List of languages by number of native speakers

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Current distribution of human language families

The following tables list languages of the world with the largest number of native speakers, as estimated in various ways at different times by various sources.

Since the definition of a single language is to some extent arbitrary, some mutually intelligible idioms with separate national standards or self-identification have been listed together, including Indonesian and Malay; Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian; etc.

For a list of languages with the smallest numbers of native speakers, please see Lists of endangered languages.

Nationalencyklopedin (2007)

The following table contains the top 100 languages by estimated number of speakers in the 2007 edition of Nationalencyklopedin. As census methods in different countries vary to a considerable extent, and some countries do not record language in their censuses, any list of languages by native speakers, or total speakers, is based on estimates. Updated estimates from 2010 are also provided.[1]

LanguageNative speakers
(millions)
 % of world populationMainly spoken inUpdated 2010 figures and Notes
Mandarin93514.1%China, Taiwan, Singapore(955 million)[1] Part of Chinese language family
Spanish3875.85%Hispanic America, Spain, United States, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara, Pacific islands(407 million)[1]
English3655.52%Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States, South Africa, Singapore, Philippines(359 million)[1]
Hindi2954.46%India, Fiji, Nepal(311 million)[1] Part of Hindi languages family. Includes approx. 100 million speakers of other Hindi languages not counted below. Mutually intelligible with Urdu.
Arabic2804.23%North Africa, Western Asia (Middle East), East Africa(293 million)[1] The Arabic language contains many different dialects. Most are mutually intelligible. See Varieties of Arabic
Portuguese2043.08%Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe, Timor-Leste(216 million)[1]
Bengali2023.05%Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), Tripura (India), Assam (India)(206 million)[1]
Russian1602.42%Russia, former Republics of the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Israel(154 million)[1] Partially mutually intelligible with Ukrainian[2] and Belarusian[2]
Japanese1271.92%Japan(126 million)[1]
Punjabi961.44%Punjab region (India, Pakistan)(102 million)[1]
German921.39%Austria, Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy), Germany, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, South Tirol (in Italy)(89 million)[1]
Javanese821.25%Java (Indonesia)Javanese is the largest language without an official status anywhere (and thus the largest minority language in the world), despite being used throughout Southeast Asia and Suriname.
Wu801.20%Zhejiang, Shanghai, southern Jiangsu (eastern China)Part of Chinese language family
Malay/Indonesian771.16%Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore
Telugu761.15%Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry (India)
Vietnamese761.14%Vietnam
Korean761.14%North Korea, South Korea
French741.12%Belgium (Wallonia, Brussels), Canada (particularly Quebec, New Brunswick and Eastern parts of Ontario), France, Switzerland, Francophone Africa, French Caribbean, French Polynesia, various islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Marathi731.10%Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat (India)
Tamil701.06%Tamil Nadu, Karnataka (India), Puducherry (India), Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius
Urdu660.99%India, PakistanMutually intelligible with Hindi
Persian650.99%Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan
Turkish630.95%Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria
Italian590.90%Italy, Switzerland, San Marino
Cantonese590.89%Guangdong (Canton), southern Guangxi (southern China), Hong Kong, MacauPart of Chinese language family
Thai560.85%Thailand
Gujarati490.74%Gujarat (India)
Jin480.72%Shanxi, parts of Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi (northern China)Part of Chinese language family
Min Nan470.71%Fujian, eastern part of Guandong (southeastern China), Hainan (southern China), Taiwan, MalaysiaPart of Chinese language family
Polish400.61%Poland, USA, Germany, United Kingdom, Belarus, western Ukraine, Lithuania
Pashto390.58%Afghanistan, Pakistan
Kannada380.58%Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra (India)
Xiang380.58%Hunan (south central China)Part of Chinese language family
Malayalam380.57%Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé (India)
Sundanese380.57%Java (Indonesia)Sundanese is the second largest language (after Javanese) without an official status anywhere (not counting Chinese dialects such as Wu, Yue, Jin, Min Nan, Xiang).
Hausa340.52%Nigeria
Oriya330.50%Odisha (India)
Burmese330.50%Burma
Hakka310.46%Southern ChinaPart of Chinese language family
Ukrainian300.46%Ukraine
Bhojpuri290.43%Bihar (India)Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Tagalog280.42%Manila and Northern Philippines
Yoruba280.42%Nigeria, Benin and Togo
Maithili270.41%Bihar (India)Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Swahili260.39%Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Uzbek260.39%Uzbekistan
Sindhi260.39%Sindh (Pakistan and neighboring areas in India)
Amharic250.37%Ethiopia
Fula240.37%West and Central Africa, from Senegal to Sudan
Romanian240.37%Romania, Moldova
Oromo240.36%Ethiopia and Kenya
Igbo240.36%Nigeria
Azerbaijani230.34%Azerbaijan and Northern Iran
Awadhi220.33%Uttar Pradesh (India)Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Gan220.33%Jiangxi (Southeastern China)Part of Chinese language family
Cebuano210.32%Central and Southern Philippines
Dutch210.32%Belgium (Flanders, Brussels), Netherlands and Suriname
Kurdish210.31%Kurdistan”, northern Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria
Serbo-Croatian190.28%Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Montenegro
Malagasy180.28%Madagascar
Saraiki170.26%Sindh (Pakistan)
Nepali170.25%Nepal and neighbouring areas, Sikkim, (India)
Sinhalese160.25%Sri Lanka
Chittagonian160.24%Chittagong in Bangladesh
Zhuang160.24%Guangxi (Southern China)
Khmer160.24%Cambodia
Assamese150.23%Assam (India)
Madurese150.23%Madura, and Java (Indonesia)
Somali150.22%Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Yemen
Marwari140.21%Rajastan (India and Pakistan)This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Magahi140.21%Bihar (India)Part of Bihari
Haryanvi140.21%Haryana (India)Part of Hindi languages family
Hungarian130.19%Hungary and areas in neighbouring countries
Chhattisgarhi120.19%Chhattisgarh (India)Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Greek120.18%Greece, Cyprus
Chewa120.17%Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Deccan110.17%Deccan (India)Part of Urdu
Akan110.17%Ghana, Ivory Coast
Kazakh110.17%Kazakhstan
Min Bei10.90.16%Fujian (Southestern China)Part of Chinese language family
Sylheti10.70.16%Northern Bangladesh and neighbouring parts of India
Zulu10.40.16%South Africa
Czech10.00.15%Czech Republic
Kinyarwanda9.80.15%RwandaPart of Rwanda-Rundi
Dhundhari9.60.15%Rajastan (India)
Haitian Creole9.60.15%Haiti
Min Dong9.50.14%Fujian (Southeaster China)Part of Chinese language family
Ilokano9.10.14%Northern Luzon in the Philippines
Quechua8.90.13%Peru and BoliviaA language family, not a language
Kirundi8.80.13%Burundi and UgandaPart of Rwanda-Rundi
Swedish8.70.13%Sweden and Finland
Hmong8.40.13%Laos and neighbouring areasA language family, not a language
Shona8.30.13%Zimbabwe
Uyghur8.20.12%Xinjiang (Western China)
Hiligaynon8.20.12%Western Visayas in the Philippines
Mossi7.60.11%Burkina Faso
Xhosa7.60.11%South Africa
Belarusian7.60.11%Belarus
Balochi7.60.11%Balochistan (province in Pakistan and Iran)
Konkani7.40.11%Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra (States in India)

Ethnologue (2013, 17th edition)

The following list derives from SIL Ethnologue.[3] Ethnologue lists 1,300 languages with 100,000 speakers or more, 750 with 300,000 or more, some 400 with a million or more, 200 with at least 3 million, 80 with 10 million, and 40 with 30 million. Figures are accompanied by dates the data was collected; for many languages, an old date means that the current number of speakers will be substantially greater. A range of dates means that the figure is the sum of data from more than one country and from different years.

More than 100 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyNative speakers
(Ethnologue 17)[3]
Total speakers
(Ethnologue 17)[3]
Other estimatesRank
Mandarin [4]Sino-Tibetan,
Chinese
848 million (2000)1026 1026 millionOne of the six official languages of the United Nations.
All varieties of Chinese: 1200 million (2000)
1
Spanish [5]
(Castilian)
Indo-European,
Romance
406 million (1995–2011)0390 466 million420 million native.[6] 500 million total (2009)[7]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.

2
English [8]Indo-European,
Germanic
335 million (2003–2011)> 765 millionApproximately 375 million L1 speakers, 375 million L2 speakers, and 750 million EFL speakers. Totalling about 1.5 billion/1500 million speakers.[9]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.

3
Hindi [10]Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
260 million (2001), including partial figures from many Hindi languages0405 380 million490 million total speakers of Hindi/Urdu.[11]4
Arabic [12]Afro-Asiatic,
Semitic
206 million (1999)0452 452 million (100 million are not proficient in Standard Arabic)280 million native.[13]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.

5
Portuguese [14]Indo-European,
Romance
202 million (1998-2005)0193 217 million220 million native, 240 million total.[15]6
Bengali [16]
(Bangla)
Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
193 million (2001)0250 250 million7
Russian [17]Indo-European,
Slavic
162 million (2010)0250 272 millionOne of the six official languages of the United Nations.[18]8
Japanese [19]Japonic122 million (1985)0123 123 million9

50 to 100 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyNative[3]Total[3]Other estimates
Javanese [20]Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian84.3 million (2000)85 million (2012),[21] 75 million (2006),[22] 70 million native speakers (1997)[23]
German [24]Indo-European, Germanic83.8 million (standard German, 1990)111.8 million99 million native (2012: 80.2 million in Germany, 8.4 million in Austria, 5.6 million in Switzerland), 60 million second language in EU[25] + 5–20 million worldwide.
Lahnda [26]
(the boundary between this and Eastern Punjabi is spurious)
Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
82.7 million (1998–2000)0
Wu [27]
(Shanghainese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese77.2 million (1984)90 million,[28] Shanghainese is not mutually intelligible with some other Wu dialects/languages.
Telugu [29]Dravidian74.0 million (2001)79 million84.6 million (2011 census)[30]
Marathi [31]Indo-European, Indo-Aryan71.8 million (2001)72 million (2001 census)[30]
Tamil [32]Dravidian68.8 million (2001)76.8 million
French [33]Indo-European, Romance68.5 million (1987-2011)118.5 million128 million "native and real speakers" (includes 65 million French people,[34] 72 million "bilinguals".[35] More than 200 million native and second language.[36][37]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.[18]

Vietnamese [38]Austroasiatic, Viet–Muong67.8 million (1999)86 million total?[citation needed]
Korean [39]language isolate66.4 million (1986)72 million (2010 WA)
Urdu [40]Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
63.4 million (1998)167.4 million
Yue [41]
(Cantonese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese62.2 million (1984–2006)70 million[42]
Malay [43]
(Malaysian-Indonesian)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian59.4 million (2000–2007)
Persian [44]
(Farsi)
Indo-European, Iranian56.6 million (2011)
Turkish [45]Turkic, Oghuz50.7 million (1987)74 & 83 million (2005)[25]
Italian [46]Indo-European, Romance61.1 million (no date)Figure includes "bilinguals" who do not use standard Italian as their main language, who may account for nearly half the population in Italy

30 to 50 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyNative[3]Total[3]Other estimates
Min Nan [47]
(Amoy, Hokkien, Taiwanese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese46.8 million (1988–2001)
Gujarati [48]Indo-European, Indo-Aryan46.6 million (2001)
Bhojpuri [49]Indo-European, Indo-Aryan39.8 million (2001)
(underestimated; many speakers counted under Hindi)
Polish [50]Indo-European, Slavic39.0 million (1986)
Kannada [51]Dravidian37.7 million (2001)46.7 million
Ukrainian [52]Indo-European, Slavic36.0 million (2001)
Xiang [53]
(Hunanese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese36.0 million (1984)
Sundanese [54]Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian34 million (2000 census)
Malayalam [55]Dravidian34 million (2001)
Maithili [56]Indo-European, Indo-Aryan32.8 million (2000)
(the arithmetic is faulty)
Oriya [57]Indo-European, Indo-Aryan32.1 million (2001)2001 Indian Census: 33,017,446.[58]
Burmese [59]Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman32 million (2000)42 million50–56 million total speakers, including 18 to 23 million as second language (Myanmar Language Commission)
Hakka [60]Sino-Tibetan, Chinese30.1 million (1984)

10 to 30 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyNative[3]Total[3]Other estimate
Eastern Punjabi [61]
(the boundary between this and Lahnda is spurious)
Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
29.5 million (2001)
Pashto [62]Indo-European, Iranian26.9 million (1993–2008)
ThaiTai–Kadai, Tai26 million (2000)
20M Central (Siamese) + 6M Northern
60 million (2001)Divergent definitions of what constitutes "Thai".
HausaAfro-Asiatic, Chadic25 million (1991)40 million
Tagalog
(Filipino)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian24 million (2000) (as Tagalog)
25 million (2007) (as Filipino)
Perhaps 90% of the population of 85 million can speak Tagalog.[citation needed]
RomanianIndo-European, Romance23 million (2002)The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language[63]
DutchIndo-European, Germanic22 million (2007)
29M incl. 7M Afrikaans
(+ 10 million Afrikaans)25 million[25][64]
GanSino-Tibetan, Chinese21 million (1984)48 million[65][Cannot verify]
SindhiIndo-European, Indo-Aryan21 million (2001)(significant L2 speakers?)[citation needed]
UzbekTurkic, Uyghur20 million (1995)Population has grown substantially since 1995, but figures are exaggerated to hide Persian/Tajik population.
AzerbaijaniTurkic, Oghuz20 million (2001–2006)
22 million including Qashqai
28 millionData from Iran highly uncertain.
CIA: 26 million native (2010).[66]
RajasthaniIndo-European, Indo-Aryan20 million (2000–2003)Dominant variety is Malvi
LaoIsanTai–Kadai, Tai19 million (1983–1991)20 million
YorubaNiger–Congo, Volta–Niger19 million (1993)21 million
IgboNiger–Congo, Volta–Niger18 million (1999)18–25 million[67]
Northern BerberAfro-Asiatic, Berber15–22 million (Total of Central Atlas Tamazight, Riff, Shilha, Kabyle, Shawiya, others.)
AmharicAfro-Asiatic, Semitic17.5 million (1994)22 million[need updated fig.] Significant L2 speakers.
OromoAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic17 million (1994)30 million ethnic Oromo. Significant L2 speakers.
ChhattisgarhiIndo-European, Indo-Aryan17.5 million (2002)Frequently counted as "Hindi"
AssameseIndo-European, Indo-Aryan16.8 million (2000)Many L2 speakers[citation needed]
KurdishIndo-European, Iranian16 million (1980–2004)∼ 35 million ethnic Kurds ca. 2010, not all of whom speak Kurdish
Serbo-Croatian
(Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian)
Indo-European, Slavic16 million
SinhaleseIndo-European, Indo-Aryan16 million (2007)18 million
CebuanoAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian15.8 million (2000)Significant L2 speakers
RangpuriIndo-European, Indo-Aryan∼ 15 million (2007)
MalagasyAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian15 million (2006)22 million
KhmerAustroasiatic, Mon–Khmer15 million (2006)16 million
Sotho–TswanaNiger–Congo, Bantu15 million (2006)Tswana, Southern Sotho, and the various lects lumped under 'Northern Sotho' are mutually intelligible
NepaliIndo-European, Indo-Aryan14 million (2001)As the national language of Nepal, the number total speakers is closer to 32 million.
Rwanda-RundiNiger–Congo, Bantu14 million (1986–1998)Given the populations of Rwanda and Burundi, the 2010 figure is likely 23 million native.
SomaliAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic14 million (2006)
MadureseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian14 million (2000)
HaryanviIndo-European, Indo-Aryan13 million (1992)Frequently counted as "Hindi"
Fula
(Fulani, Fulfulde, Pulaar)
Niger–Congo, Senegambian13 million (1991–2007)
(all varieties)
Significant L2 speakers
BavarianIndo-European, Germanic13 million (2005)Listed figure of 13.26 spuriously precise
MagahiIndo-European, Indo-Aryan13 million (2002)Bihari, and so sometimes counted as "Hindi"
GreekIndo-European, Greek13 million (2002)
ChittagonianIndo-European, Indo-Aryan13 million (2006)sometimes considered a dialect of Bengali, but not mutually intelligible
DeccanIndo-European, Indo-Aryan12.8 million (2000)Perhaps the same as the Dakhini "dialect" of Urdu
HungarianUralic, Ugric12.5 million (2001)
ShonaNiger–Congo, Bantu10.8 million (2000)
(Shona proper)
11.6 million15 million native (2000) including Ndau, Manyika, etc.
Min BeiSino-Tibetan, Chinese10.3 million (1984)
ZuluNiger–Congo, Bantu10.3 million (2006)26 million
SylhetiIndo-European, Indo-Aryan10 millionSimilar to Bengali. Ethnologue figure of 10.3 million spuriously precise.

4.9 to 10 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyNative[3]TotalOther estimates
CzechIndo-European, Slavic9.5 million (2001)15 million Czech-Slovak
KanaujiIndo-European, Indo-Aryan9.5 million (2001)Generally considered Hindi
BulgarianIndo-European, Slavic9.1 million (1986)
Min Dong
(Fuzhou)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese8.6 million (2000)
UyghurTurkic, Uyghur8.9 million (2000)
Chewa
(Nyanja)
Niger–Congo, Bantu8.7 million (2001)
BelarusianIndo-European, Slavic8.6 million (2001)
KazakhTurkic, Kypchak8.3 million (1979)10 million in Kazakhstan alone (Census 2009)
SwedishIndo-European, Germanic8.3 million (1998)
Akan
(Twi, Fante)
Niger–Congo, Kwa8.3 million9.3 million10 million native (∼ 20 million total)[68]
Makuwa
(Lomwe)
Niger–Congo, Bantu8.0 million (2006)
(incl. Lomwe/West Makua)
BagheliIndo-European, Indo-Aryan7.9 million (2004)Generally considered Hindi
XhosaNiger–Congo, Bantu7.8 million (2006)
Haitian CreoleFrench creole7.7 million (2001)
KonkaniIndo-European, Indo-Aryanca. 7.6 million (2001)
AlbanianIndo-European, isolate7.5 million (1989–2007)
GikuyuNiger–Congo, Bantu7.2 million (undated)
AfrikaansIndo-European, Germanic7.1 million (2011)15.2 millionSee Dutch above.
IlokanoAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian7.0 million (2000)significant L2 use
BalochiIndo-European, Iranian7.0 million (1998)
Southern QuechuaQuechuan6.9 million (1987–2002)
BatakAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian6.85 million (1991–2000)
(all varieties)
TurkmenTurkic, Oghuz6.6 million (1995–1997)
Mossi-DagombaNiger–Congo, Gur6.4 million (1991–2003)Does not include Frafra.
ArmenianIndo-European, isolate6.4 million (?–2001)
Sukuma-NyamweziNiger–Congo, Bantu6.4 million (2006)
Tshiluba
(Luba-Kasai)
Niger–Congo, Bantu6.3 million (1991)7.0 million
SantaliAustroasiatic, Munda6.2 million (1997)
KongoNiger–Congo, Bantu∼ 6 million (?–2007)∼ 11 millionFigures are only approximate.
HiligaynonAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian5.8 million (2000)Significant L2 use.
TigrinyaAfro-Asiatic, Semitic5.8 million (1994–2006)6.0 million
MongolianMongolic5.7 million (1982–1995)Some L2 use.
Neapolitan
(Calabrese) [69]
Indo-European, Romance5.7 million (1976)
Bhili
(Wagdi, etc.)
Indo-European, Indo-Aryan5.6 million (1998–2007)
(all varieties)
DanishIndo-European, Germanic5.6 million (2007)
MinangkabauAustronesian5.5 million (2007)
KashmiriIndo-European, Indo-Aryan5.6 million (undated)data apparently post-2000
TatarTurkic, Kypchak5.5 million (2010)
HebrewAfro-Asiatic, Semitic5.3 million (1998)Number is L1 use, not nec. native. Significant L2 use.
FinnishUralic, Finnic5.0 million (1993)
SlovakIndo-European, Slavic5.0 million (2001)See Czech above.
GuaraniTupi4.9 million (1995)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007. In parentheses are the 2010 estimates for the top languages.
  2. ^ a b Alexander M. Schenker. 1993. "Proto-Slavonic," The Slavonic Languages. (Routledge). Pp. 60-121. Pg. 60: "[The] distinction between dialect and language being blurred, there can be no unanimity on this issue in all instances..."
    C.F. Voegelin and F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Elsevier). Pg. 311, "In terms of immediate mutual intelligibility, the East Slavic zone is a single language."
    Bernard Comrie. 1981. The Languages of the Soviet Union (Cambridge). Pg. 145-146: "The three East Slavonic languages are very close to one another, with very high rates of mutual intelligibility...The separation of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian as distinct languages is relatively recent...Many Ukrainians in fact speak a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian, finding it difficult to keep the two languages apart...
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Ethnologue". SIL Haley. 
  4. ^ Mandarin reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  5. ^ Spanish reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  6. ^ Instituto Cervantes and British Council (2012)
  7. ^ krysstal.com, 5th International Congress on Spanish Language (la-moncloa.es),uis.edu, Antonio Molina, director of the Instituto Cervantes in 2006 (terranoticias.es,elmundo.es, fundeu.es), Luis María Anson of the Real Academia Española (elcultural.es),International Congress about Spanish, 2008, Mario Melgar of the México University (lllf.uam.es), Enrique Díaz de Liaño Argüelles, director of Celer Solutions multilingual translation network ([1]), Feu Rosa - Spanish in Mercosur (congresosdelalengua.es), elpais.com, eumed.net, [2], babel-linguistics.com.
  8. ^ English reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  9. ^ "Future of English". The British Council. Retrieved 2011-08-24.  (page 10)
  10. ^ Hindi reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  11. ^ "A guide to Urdu - why learn Urdu?". Languages: Other. BBC. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  12. ^ Arabic reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  13. ^ Procházka, S. (2006), "Arabic", Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.)
  14. ^ Portuguese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  15. ^ "IOL Diário - Somos 240 milhões de falantes". Diario.iol.pt. 2008-07-16. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  16. ^ Bengali reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  17. ^ Russian reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  18. ^ a b Contributor: flamiejamie (2008-06-26). "Top 10 Most Spoken Languages In The World". Listverse. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  19. ^ Japanese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  20. ^ Javanese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  21. ^ Pereltsvaig, Asya (2012). Languages of the World: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 9781107002784. 
  22. ^ Brown, Keith; Sarah Ogilvie (2008). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. p. 560. ISBN 9780080877747. 
  23. ^ Lyovin, Anatole (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780195081169. 
  24. ^ German reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  25. ^ a b c "Europeans and Languages". European Commission. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  26. ^ Lahnda reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  27. ^ Wu Chinese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  28. ^ "Wu definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  29. ^ Telugu reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  30. ^ a b "Census of India - Statement 4". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  31. ^ Marathi reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  32. ^ Tamil reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  33. ^ French reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  34. ^ http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/document.asp?ref_id=ip1332
  35. ^ http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/dossiers/francophonie/francophones-monde.shtml
  36. ^ Posted by 데이빛 / Mithridates (2008-10-15). "French in 9th place with 200 million French speakers in the world / 200 millions de francophones dans le monde". Page F30. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  37. ^ "200 million French speakers in the world - La France en Australie". Ambafrance-au.org. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  38. ^ Vietnamese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  39. ^ Korean reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  40. ^ Urdu reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  41. ^ Yue Chinese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  42. ^ "Cantonese language". Encarta Dictionary. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  43. ^ List of languages by number of native speakers reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  44. ^ Persian reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  45. ^ Turkish reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  46. ^ Italian reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  47. ^ Min Nan reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  48. ^ Gujarati reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  49. ^ Bhojpuri reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  50. ^ Polish reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  51. ^ Kannada reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  52. ^ Ukrainian reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  53. ^ Xiang Chinese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  54. ^ Sundanese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  55. ^ Malayalam reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  56. ^ Maithili reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  57. ^ Oriya reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  58. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement1.htm
  59. ^ Burmese reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  60. ^ Hakka reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  61. ^ Eastern Punjabi reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  62. ^ Pashto reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  63. ^ Latin Union - The odyssey of languages: ro, es, fr, it, pt
  64. ^ "Het Nederlandse taalgebied" (in Dutch). Taalpeil. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  65. ^ http://ling.cass.cn/fangyan/dituji/LANGUAGE%20ATLAS%20OF%20CHINA.html
  66. ^ 18.5M Iran, 7.5M Azerbaijan
  67. ^ Austin, Peter (2008). One thousand languages: living, endangered, and lost. University of California Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-520-25560-7. 
  68. ^ http://www.plc.sas.upenn.edu/languages/twi.html
  69. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/nap

External links