List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
The Mississippi drainage basin includes the two longest main-stem rivers in the U.S. (the Missouri and the Mississippi) as well as 18 more of the rivers on this list.
The Mississippi drainage basin includes the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers, the two longest main-stem rivers in the United States, as well as 18 more of the rivers on this list. The Mississippi main stem is highlighted in dark blue.

The main stems of 38 rivers in the United States are at least 500 miles (800 km) long. The main stem is "the primary downstream segment of a river, as contrasted to its tributaries".[1] The United States Geological Survey (USGS) defines a main-stem segment by listing coordinates for its two end points, called the source and the mouth. Well-known rivers like the Atchafalaya,[2] Willamette,[3] and Susquehanna[4] are not included in this list because their main stems are shorter than 500 miles.

Seven rivers in this list cross or form international boundaries. Two—the Yukon and Columbia rivers—begin in Canada and flow into the United States. Three—the Milk and Saint Lawrence rivers and the Red River of the North—begin in the United States and flow into Canada. Of these, only the Milk River crosses the international border twice, leaving and then re-entering the United States.[5] Two rivers, the Colorado and the Rio Grande, begin in the United States and flow into or form a border with Mexico.[5] In addition, the drainage basins of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers extend into Canada,[6][7] and the basin of the Gila River extends into Mexico.[8]

Sources report hydrological quantities with varied precision. Biologist and author Ruth Patrick, describing a table of high-discharge U.S. rivers, wrote that data on discharge, drainage area, and length varied widely among authors whose works she consulted. "It seems," she said, "that the wisest course is to regard data tables such as the present one as showing the general ranks of rivers, and not to place too much importance on minor (10–20%) differences in figures."[9]

Table[edit]

The primary source for watershed and discharge data in the table below is Rivers of North America. Conflicting data from other sources, if the difference is greater than 10 percent, is reported in the notes. Discharge refers to the flow at the mouth.[n 1] In the "States, provinces, and image" column, the superscripts "s" and "m" indicate "source" and "mouth". Non-U.S. states appear in italics. Except in the "States, provinces, and image" column, abbreviations are as follows: "km" for "kilometer", "mi" for "mile", "s" for "second", "m" for "meter", and "ft" for "foot".

Key
Stream is not entirely within the United States. River is not entirely within the United States.
Watershed is not entirely within the United States. Watershed is not entirely within the United States.
Longest main-stem rivers of the United States
#NameMouth[5]LengthSource
coordinates
[11]
Mouth
coordinates
[11]
Watershed
area
[12]
Discharge[12]States, provinces, and image[5][11]
1Missouri RiverMississippi River2,341 mi
3,768 km[13]
45°55′39″N 111°30′29″W / 45.92750°N 111.50806°W / 45.92750; -111.50806 (Missouri River (source))[14]38°48′49″N 90°07′11″W / 38.81361°N 90.11972°W / 38.81361; -90.11972 (Missouri River (mouth))529,353 mi2
1,371,017 km2[15]
double-dagger[n 2]
69,100 ft3/s
1,956 m3/s
[n 3]
Montanas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missourim
A wide river flows across a plain.
2Mississippi RiverGulf of Mexico2,202 mi
3,544 km[17]
[n 4]
47°14′22″N 95°12′29″W / 47.23944°N 95.20806°W / 47.23944; -95.20806 (Mississippi River (source))[18]29°09′04″N 89°15′12″W / 29.15111°N 89.25333°W / 29.15111; -89.25333 (Mississippi River (mouth))1,260,000 mi2
3,270,000 km2[19]
double-dagger[n 5]
650,000 ft3/s
18,400 m3/s
Minnesotas, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisianam
A small river flows from a lake.
3Yukon RiverBering Sea1,979 mi
3,185 km[6]
dagger[n 6]
59°35′00″N 133°47′00″W / 59.58333°N 133.78333°W / 59.58333; -133.78333 (Yukon River (source))[20]62°35′55″N 164°48′00″W / 62.59861°N 164.80000°W / 62.59861; -164.80000 (Yukon River (mouth))[21]324,000 mi2
839,200 km2[22]
double-dagger[n 7]
224,000 ft3/s
6,340 m3/s
British Columbias, Yukon Territory, Alaskam
Sunset over a large river flowing through mountains.
4Rio GrandeGulf of Mexico1,759 mi
2,830 km[23]
dagger[n 8]
37°47′52″N 107°32′18″W / 37.79778°N 107.53833°W / 37.79778; -107.53833 (Rio Grande (source))[25]25°57′22″N 97°08′43″W / 25.95611°N 97.14528°W / 25.95611; -97.14528 (Rio Grande (mouth))340,000 mi2
870,000 km2[26]
double-dagger[n 9]
1,300 ft3/s
37 m3/s
Colorados, New Mexico, Texasm, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipasm
A small river winds through mountains under a rainbow.
5Colorado RiverGulf of California1,450 mi
2,330 km[16]
dagger[n 10]
40°28′20″N 105°49′34″W / 40.47222°N 105.82611°W / 40.47222; -105.82611 (Colorado River (source))[29]31°48′57″N 114°48′22″W / 31.81583°N 114.80611°W / 31.81583; -114.80611 (Colorado River (mouth))[30]248,000 mi2
642,000 km2[10]
double-dagger[n 11]
1,400 ft3/s
40 m3/s
Colorados, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California, Sonoram, Baja Californiam
A large river flows through a deep canyon.
6Arkansas RiverMississippi River1,443 mi
2,322 km
[n 12]
39°15′30″N 106°20′38″W / 39.25833°N 106.34389°W / 39.25833; -106.34389 (Arkansas River (source))[32]33°46′30″N 91°04′15″W / 33.77500°N 91.07083°W / 33.77500; -91.07083 (Arkansas River (mouth))160,200 mi2
414,910 km2[33]
35,500 ft3/s
1,004 m3/s
Colorados, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansasm
A large river flows through a brightly lit city at night.
7Columbia RiverPacific Ocean1,243 mi[6]
2,000 km
dagger[n 13]
50°13′00″N 115°51′00″W / 50.21667°N 115.85000°W / 50.21667; -115.85000 (Columbia River (source))[34]46°14′39″N 124°03′29″W / 46.24417°N 124.05806°W / 46.24417; -124.05806 (Columbia River (mouth))[35]279,548 mi2
724,024 km2[36]
double-dagger[n 14]
273,000 ft3/s
7,730 m3/s
British Columbias, Washingtonm, Oregonm
A large river flows through a wooded gorge.
8Red RiverAtchafalaya and Mississippi rivers1,125 mi
1,811 km
[n 15]
34°34′35″N 99°57′54″W / 34.57639°N 99.96500°W / 34.57639; -99.96500 (Red River (source))[40]31°01′10″N 91°44′52″W / 31.01944°N 91.74778°W / 31.01944; -91.74778 (Red River (mouth))65,590 mi2
169,890 km2[41]
[n 16]
30,100 ft3/s
852 m3/s
[n 17]
Oklahomas, Texas, Arkansas, Louisianam
 Oxbow bend in a river seen from an airplane
9Snake RiverColumbia River1,040 mi
1,674 km[16]
44°07′49″N 110°13′10″W / 44.13028°N 110.21944°W / 44.13028; -110.21944 (Snake River (source))[42]46°11′10″N 119°01′43″W / 46.18611°N 119.02861°W / 46.18611; -119.02861 (Snake River (mouth))108,000 mi2
281,000 km2[43]
55,300 ft3/s
1,565 m3/s
Wyomings, Idaho, Oregon, Washingtonm
A river winds across a plain at the foot of jagged snow-covered mountains.
10Ohio RiverMississippi River979 mi
1,575 km[44]
40°26′34″N 80°01′02″W / 40.44278°N 80.01722°W / 40.44278; -80.01722 (Ohio River (source))[45]36°59′12″N 89°07′50″W / 36.98667°N 89.13056°W / 36.98667; -89.13056 (Ohio River (mouth))204,000 mi2
529,000 km2[46]
308,400 ft3/s
8,733 m3/s
Pennsylvanias, Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, Illinois, Kentuckym
Modest skyscrapers, their images reflected in the water, line the bank of a wide placid river.
11Colorado River of TexasGulf of Mexico970 mi
1,560 km[47]
32°40′47″N 101°43′51″W / 32.67972°N 101.73083°W / 32.67972; -101.73083 (Colorado River of Texas (source)))[48]28°35′41″N 95°58′59″W / 28.59472°N 95.98306°W / 28.59472; -95.98306 (Colorado River of Texas (mouth))39,900 mi2
103,341 km2[49]
2,600 ft3/s
75 m3/s
Texass, m
A small stream flows through an arid plain populated with low shrubs. Much of the surrounding soil is red.
12Tennessee RiverOhio River935 mi
1,504 km[50]
35°57′33″N 83°51′01″W / 35.95917°N 83.85028°W / 35.95917; -83.85028 (Tennessee River (source))[51]37°04′02″N 88°33′53″W / 37.06722°N 88.56472°W / 37.06722; -88.56472 (Tennessee River (mouth))40,880 mi2
105,870 km2[52]
71,000 ft3/s
2,000 m3/s
Tennessees, Alabama, Kentuckym
A wide river curves through an urban landscape replete with bridges, tall buildings, and wooded areas near the water.
13Canadian RiverArkansas River906 mi
1,458 km[16]
37°01′11″N 105°04′33″W / 37.01972°N 105.07583°W / 37.01972; -105.07583 (Canadian River (source))[53]35°27′12″N 95°01′58″W / 35.45333°N 95.03278°W / 35.45333; -95.03278 (Canadian River (mouth))47,130 mi2
122,070 km2[54]
6,100 ft3/s
174 m3/s
New Mexicos, Texas, Oklahomam
A small stream in arid country flows under a railroad bridge high above the water.
14Brazos RiverGulf of Mexico860 mi
1,390 km[55]
33°16′07″N 100°00′37″W / 33.26861°N 100.01028°W / 33.26861; -100.01028 (Brazos River (source))[56]28°52′33″N 95°22′42″W / 28.87583°N 95.37833°W / 28.87583; -95.37833 (Brazos River (mouth))44,620 mi2
115,566 km2[57]
8,800 ft3/s
249 m3/s
Texass, m
A train crosses a bridge over a wide river.
15Green RiverColorado River760 mi
1,230 km[58]
43°09′13″N 109°40′18″W / 43.15361°N 109.67167°W / 43.15361; -109.67167 (Green River (source))[59]38°11′21″N 109°53′07″W / 38.18917°N 109.88528°W / 38.18917; -109.88528 (Green River (mouth))44,900 mi2
116,200 km2[60]
6,100 ft3/s
172 m3/s
Wyomings, Colorado, Utahm
View from an airplane: A river meanders this way and that through a reddish-brown landscape.
16Pecos RiverRio Grande730 mi
1,175 km[61]
35°58′34″N 105°33′29″W / 35.97611°N 105.55806°W / 35.97611; -105.55806 (Pecos River (source))[62]29°41′59″N 101°22′17″W / 29.69972°N 101.37139°W / 29.69972; -101.37139 (Pecos River (mouth))44,000 mi2
113,960 km2[63]
71 ft3/s
2 m3/s
New Mexicos, Texasm
A large river flows through a canyon.
17White River (Arkansas)Mississippi River720 mi
1,159 km[64]
35°50′20″N 93°36′16″W / 35.83889°N 93.60444°W / 35.83889; -93.60444 (White River (source))[65]33°57′05″N 91°04′53″W / 33.95139°N 91.08139°W / 33.95139; -91.08139 (White River (mouth))27,872 mi2
72,189 km2[66]
34,600 ft3/s
979 m3/s
Arkansass, m, Missouri
A wide placid river flows by a low wooded hill.
18James River
[n 18]
Missouri River710 mi
1,140 km[67]
47°28′53″N 99°51′32″W / 47.48139°N 99.85889°W / 47.48139; -99.85889 (James River (source))[68]42°52′17″N 97°17′26″W / 42.87139°N 97.29056°W / 42.87139; -97.29056 (James River (mouth))20,942 mi2
54,240 km2[69]
854 ft3/s
24.2 m3/s[69]
[n 19]
North Dakotas, South Dakotam
A small stream winds through a town.
19Kuskokwim RiverBering Sea702 mi
1,130 km[70]
63°05′16″N 154°38′33″W / 63.08778°N 154.64250°W / 63.08778; -154.64250 (Kuskokwim River (source))[71]60°04′59″N 162°20′02″W / 60.08306°N 162.33389°W / 60.08306; -162.33389 (Kuskokwim River (mouth))48,000 mi2
124,319 km2[72]
67,000 ft3s
1,900 m3/s
Alaskas, m
Men and boats along the shore of a very wide river.
20Cimarron RiverArkansas River698 mi
1,123 km[73]
36°54′24″N 102°59′12″W / 36.90667°N 102.98667°W / 36.90667; -102.98667 ("Cimarron River (source))[74]36°10′14″N 96°16′19″W / 36.17056°N 96.27194°W / 36.17056; -96.27194 (Cimarron River (mouth))19,510 mi2
50,540 km2[75]
1,500 ft3/s
42 m3/s
Oklahomas, m, Colorado, Kansas
A medium-sized river winds through a flat plain dominated by brown grasses.
21Cumberland RiverOhio River696 mi
1,120 km[76]
36°50′42″N 83°19′26″W / 36.84500°N 83.32389°W / 36.84500; -83.32389 (Cumberland River (source))[77]37°08′36″N 88°24′27″W / 37.14333°N 88.40750°W / 37.14333; -88.40750 (Cumberland River (mouth))17,930 mi2
46,430 km2[78]
41,000 ft3/s
862 m3/s
Kentuckys, m, Tennessee
Several canoes pass under a bridge over a wide river in a forest.
22Yellowstone RiverMissouri River678 mi
1,091 km[79]
43°59′18″N 109°55′45″W / 43.98833°N 109.92917°W / 43.98833; -109.92917 (Yellowstone River (source))[80]47°58′42″N 103°58′56″W / 47.97833°N 103.98222°W / 47.97833; -103.98222 (Yellowstone River (mouth))70,400 mi2
182,336 km2[81]
12,800 ft3/s
362 m3/s
Wyomings, Montana, North Dakotam
Large waterfall encased in ice
23North Platte RiverPlatte River665 mi
1,070 km[82]
40°38′23″N 106°24′19″W / 40.63972°N 106.40528°W / 40.63972; -106.40528 (North Platte River (source))[83]41°06′50″N 100°40′33″W / 41.11389°N 100.67583°W / 41.11389; -100.67583 (North Platte River (mouth))34,885 mi2
90,352 km2[82]
770 ft3/s
21.9 m3/s
Colorados, Wyoming, Nebraskam
Canoers run rapids on a boulder-strewn river in the mountains.
24Milk RiverMissouri River625 mi
1,005 km[6]
dagger[n 20]
48°51′20″N 113°01′10″W / 48.85556°N 113.01944°W / 48.85556; -113.01944 (Milk River (source))[85]48°03′26″N 106°19′07″W / 48.05722°N 106.31861°W / 48.05722; -106.31861 (Milk River (mouth))22,332 mi2
57,839 km2[86]
double-dagger[n 21]
670 ft3/s
18.9 m3/s
Alberta, Montanas, m
A small river winds through a rocky, grass-covered plateau. Hills rise in the distance.
25Ouachita RiverBlack River605 mi
974 km[87]
31°41′56″N 94°19′57″W / 31.69889°N 94.33250°W / 31.69889; -94.33250 (Ouachita River (source))[88]31°37′53″N 91°48′25″W / 31.63139°N 91.80694°W / 31.63139; -91.80694 (Ouachita River (mouth))24,886 mi2
64,454 km2[89]
29,800 ft3/s
843 m3/s
Arkansass, Louisianam
A lock and dam on a medium-sized river
26Saint Lawrence RiverGulf of Saint Lawrence600 mi
965 km[90]
dagger[n 22]
44°05′55″N 76°23′28″W / 44.09861°N 76.39111°W / 44.09861; -76.39111 (St. Lawrence River (source))[92]49°40′00″N 64°30′00″W / 49.66667°N 64.50000°W / 49.66667; -64.50000 (Saint Lawrence River (mouth))[93]620,000 mi2
1,600,000 km2[94]
double-dagger[n 23]
440,000 ft3/s
12,600 m3/s
[n 24]
New Yorks, Ontarios, Quebecm
A large ship travels along a large river bordered by vegetation on one bank and urban development on the other.
27Gila RiverColorado River600 mi
960 km[95]
33°10′47″N 108°12′22″W / 33.17972°N 108.20611°W / 33.17972; -108.20611 (Gila River (source))[96]32°43′11″N 114°33′19″W / 32.71972°N 114.55528°W / 32.71972; -114.55528 (Gila River (mouth))57,850 mi2
149,832 km2[97]
double-dagger[n 25]
210 ft3/s
6 m3/s
[n 26]
New Mexicos, Arizonam
A shallow river with a sandy bed flows through an arid landscape.
28Sheyenne RiverRed River of the North591 mi
951 km[98]
47°41′46″N 100°29′52″W / 47.69611°N 100.49778°W / 47.69611; -100.49778 (Sheyenne River (source))[99]47°01′25″N 96°49′31″W / 47.02361°N 96.82528°W / 47.02361; -96.82528 (Sheyenne River (mouth))8,800 mi2
23,000 km2
[n 27]
288 ft3/s
8.2 m3/s
[n 28]
North Dakotas, m
 A small river rushes away from the base of a dam.
29Tanana RiverYukon River584 mi
940 km
[n 29]
63°02′57″N 141°51′52″W / 63.04917°N 141.86444°W / 63.04917; -141.86444 (Tanana River (source))[103]65°09′38″N 151°57′37″W / 65.16056°N 151.96028°W / 65.16056; -151.96028 (Tanana River (mouth))44,000 mi2
114,000 km2[104]
41,800 ft3/s
1,185 m3/s
Alaskas, m
A shallow braided river flows over a plain partly covered by green plants and grasses. Jagged snow-covered mountains rise in the distance.
30Smoky Hill RiverKansas River576 mi
927 km[98]
38°57′01″N 102°34′49″W / 38.95028°N 102.58028°W / 38.95028; -102.58028 (Smoky Hill River (source))[105]39°03′36″N 96°48′04″W / 39.06000°N 96.80111°W / 39.06000; -96.80111 (Smoky Hill (mouth))19,260 mi2
49,900 km2
[n 30]
1,542 ft3/s
43.7 m3/s
[n 31]
Colorados, Kansasm
A small, muddy river, as seen from a bridge, meanders between tree-lined banks.
31Niobrara RiverMissouri River568 mi
914 km[98]
42°49′15″N 104°38′50″W / 42.82083°N 104.64722°W / 42.82083; -104.64722 (Niobrara River (source))[107]42°45′58″N 98°02′50″W / 42.76611°N 98.04722°W / 42.76611; -98.04722 (Niobrara River (mouth))12,600 mi2
32,600 km2[108]
1,700 ft3/s
49 m3/s
Wyomings, Nebraskam
A small river flows through a field of grass and yellow flowers.
32Little Missouri RiverMissouri River560 mi
900 km[109]
44°32′25″N 104°59′57″W / 44.54028°N 104.99917°W / 44.54028; -104.99917 ("Little Missouri River (source))[110]47°36′38″N 102°52′24″W / 47.61056°N 102.87333°W / 47.61056; -102.87333 (Little Missouri River (mouth))8,310 mi2
21,500 km2[111]
[n 32]
450 ft3/s
13 m3/s[111]
[n 33]
Wyomings, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakotam
A small river meanders through a landscape of forests, bluffs, and rocky outcrops.
33Sabine RiverGulf of Mexico553 mi
890 km[112]
32°48′29″N 95°55′14″W / 32.80806°N 95.92056°W / 32.80806; -95.92056 (Sabine River (source))[113]29°59′08″N 93°47′26″W / 29.98556°N 93.79056°W / 29.98556; -93.79056 (Sabine River (mouth))9,756 mi2
25,268 km2[114]
8,400 ft3/s
238 m3/s
Texass, Louisianam
A wide river flows under a highway bridge.
34Red River of the NorthLake Winnipeg550 mi
890 km[115]
dagger[n 34]
46°15′52″N 96°35′55″W / 46.26444°N 96.59861°W / 46.26444; -96.59861 (Red River of the North (source))[117]50°23′47″N 96°48′39″W / 50.39639°N 96.81083°W / 50.39639; -96.81083 (Red River (mouth))[118]111,000 mi2
287,500 km2[119]
double-dagger[n 35]
8,300 ft3/s
236 m3/s
North Dakotas, Minnesotas, Manitobam
A small river flows through a prairie landscape; brown grasses and leafless trees line the banks.
35Des Moines RiverMississippi River525 mi
845 km[120]
44°05′02″N 95°41′17″W / 44.08389°N 95.68806°W / 44.08389; -95.68806 (Des Moines (source))[121]41°22′52″N 91°25′21″W / 41.38111°N 91.42250°W / 41.38111; -91.42250 (Des Moines River (mouth))12,018 mi2
31,127 km2[122]
6,400 ft3/s
182 m3/s
Minnesotas, Missouri, Iowam
A placid river flows through a prairie landscape.
36White River (South Dakota)Missouri River506 mi
815 km[123]
42°41′10″N 103°50′14″W / 42.68611°N 103.83722°W / 42.68611; -103.83722 (White River (source))[124]43°42′50″N 99°28′01″W / 43.71389°N 99.46694°W / 43.71389; -99.46694 (White River (mouth))10,200 mi2
26,418 km2[125]
570 ft3/s
16 m3/s
Nebraskas, South Dakotam
A small stream flows through grasses and shrubs at the base of a rocky hill.
37Trinity RiverGalveston Bay506 mi
815 km[126]
32°47′54″N 96°53′52″W / 32.79833°N 96.89778°W / 32.79833; -96.89778 (Trinity River (source))[127]29°44′35″N 94°42′12″W / 29.74306°N 94.70333°W / 29.74306; -94.70333 (Trinity River (mouth))17,970 mi2
46,540 km2[128]
7,800 ft3/s
222 m3/s
Texass, m
A middle-sized river flows by a factory with two tall smokestacks.
38Wabash RiverOhio River503 mi
810 km[98]
40°21′07″N 84°45′57″W / 40.35194°N 84.76583°W / 40.35194; -84.76583 (Wabash River (source))[129]37°47′53″N 88°01′38″W / 37.79806°N 88.02722°W / 37.79806; -88.02722 (Wabash River (mouth))32,950 mi2
85,340 km2[130]
1,001 ft3/s
28 m3/s
Ohios, Indianam, Illinoism
A middle-sized river with sandy and grassy banks flows under a bridge

Map[edit]

Map of North America showing all rivers on this list

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Dams, diversions for agriculture, and other human alterations to rivers have greatly affected the discharge of some rivers over time. For example, the virgin discharge of the Colorado River is estimated to have been 20,000 ft3/s (566 m3/s) compared to 1,400 ft3/s (~40 m3/s) in 2005.[10]
  2. ^ Of the total, 10,700 mi2 (28,000 km2), about two percent of the basin, is in Canada.[6][7]
  3. ^ Kammerer: 76,200 ft3/s (2,160 m3/s).[16]
  4. ^ Kammerer: 2,340 mi (3,770 km).[16] The Atlas of Canada: 2,348 mi (3,779 km).[6]
  5. ^ Of the total, 10,700 mi2 (27,800 km2), about two percent of the basin, is in Canada.[6][7]
  6. ^ Of this total, 714 mi (1,149 km) are in Canada. This amounts to about 36 percent of the main-stem length.[6]
  7. ^ The Atlas of Canada also lists the total basin size at 324,000 mi2 (839,200 km2), split between 125,000 mi2 (323,800 km2), about 39 percent, in Canada and 199,000 mi2 (515,400 km2), about 61 percent, in the United States.[6]
  8. ^ Kammerer: 1,900 mi (3,100 km).[16] University of Texas (UT): 1,799 mi (2,895 km).[24] The river forms the U.S.–Mexico border for 1.251 mi (2,013 km) (about 70 percent of its main-stem length) from El Paso to the Gulf of Mexico.[24]
  9. ^ Rivers of North America says that of this total only about 170,000 mi2 (450,000 km2) of the basin contribute water to the river.[26] The University of Texas (UT) says, "The river collects rain, snowmelt and spring water from an area [of] about 215,338 km2 [557,722 km2] including closed basins."[24] It says that 87,020 mi2 (225,380 km2) of the basin (about 48 percent), not counting closed basins, are in Mexico, while 93,821 mi2 (242,994 km2) (about 52 percent) are in the United States.[24] Kammerer cites a total basin size of 336,000 mi2 (870,000 km2).[16]
  10. ^ According to the Utah Division of Water Resources, 75 mi (121 km) of the river are in Mexico. This amounts to about 5 percent of the main-stem length.[27] Of this, 17 mi (27 km) form the border between Mexico and the United States.[28]
  11. ^ The United Nations Environment Programme cites a total basin size of 246,000 mi2 (637,000 km2), split between 2,000 mi2 (5,200 km2) (about 1 percent) in Mexico and 244,000 mi2 (632,000 km2) (about 99 percent) in the United States.[28]
  12. ^ Derived by subtracting the length of the East Fork Arkansas River of roughly 16 mi (26 km)[31] from Kammerer's total of 1,459 mi (2,348 km).[16]
  13. ^ About 498 mi (801 km) are in Canada.[6] This amounts to about 40 percent of the main-stem length.
  14. ^ The Atlas of Canada lists the total watershed at 259,200 mi2 (671,300 km2), split between 39,700 mi2 (102,800 km2) (about 15 percent) in Canada and 219,500 mi2 (568,500 km2) (about 85 percent) in the United States.[6] Kammerer's figure for the total watershed is 265,000 mi2 (690,000 km2).[16]
  15. ^ This is the combined length, 1,360 mi (2,190 km),[37] of the main stem, Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River, and Tierra Blanca Creek minus the lengths of the latter two, 160 mi (260 km)[38] and 75 mi (121 km).[39] Kammerer gives the length as 1,290 mi (2,080 km).[16]
  16. ^ Kammerer: 93,200 mi2.[16]
  17. ^ Kammerer: 56,000 ft3/s (1,600 m3)[16]
  18. ^ Also known as the Dakota River or Jim River and not to be confused with the James River of Virginia.
  19. ^ This is the average discharge for the years 1982–94, derived by adding the discharge for each of these years and dividing by 13.
  20. ^ According to the Milk River Watershed Council, a 110-mi (180 km) stretch of the river flows through Canada. This amounts to about 18 percent of the main-stem length.[84]
  21. ^ The Atlas of Canada: 23,600 mi2 (61,200 km2) split between 8,300 mi2 (21,600 km2) (about 35 percent) in Canada and 15,300 mi2 (39,600 km2) (about 65 percent) in the United States.[6]
  22. ^ According to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, a 115-mi (185 km) stretch of the river forms part of the U.S.–Canada border. This amounts to about 19 percent of the main-stem length.[91]
  23. ^ Kammerer: 396,000 mi2 (1,030,000 km2).[16] The Atlas of Canada: 519,000 mi2 (1,344,200 km2), of which 324,000 mi2 (839,200 km2) (about 62 percent) is in Canada and 195,000 mi2 (505,000 km2) (about 38 percent) is in the United States.[6]
  24. ^ Kammerer: 348,000 ft3/s (9,900 m3/s).[16]
  25. ^ Of this total, 232 mi2 (600 km2) (about 0.4 percent) are in the Mexican state of Sonora, and the rest is in the United States.[8]
  26. ^ Rivers of North America describes the discharge as less than 210 ft3/s (6 m3/s.
  27. ^ This is the size of the basin upstream of a stream gauge near Kindred and at river mile 67.9 (river kilometer 109.3).[100]
  28. ^ This is the average flow measured by a stream gauge near Kindred and at river mile 67.9 (river kilometer 109.3).[100]
  29. ^ The main-stem length is calculated by subtracting the length of the Nabesna River from Kammerer's total of 659 mi (1,061 km).[16] The Nabesna River is roughly 75 mi (121 km) long, calculated by adding the 60 mi (97 km) from the Nabesna mouth to Camp Creek[101] to the distance, 15 mi (24 km), from Camp Creek to Nabesna Glacier,[102] Kammerer's most remote source for the Tanana.
  30. ^ Reflects only that part of the basin above a stream gauge at river mile 43.3 (river kilometer 69.7) near Enterprise.[106]
  31. ^ Measured by a stream gauge at river mile 43.3 (river kilometer 69.7) near Enterprise.[106]
  32. ^ This is only a close approximation of the entire basin. It does not include a small fraction of the basin below the river gauge, located about 25 mi (40 km) upstream of the river mouth.
  33. ^ This is the average discharge for the years 1990–2010, derived by adding the discharge for each of these years and dividing by 21.
  34. ^ According to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 394 mi (634 km) are in the United States. This amounts to about 72 percent of the main-stem length.[116]
  35. ^ Of the total basin, 53,500 mi2 (138,600 km2) (about 48 percent) are in Canada and 57,500 mi2 (148,900 km2) (about 52 percent) are in the United States.[6]
References
  1. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 1137
  2. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 236
  3. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 615
  4. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 50
  5. ^ a b c d The Road Atlas. Chicago, Illinois: Rand McNally & Company. 2008. ISBN 0-528-93961-0. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Rivers". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Missouri River Basin basic geography and natural features". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 20, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b McCord, Marc W. "Gila River". Wind Spirit Community. Retrieved February 20, 2011. 
  9. ^ Patrick, Ruth (1995). Rivers of the United States: Volume II: Chemical and Physical Characteristics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN 0-471-10752-2. 
  10. ^ a b Benke and Cushing, p. 527
  11. ^ a b c The mouth coordinates and source coordinates are from the Geographic Names Information System (United States Geological Survey) or the Canadian Geographical Names Data Base except for the coordinates of the mouth of the Colorado River, derived by geolocating with Google Earth.
  12. ^ a b From Rivers of North America (ed. Benke and Cushing) unless otherwise noted.
  13. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 432
  14. ^ "Missouri River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. October 24, 1980. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  15. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 469
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kammerer, J.C. (September 1, 2005). "Largest Rivers in the United States". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
  17. ^ Benke and Cushing, pp. 237, 331
  18. ^ "Mississippi River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. June 4, 1980. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  19. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 272
  20. ^ "Atlin Lake (B.C.)". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Yukon River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. March 31, 1981. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  22. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 796
  23. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 186
  24. ^ a b c d Patino, Carlos; McKinney, Daene C.; Maidment, David R. "Water Management Information System for the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin". University of Texas Center for Research in Water Resources. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Rio Grande". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. March 30, 1979. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Benke and Cushing, p. 220
  27. ^ Anderson, D. Larry (May 2002). "Utah's Perspective: The Colorado River" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  28. ^ a b Arias, E.; Albar, M.; Parra, I; Reza, M. "Regional Definition" (PDF). United Nations Environment Programme. pp. 20–21. Retrieved February 20, 2011. 
  29. ^ "Colorado River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. February 8, 1980. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  30. ^ Derived via Google Earth
  31. ^ DeLorme (1998). Colorado Atlas and Gazetteer (Map). Section 47–48. ISBN 0-89933-265-X.
  32. ^ "Arkansas River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. November 30, 1979. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  33. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 315
  34. ^ "Columbia Lake". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved January 31, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Columbia River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  36. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 646
  37. ^ Kleiner, Diana J. "Handbook of Texas: Red River". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  38. ^ "Handbook of Texas: Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Handbook of Texas: Tierra Blanca Creek". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Red River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. June 4, 1980. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  41. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 317
  42. ^ "Snake River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. September 10, 1979. Retrieved August 6, 2010. 
  43. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 643
  44. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 379
  45. ^ "Ohio River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. October 24, 1980. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  46. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 413
  47. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 198
  48. ^ "Colorado River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. November 30, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  49. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 222
  50. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 384
  51. ^ "Tennessee River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. September 20, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  52. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 414
  53. ^ "Canadian River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. December 18, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  54. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 316
  55. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 203
  56. ^ "Brazos River". Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). United States Geological Survey. November 30, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  57. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 223
  58. ^ Cushing and Benke, p. 497
  59. ^ "Green River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). December 31, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  60. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 528
  61. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 213
  62. ^ "Pecos River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). November 30, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  63. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 225
  64. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 246
  65. ^ "White River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). April 30, 1980. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  66. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 273
  67. ^ "River Facts". American Rivers. Retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  68. ^ "James River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 13, 1980. Retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  69. ^ a b "USGS 06478513 James River near Yankton, SD". United States Geological Survey. November 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  70. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 741
  71. ^ "Kuskokwim River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 1, 2000. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  72. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 764
  73. ^ "Cimarron River". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Cimarron River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). December 18, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  75. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 319
  76. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 390
  77. ^ "Cumberland River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). September 20, 1979. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  78. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 415
  79. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 440
  80. ^ "Yellowstone River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 13, 1980. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 
  81. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 470
  82. ^ a b Benke and Cushing, p. 451
  83. ^ "North Platte River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). October 13, 1978. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  84. ^ "Milk River State of the Watershed Report, Part 3" (PDF). Milk River Watershed Council. 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  85. ^ "Milk River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). April 4, 1980. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  86. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 475
  87. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 265
  88. ^ "Ouachita River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 1, 2000. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  89. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 279
  90. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 987
  91. ^ "St. Lawrence River (International Section)". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  92. ^ "St. Lawrence River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 1, 2000. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  93. ^ "Saint Lawrence River". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  94. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 983
  95. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 511
  96. ^ "Gila River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 8, 1980. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  97. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 531
  98. ^ a b c d "National Hydrography Dataset". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  99. ^ "Sheyenne River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 13, 1980. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  100. ^ a b "Water-Data Report 2010: 05059000 Sheyenne River near Kindred, ND" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  101. ^ Irwin, Thomas (October 3, 2005). "Recordable Disclaimer of Interest Application for the Nabesna River" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  102. ^ DeLorme (2010). Alaska Atlas and Gazetteer (Map) (7th ed.). p. 98. ISBN 0-89933-289-7.
  103. ^ "Tanana River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 1, 2000. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  104. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 797
  105. ^ "Smoky Hill River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). October 13, 1978. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  106. ^ a b "Water-Data Report 2010: 06877600 Smoky Hill River at Enterprise, KS" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  107. ^ "Niobrara River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). March 9, 1979. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  108. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 478
  109. ^ Personius, Robert Giles; Eddy, Samuel (February 18, 1955). "Fishes of the Little Missouri River". Copeia (American Society of Icthyologists and Herpetologists) 1955 (1): 41. doi:10.2307/1439450. 
  110. ^ "Little Missouri River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 13, 1980. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  111. ^ a b "USGS 06337000 Little Missouri River near Watford City, ND". November 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  112. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 208
  113. ^ "Sabine River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). June 4, 1980. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  114. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 224
  115. ^ "Red River of the North". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
  116. ^ "Red River of the North: A Water Trail Guide" (PDF). Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  117. ^ "Red River of the North". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 1, 2000. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  118. ^ "Red River". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  119. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 896
  120. ^ "National Recreation Trails: Des Moines River Water Trail - Polk County, Iowa". American Trails. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  121. ^ "Des Moines River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). April 30, 1979. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  122. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 372
  123. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 445
  124. ^ "White River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 13, 1980. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  125. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 471
  126. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 215
  127. ^ "Trinity River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). November 30, 1979. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  128. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 227
  129. ^ "Wabash River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). February 14, 1979. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  130. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 396

Works cited[edit]