448][449][450]
01997-12-22December 22, 1997Acteal, MexicoActeal Massacre0,000,04545Massacre carried out by paramilitary forces of 45 people attending a prayer meeting of indigenous townspeople, who were members of the pacifist group Las Abejas ("The Bees"), in the village of Acteal, municipality of Chenalhó, in the Mexican state of Chiapas.[451][452][453]
01998-08-15August 15, 1998Omagh, Northern IrelandOmagh massacre0,000,02929The Omagh bombing was a car bomb attack carried out by the Real Irish Republican Army, a splinter group of former Provisional Irish Republican Army members opposed to the Good Friday Agreement. Twenty-nine people died and approximately 220 people were injured.The attack was described by the BBC as "Northern Ireland's worst single terrorist atrocity".[454][455][456][457][458][459][460]
01999-04-20April 20, 1999Littleton, Colorado, United StatesColumbine High School massacre0,000,01515[461]Two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold open fire on their classmates on April 20, 1999 at Columbine High School, killing 12 students and one teacher before committing suicide.
02000-07-27July 27, 2000West Bengal, IndiaNanoor massacre0,000,01111Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.[462][463][464]
02002-01-17January 17, 2002Hadera, IsraelBat Mitzvah massacre0,000,0066An attack carried out in January 2002 by al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades in which a Palestinian gunman hurling grenades killed six and wounded 33 in a Bat Mitzvah celebration, a traditional Jewish celebration held for a 12-year-old girl.[465][466]
02002-03-27March 27, 2002Netanya, IsraelPassover massacre0,000,03030[467]Killing of 30 guests at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, sitting down to the traditional Passover Seder meal. Another 143 were injured. Hamas claimed responsibility.[467][468][469][470][471]
02002-02-28February 28, 2002Ahmedabad, IndiaGulbarg Society massacre0,000,06969During the 2002 Gujarat riots, a mob attacked the Gulbarg Society, a lower middle-class Muslim neighbourhood in Chamanpura, Ahmedabad. Most of the houses were burnt, and at least 35 victims including a former Congress, Member of Parliament, Ehsan Jafri, were burnt alive, while 31 others went missing after the incident, later presumed dead, bringing the total of the dead to 69.[472][473][474]
02004-09-01September 1, 2004Beslan, Russian FederationBeslan School Massacre0,000,334334Armed Chechen separatists[475] took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.[476][477][478]
02005-03-05March 5, 2005near Rehoboth, NamibiaKareeboomvloer massacre0,000,0088Brothers Sylvester and Gavin Beukes murder the owners' couple of farm Kareeboomvloer and execute all witnesses, including two children.[479] The motive was revenge for a previous theft charge laid by the farm owner.[480]
02005-05-13May 13, 2005Andijan, UzbekistanAndijan massacre0,003,000187–1,500Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops fired into a crowd of protesters.[481][482]
02005-08-04August 4, 2005Shefa-Amr, IsraelShefa-Amr massacre[483]0,000,0044In protest of Ariel Sharon's government evacuation of Gaza colonies, Jewish IDF soldier Eden Natan-Zada travels to Israeli Arab city Shefa-Amr and unloads his gun against residents of a Druze neighborhood.
02005-11-19November 19, 2005Haditha, IraqHaditha massacre0,000,00624US Marines slaughter 24 unarmed Iraqi civilians, among whom numerous children and the elderly. Though the unit's commander, Staff Sgt Frank Wuterich, claimed his forces came under attack just before the rampage, no weapons were found in the area.[484]
02006-03-25March 25, 2006Seattle, United StatesCapitol Hill massacre0,000,006628-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff entered a rave afterparty in the southeast part of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and opened fire, killing six and wounding two, before committing suicide.[485]
02006-07-30July 30, 2006LebanonSecond Qana Massacre0,000,02828Airstrike by the Israeli Air Forces on three-storey kill 28 civilians, including 16 children. The Israeli military alleged the compound was used by Hezbollah to store weapons but international observers and journalists denied military equipment was found on the rubble of the building from where the bodies of the victims, civilians in their pajamas were taken.[486]
02007-04-16April 16, 2007Blacksburg, Virginia, United StatesVirginia Tech Massacre0,000,03232Gunman Seung-Hui Cho, killed 32 people and wounded many others[487] before committing suicide. The massacre is the deadliest peacetime shooting incident by a single gunman in United States history, on or off a school campus.[488]
02009-09-28September 28, 2009Conakry, Guinea28 September Massacre0,000,157157Guinean uniformed security forces opened fire on a political rally trapped in the 28 September Stadium.[489]
02009-11-05November 5, 2009Ft. Hood, Texas, United StatesFort Hood Massacre
(Fort Hood shooting)
0,000,01313Gunman Malik Nadal Hasan, a Major in the U.S. Army, killed 12 soldiers and one civilian, and wounded at least 30 on the base at Ft. Hood. Initial reports indicate Hassan was upset at being deployed to Iraq.[490][491][492][493][494][495]
02009-11-23November 23, 2009Ampatuan, Maguindanao, PhilippinesMaguindanao massacre0,000,05757A group of 100 armed men, alleged to include police and private militia led by Andal Ampatuan, Jr., stopped a convoy of five cars transporting Genalyn Tiamzon-Mangudadatu, the wife of Esmael Mangudadatu, who is running for provincial governor in the 2010 Philippine elections. She was en route to the town of Shariff Aguak to file a certificate of candidacy for her husband, accompanied by his sisters, other supporters, and members of the press. The attackers kidnapped and later killed all members of the Mangudadatu group; reports state that women in the group were raped before being killed. Five other people not part of the group, in a car behind the convoy, were also kidnapped and killed.[496][497][498][499][500]
02011-01-08January 8, 2011Tucson, Arizona, United States2011 Tucson supermarket massacre0,000,0066One man, Jared Lee Loughner, attacked a group of people outside a supermarket in Tucson, Arizona. His intent was to kill U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords only, but he ended up killing 6 and wounding 19 – though grievously wounded (and despite initial reports to the contrary), Giffords herself survived. Those killed in the incident included United States District Court for the District of Arizona Chief Judge John Roll and one of Gifford's staffers.[501]
02011-07-22July 22, 2011Utøya, Buskerud, Norway2011 Utøya massacre0,000,06969One man, Anders Behring Breivik, went to the island of Utøya on July 22, 2011, right after the devastating bomb in Oslo. Wearing a fake police uniform, he shot and killed 69 youths at the annual labour youth party, and injured several more. It is still unknown how long the massacre lasted. According to police logs, it took an hour from the first calls until the response team arrested him. The defenseless people had nowhere to run. Many tried to swim away from the island to shore, some made it, and some did not.[502]
02011-10-05October 5, 2011Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai, ThailandMekong River massacre0,000,01313Two Chinese cargo ships were attacked on a stretch of the Mekong River in the Golden Triangle area. All 13 crew members were killed and dumped in the river.[503] It is the deadliest assault on Chinese nationals abroad in modern times.[504]
02011-12-21December 21, 2011December 19–20, 2011Idlib, SyriaIdlib massacre0,000,250250–270Approximately 250–270 people, many of them army deserters, were reported slaughtered indiscriminately by the Syrian army in Idlib.[505]
02012-03-11March 11, 2012Kandahar, AfghanistanKandahar massacre0,000,0161717 Afghan civilians were killed by U.S. Army Soldier Robert Bales.[506] Some witnesses have indicated more than one person was involved.[507]
02012-05-25May 25, 2012Houla, SyriaHoula massacre0,000,108108Approximately 108 people were killed with knives in the Syrian town of Houla. Approximately 25 men, 49 children and 34 women were among the victims.[508]
02012-07-20July 20, 2012Aurora, Colorado, United StatesAurora massacre
(2012 Aurora shooting)
0,000,1212The perpetrator, James Eagan Holmes, killed 12 people in theater 9 at the Century 16 multiplex in the Town Center at Aurora shopping mall during a midnight screening of the film The Dark Knight Rises.
02012-08-05August 5, 2012Oak Creek, Wisconsin, United StatesSikh temple massacre
(Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting)
0,000,77The perpetrator, Wade Michael Page, fatally shot six people and wounded four others at a Wisconsin Sikh temple then took his life by shooting himself in the head after he was shot in the stomach by a responding police officer.
02012-12-14December 14, 2012Sandy Hook, Connecticut, United StatesSandy Hook Elementary School massacre
(Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting)
0,000,2828The perpetrator, Adam Peter Lanza, killed 26 people, including six adult staff members, at Sandy Hook Elementary School before taking his own life by shooting himself in the head. Hours before driving to school, Lanza shot and killed his mother Nancy at their Newtown home, totaling up to 28 deaths. It was the second deadliest mass shooting by a single person in American history, after the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre, and the second deadliest mass murder at a U.S. elementary school, after the 1927 Bath School bombings in Michigan.

See also[edit]

1988 City: Hargeisa, Country: North Western Somalia (Now Somaliland Republic), Massacred People: 60.000

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mikaberidze 2013
  2. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, n.
  3. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, v.
  4. ^ Saint Paul in Britain Or, The Origin Of British As Opposed To Papal Christianity by Rev. R. W. Morgan. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  5. ^ Pillar in the Wilderness by Benjamin John. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  6. ^ John Julius Norwich (1989). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Knopf. p. 112. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-394-53778-5, OCLC 18164817|0-394-53778-5, [[OCLC]] [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/18164817 18164817]]] Check |isbn= value (help). , "and 7,000 were dead by morning" (Page 139)
  7. ^ Edward Gibbon, D. M. Low (1960). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Harcourt Brace. pp. ch. 27 2:56. OCLC 402038. 
  8. ^ Barbero, Alessandro (2004). Charlemagne: Father of a Continent, pages 46–47. University of California Press.
  9. ^ Vasiliev, A.A. (1968), Byzance et les Arabes, Tome II, 1ére partie: Les relations politiques de Byzance et des Arabes à l'époque de la dynastie macédonienne (867–959).
  10. ^ Ann Williams (2003). Æthelred the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King. London: Hambledon and London. p. 54. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/1-85258-382-4, OCLC 51780838|1-85258-382-4[[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]], [[OCLC]] [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/51780838 51780838]]] Check |isbn= value (help).  "It is usually assumed that this story relates to the St Brice's Day massacre ..." p. 55
  11. ^ Simon Hall (1998). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 297. ISBN 1-57958-107-2.  "1002 St Brice's Day massacre; Danes in England were killed on order of King Ethelred." p. 340
  12. ^ "Saint Brices Day massacre", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 26. 2007.
  13. ^ Lucien Gubbay (1999). Sunlight and Shadow: The Jewish Experience of Islam. New York: Other Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-892746-69-7.  "It should be noted though that the Granada massacre of 1066 was the first instance of persecution of Jews in Muslim Spain, which had enjoyed an almost unblemished record of tolerance for the preceding 350 years." (Page 80)
  14. ^ Norman Roth (1994). Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Netherlands: E. J. Brill. p. 110. ISBN 90-04-09971-9.  "Assuming that he was at least ten years old, however, it is again surprising that no more personal recollection of the Granada massacre is found in his writing..." (Page 110)
  15. ^ [[Richard Gottheil|Gottheil, Richard]]; [[Meyer Kayserling|Kayserling, Meyer]]. "Granada". Jewish Encyclopedia G (1906 ed.).  "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day, Ṭebet 9 (December 30), 1066."
  16. ^ Daud, Abraham Ibd (2007). "On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 993-d after 1056". In Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. Retrieved July 9, 2011.  He was proud to his own hurt, and the Berber princes were jealous of him, with the result that on the Sabbath, on the 9th of Tebet in the year 4827 (Saturday, December 30, 1066), he and the Community of Granada were murdered.
  17. ^ The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 950-1250. Cambridge University Press. 1986. pp. 507–508. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-521-26645-1|0-521-26645-1[[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check |isbn= value (help). 
  18. ^ Lane A. Beck (1995). Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis. New York: Plenum Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-306-44931-5. 
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  114. ^ The Saint Francis Herald, "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", St. Francis, Kansas, November 17, 2005
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  122. ^ Camp Pilot Butte, National Register of Historic Places.
  123. ^ Larson, History of Wyoming, pp. 141–44.
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  129. ^ Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide". Social Education (National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22201-3000) v69 (n6): 333. ISSN 0037-7724.  "They are now known as the Hamidian Massacres"
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  132. ^ Mark Twain, Weapons of Satire, pp. 168–178, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York 1992
  133. ^ American Troops Killing Muslims: A Massacre to Remember, by Christine Gibson, AmericanHeritage.com, March 8, 2006
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  137. ^ "30,000 Killed in Massacres". The New York Times. April 25, 1909. 
  138. ^ Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
  139. ^ Walker, 1980, pp. 182–88
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  143. ^ Report of Commissioners, Vol 1, New Delhi, p. 105
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  146. ^ a b T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
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  156. ^ "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert". (German)
  157. ^ M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926-1930, Pêrî Yayınları, Istanbul, 1997, ISBN 975-8245-01-5, p. 105. (Turkish)
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  168. ^ Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online
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  174. ^ a b The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  175. ^ Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal 2: 1–16. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  176. ^ "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage: Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  177. ^ Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112. "The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union." 
  178. ^ Jill Dougherty and Jim Bittermann (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  179. ^ "Marcu Rozen ->>>The Holocaust in Romania Under the Antonescu Government (24)". Holocaustremembrance.net. 1943-09-01. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
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  186. ^ Timothy Snyder. (2003)The Causes of Ukrainian-Polish Ethnic Cleansing 1943, The Past and Present Society: Oxford University Press. pg. 220
  187. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's holocaust. Published by McFarland. Page 247
  188. ^ Massacre on Wake Island
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  196. ^ a b Italy convicts Nazis of massacre BBC, January 13, 2007
  197. ^ Richard Owen. "Ten convicted for 1944 massacre", The Times (London), January 15, 2007
  198. ^ The Malmedy Massacre Revisited – Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin and Emile Jamar
  199. ^ Goldstein, Donald M.; J. Michael Wenger, Katherine V. Dillon (1997). Nuts! the Battle of the Bulge (illustrated ed.). Brassey's. p. 91. ISBN 1-57488-279-1, 9781574882797 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  200. ^ Bethell, Nicholas (1974). The Last Secret. London. 
  201. ^ Palaich, Michael (1991). "Bleiburg Tragedy". Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  202. ^ *A 1961 Massacre of Algerians in Paris When the Media Failed the Test James J. Napoli
  203. ^ Yves Courrière, La guerre d'Algérie, tome 1 (Les fils de la Toussaint), Fayard, Paris 1969, ISBN 2-213-61118-1
  204. ^ * Jean Louis Planche, Sétif 1945, histoire d'un massacre annoncé, Perrin, Paris 2006
  205. ^ de Zayas, Alfred M.: A terrible Revenge. Palgrave/Macmillan, New York, 1994.
  206. ^ Naimark, Norman: Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth - Century Europe. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001.
  207. ^ Prausser Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War. Florence, Italy, European University Institute, 2004.
  208. ^ Commission of enquiry report, Palestine Post, 20 Feb 1948.
  209. ^ Ialanders still mourn April 3 massacre Jeju weekly
  210. ^ a b Ghosts Of Cheju Newsweek
  211. ^ Kana'ana and Zeitawi, 1987.
  212. ^ "Hadassah Convoy Massacre". Zionism-israel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
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  214. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1977) "Jerusalem - Illustrated History Atlas". Published in conjunction with the Board of Deputies of British Jews. Map 50, page 93.
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  216. ^ # B. Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004. pp481,487,501,502.
  217. ^ An article (no title given) by R. Barkan from the Mapam newspaper Al Hamishmar, quoting a letter from eyewitness Dov Yirmiya and the Jewish Agency's response, translated in the Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. VII, no. 4 (summer 1978), no. 28, pp. 143-145.
  218. ^ Hirst, David (2010). Beware of small states. Nation Books. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8. 
  219. ^ "Malay massacre evidence to be reviewed by the UK government". BBC News. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  220. ^ Kent, Jonathan (July 17, 2004). "Past lessons for occupying forces". BBC News. 
  221. ^ Only one reference names this as "the Batang Massacre" rather than just a massacre at Batang
  222. ^ "민간인학살 울산-문경 두 판결문 비교". 경남도민일보. 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2010-07-08. (Korean)
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  224. ^ a b South Korea owns up to brutal past Sydney Morning Herald
  225. ^ a b "More than 600,000, less than 1,200,000! 최소 60만명, 최대 120만명!". The Hankyoreh Plus. (Korean)
  226. ^ a b "서울대병원, 6.25전쟁 참전 용사들을 위한 추모제 가져". Seoul National University Hospital. 2010-06-04. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  227. ^ Committee for the Review and Restoration of Honor for the No Gun Ri Victims (2009). No Gun Ri Incident Victim Review Report. Seoul: Government of the Republic of Korea. pp. 247–249, 328. ISBN 978-89-957925-1-3. 
  228. ^ "War's hidden chapter: Ex-GIs tell of killing Korean refugees". Associated Press. September 29, 1999. 
  229. ^ a b Soldiers scale Hill 303 in honor of fallen comrades 8th United States Army
  230. ^ a b c "< 북에서의 6.25 `미군만행' 확인될까 >". JoongAng Daily. 2001-05-16. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  231. ^ Kim Sung-hwan (2008-05-22). "남양주 민간인학살 국가사과 권고". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  232. ^ Charles J. Hanley and Jae-Soon Chang (December 6, 2008). "Children 'executed' in 1950 South Korean killings". San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  233. ^ a b Hwang Chun-hwa (2011-11-29). "고양 금정굴 민간인 학살…법원 "유족에 국가배상을"". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  234. ^ "강화교동도 학살•1 '우익단체가 주민 212명 총살' 공식확인 유족 주장 사실로…". Kyeongin Ilbo. 2006-02-28. Retrieved 2010-07-12. (Korean)
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  238. ^ Times dispatch (March 28, 1953). "Mau Mau Massacres 150 Natives In Night Raid Near Kenya Capital". The New York Times. 
  239. ^ Stephen Corradini (1999). Chief Luka and the Lari Massacre: Contrary Notions of Kikuyu Land Tenure and the Mau Mau War. University of Wisconsin-Madison. p. 154. ISBN 0-942615-49-2. 
  240. ^ "South Africa: The Sharpeville Massacre". Time. 1960-04-04. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
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  242. ^ This invitation was later disputed by the Portuguese authorities. Azevedo, Mario (1991) "Mueda" Historical Dictionary of Mozambique Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, New Jersey, page 92, ISBN 0-8108-2413-2
  243. ^ a b West, Harry G. (2003) ""Who Rules Us Now?" Identity Tokens, Sorcery, and Other Metaphors in the 1994 Mozambican Elections" pp. 92-124 In West, Harry G. (editor) (2003) Transparency and Conspiracy: Ethnographies of suspicion in the new world order Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, page 103, ISBN 0-8223-3036-9
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  246. ^ West, Harry G. (2003) "'Who Rules Us Now?' Identity Tokens, Sorcery, and Other Metaphors in the 1994 Mozambican Elections" pp. 92-124 In West, Harry G. (editor) (2003) Transparency and Conspiracy: Ethnographies of suspicion in the new world order Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, page 120, note 31, ISBN 0-8223-3036-9 "The number of casualties is disputed. Nationalists suggested that as many a six hundred were killed, while Portuguese accounts sometimes place the number of casualties in the single digits."
  247. ^ Alessandra Stanley, Russian General Campaigns On Old-Time Soviet Values The New York Times, October 13, 1995
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  254. ^ "AIDS and Religious Practice in Africa", Felicitas Becker, Wenzel Geissler, p. 123, Volume 36 of Studies on religion in Africa
  255. ^ a b c d Ku Su Jeong. "Words of Condemnation and Drinks of Reconciliation Massacre in Vin Dinh Province All 380 People Turned into Dead Bodies Within an Hour.". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  256. ^ a b Armstrong, Charles (2001). Critical asian studies, Volume 33, Issue 4 :America's Korea, Korea's Vietnam. Routledge. pp. 530–534. 
  257. ^ a b "Dien Nien-Phuoc Binh Massacre". Tourist attractions: Relics. People's Committee of Quảng Ngãi province. Retrieved July 10, 2011. 
  258. ^ a b "On War extra - Vietnam's massacre survivors" (Flash Video). AlJazeera (YouTube). January 4, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  259. ^ "Binh Hoa Massacre". Tourist attractions: Relics. People's Committee of Quảng Ngãi province. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  260. ^ Anderson, David L. (2004). The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. pp. 98–9
  261. ^ Lone survivor recalls Jabidah Massacre - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos
  262. ^ Artemio R. Guillermo (16 December 2011). Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Scarecrow Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8108-7511-1. 
  263. ^ Alfred W. McCoy (2009). Policing America's empire: the United States, the Philippines, and the rise of the surveillance state. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 390–391. ISBN 978-0-299-23414-0. 
  264. ^ Han Hong-gu, Sungkonghoe University professor (2000-11-15). "미국의 관심은 ‘학살은폐 책임’ 최초공개된 미국 비밀보고서의 의미… 정부는 참전군인의 명예를 위해서 진상조사에 나서라". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-01-29. (Korean)
  265. ^ Kwon, Heonik. After the massacre: commemoration and consolation in Ha My and My Lai. University of California Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-520-24797-0. 
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  268. ^ "Former Mexican president sheds light on 1968 massacre", CNN, February 4, 1998
  269. ^ a b "Mexican Court Issues Warrant for Former President". Foxnews.com. 1968-10-02. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  270. ^ "Tlatelolco: las Claves de la Masacre", "in a CIA document it reads 'As is typical in Mexico, accurate statistics concerning the number of casualties in the 2 October battle cannot be found. Reports have been received of as high as 350 killed. The best Embassy estimate is that this figure is between 150 and 200.'".
  271. ^ By TIM WEINERPublished: February 07, 2003 (2003-02-07). "Mexico Digs at Last for Truth About 1968 Massacre". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  272. ^ a b John Lang (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  273. ^ Caputo, Philip (May 4, 2005). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved November 9, 2007. "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." 
  274. ^ Ryan, Tim (May 4, 2007). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved November 9, 2007. 
  275. ^ McCann, Eamonn (2006). The Bloody Sunday Inquiry – The Families Speak Out. London: Pluto Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 0-7453-2510-6. 
  276. ^ Walker, Christopher; Barkham, Patrick (October 17, 2002). "Killing of 14 was not justified, says Bloody Sunday soldier". The Times (London). Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  277. ^ Feemster, Ron (March 7, 2002). "Fitting Bloody Sunday Into the Present". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  278. ^ "Bloody Sunday killings 'unjustified and unjustifiable'", BBC News, June 15, 2010, retrieved June 15, 2010 
  279. ^ a b "In what became known as the Lod Airport Massacre three members of the terrorist group, Japanese Red Army, arrived at the airport aboard an Air France flight from Paris. Once inside the airport they grabbed automatic firearms from their carry-on cases and fired at airport staff and visitors. In the end, 26 people died and 80 people were injured." CBC News, The Fifth Estate, "Fasten Your Seatbelts: Ben Gurion Airport in Israel", 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  280. ^ "The short-term impact of the Lod Airport massacre as a precursor to Munich..." Stephen Sloan, John C. Bersia, J. B. Hill. Terrorism: The Present Threat in Context, Berg Publisher, 2006, p. 50. ISBN 1-84520-344-5
  281. ^ "Two years later, just before the Lod Airport massacre, authorities uncovered the bodies of 14 young men and women on remote Mount Haruna, 70 miles northwest of Tokyo." "Again the Red Army", Time, August 18, 1975.
  282. ^ "Those named by Lebanese officials as having been arrested included at least three Red Army members who have been wanted for years by Japanese authorities, most notably Kozo Okamoto, 49, the only member of the attacking group who survived the Lod Airport massacre." "Lebanon Seizes Japanese Radicals Sought in Terror Attacks", The New York Times, February 19, 1997.
  283. ^ "They were responsible for the Lod Airport massacre in Israel in 1972, which was committed on behalf of the PFLP." Jeffrey D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism, Indiana University Press, p. 324. ISBN 0-253-21477-7
  284. ^ CBS News (2002-09-05). "Munich Massacre Remembered". 
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  286. ^ a b El Historiador (2005). "La Masacre de Ezeiza". 
  287. ^ Sources describing the event as a "massacre":
    • "The day after the Ma'alot massacre, condemned by Pope Paul VI and most Western leaders as "an evil outrage", ..." Frank Gervasi. Thunder Over the Mediterranean, McKay, 1975, p. 443.
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References[edit]

  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2013). "Chronology of massacres and war crimes". Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 773–766. ISBN 9781598849264.