List of kings of Persia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

King of Iran
ایران
Former Monarchy
Lion and the Sun.svg
Lion and Sun
Shah of iran.png
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
First monarchUnnamed
Last monarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Monarchy began2600 BC
Monarchy ended11 February 1979
Monarchy ended by Iranian revolution
Current pretender(s)Reza Pahlavi
 
Jump to: navigation, search
King of Iran
ایران
Former Monarchy
Lion and the Sun.svg
Lion and Sun
Shah of iran.png
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
First monarchUnnamed
Last monarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Monarchy began2600 BC
Monarchy ended11 February 1979
Monarchy ended by Iranian revolution
Current pretender(s)Reza Pahlavi

The following is a list of kings and queens of Main Dynasties of ancient Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran and territories lost and their rulers. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of Iran please see:

Awan Dynasty (c. 2600–2270 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Awan Dynasty[1][2][3] (c. 2600–2270 BC)
UnnamedKing of Awan ?–?c. 2580 BC ? ?Contemporary with Ur-Nungal king of Uruk[4]
...LuKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Kur-IshshakKing of Awan ?–? ?c. 2550 BC ?36 years. contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu king of Adab & Ur-Nanshe king of Lagash
PeliKing of Awan ?–?c. 2500 BC ? ?
Tata IKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Ukku-TanhishKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
HishutashKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Shushun-TaranaKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Napi-IlhushKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Kikku-Siwe-TemtiKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Hishep-Ratep IKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
Luh-IshshanKing of Awan ?–c. 2325 BC ?c. 2325 BCSon of Hishep-Ratep I
Hishep-Ratep IIKing of Awan ?–?c. 2325 BC ?Son of Luh-Ishshan
Emahsini[5]King of Awan ?–2311 BCc. 2315 BC2311 BC
HeluKing of Awan ?–? ? ? ?
HitaKing of Awan ?–?c. 2270 BCc. 2270 BC ?contemporary of Naram-Sin king of Akkad
Kutik-Inshushinak[6]King of Awan ?–?c. 2100 BCc. 2100 BCSon of Shinpi-hish-hukcontemporary of Ur-Nammu king of Ur. Susa conquered by Ur troops in 2078 and 2016 BC. After him, kings of Simashki took the leadership of Elam.

Simashki Dynasty (c. 2070–c. 1975 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Simashki Dynasty[7][8] (c. 2070–c. 1975 BC)
Gir-Namme IKing of Simashki ?–? ? ? ?
Tazitta IKing of Simashki ?–?c. 2040 BC[5]c. 2037 BC[5] ?
Eparti IKing of Simashki ?–? ?c. 2033 BC[5] ?
Gir-Namme IIKing of Simashki ?–?c. 2033 BC ? ?
Tazitta IIKing of Simashki ?–? ? ? ?
Lurak-LuhhanKing of Simashki ?–2022 BCc. 2028 BC2022 BC ?
Hutran-TemtiKing of Simashki ?–? ? ? ?
Indattu-Inshushinak IKing of Simashki ?–2016 BC ?2016 BCSon of Hutran-Temti
KindattuKing of Simashki ?–?Before c. 2006 BCAfter c. 2005 BCSon of Tan-RuhuratirConqueror of Ur
Indattu-Inshushinak IIKing of Simashki ?–?c. 1980 BC ?Son of Pepi[6]Cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin & Bilalama king of Eshnunna
Tan-Ruhuratir IKing of Simashki ?–?c. 1965 BC ?Son of Indattu-Inshushinnak IICont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
Indattu-Inshushinak IIIKing of Simashki ?–? ? ?Son of Tan-Ruhuratir IMore than 3 years

Epartid Dynasty (c. 1975–c. 1500 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Epartid Dynasty[9] (c. 1975–c. 1500 BC)
Eparti IIKing of Simashki, king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah ?–?c. 1973 BC ?Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.[10]cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
ShilhahaKing of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah ?–? ? ?Son of Eparti II
Kuk-Nashur ISukkalmah ?–? ? ?son (ruhushak)[11] of Shilhaha
Atta-hushuSukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa, Shepherd of Inshushinak ?–After c. 1894 BC ?1928 BCAfter c. 1894 BCSon of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
Tetep-MadaShepherd of the people of Susa ?–?After c. 1890 BC ?Son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
Palar-IshshanSukkalmah ?–? ? ? ?
Kuk-Sanit ?–? ? ?Son of Palar-Ishshan (?)
Kuk-KirwashSukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
Tem-Sanit ?–? ? ?Son of Kuk-Kirwash
Kuk-Nahhunte ?–? ? ?Son of Kuk-Kirwash
Kuk-Nashur IISukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)
ShirukduhSukkalmah ?–?c. 1790 BC ? ?Cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria
Shimut-Wartash I ?–? ? ?Son of Shirukduh
Siwe-Palar-HupakSukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam ?–?Before c. 1765 BCAfter c. 1765 BCSon of Shirukduh
Kuduzulush ISukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Shirukduh
Kutir-Nahhunte ISukkalmah ?–?c. 1710 BC ?Son of Kuduzulush I
Atta-Merra-Halki ?–? ? ?Son of Kuduzulush I (?)
Tata IISukkal ?–? ? ?Brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
Lila-Irtash ?–? ? ?Son of Kuduzulush I
Temti-AgunSukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Kutir-Nahhunte I
Kutir-ShilhahaSukkalmah, Sukkal ?–? ? ?Son of Temti-Agun
Kuk-Nashur IIISukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa ?–?Before c. 1646 BCAfter c. 1646 BCSon of Kutir-Shilhaha
Temti-Raptash ?–? ? ?Son of Kutir-Shilhaha
Shimut-Wartash II ?–? ? ?son of Kuk-Nashur III
ShirtuhKing of Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Kuk-Nashur III
Kuduzulush IISukkalmah, King of Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Shimut-Wartash II
Tan-UliSukkalmah, Sukkal ?–? ? ? ?
Temti-HalkiSukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Tan-Uli
Kuk-Nashur IV[5]Sukkalmah ?–? ? ?Son of Tan-Uli
Kutik-Matlat[4] ?–?c. 1500 BC ?Son of Tan-Uli

Kidinuid Dynasty (c. 1500–c. 1370 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Kidinuid Dynasty[9] (c. 1500–c. 1370 BC)
KidinuKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?15th century BC ? ?
Inshushinak-Sunkir-NappipirKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
Tan-Ruhuratir IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?15th century BC ? ?
ShallaKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
Temti-AharKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1370 BC ? ?Cont. Kadashman-Enlil I Kassite king of Babylon

Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1400–c. 1200 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Igehalkid Dynasty[9] (c. 1400–c. 1200 BC)
Pahir-Ishshan IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1390 BC ?Son of Ige-HalkiCont. Kurigalzu I Kassite king of Babylon
Kidin-Hutran IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Pahir-Ishshan I[12]
Attar-Kittah IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Ige-Halki
Humban-Numena IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1370 BC ?Son of Attar-Kittah IIcont. Burna-Buriash II Kassite king of Babylon
Untash-Napirisha or Untash-HumbanUntash Napirisha stele Louvre Sb12.jpgKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1340 BC ?Son of Humban-Numena I
Kidin-Hutran IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Untash-Naprisha[12]
Napirisha-Untash or Humban-UntashKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Kidin-Hutran II[12]
Pahir-Ishshan IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
Unpatar-Napirisha or Unpatar-HumbanKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Pahir-Ishshan II
Kidin-Hutran IIIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1224 BCc. 1217 BCSon of Pahir-Ishshan IIcontemporary of Enlil-nadin-shumi & Adad-shuma-iddina Kassite kings of Babylon[10]

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1200–c. 1000 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1200 – c. 1000 BC)[9]
Hallutush-InshushinakKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1200 BC ? ?
Shutruk-Nahhunte IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?Before c. 1158 BCAfter c. 1158 BCSon of Hallutush-Inshushinak
Kutir-Nahhunte IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?Before c. 1155 BCAfter c. 1155 BCSon of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
Shilhak-Inshushinak IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ?Son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
Hutelutush-InshushinakKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?before c. 1110 BCafter c. 1110 BCSon of Kutir-Nahhunte II
Shilhina-Hamru-LakamarKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 1110 BC ?Son of Shilhak-Inshushinak I
Humban-Numena IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 11th century BC ? ?
Shutruk-Nahhunte IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 11th century BC ?Son of Humban-Numena II
Shutur-Nahhunte IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 11th century BC ?Son of Humban-Numena II
Akshir-ShimutKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
Akshir-NahhunteKing of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
Kara-IndashKing of Elam ?–? ? ? ?

Neo-Elamites (c. 821 – c. 640)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Neo-Elamites (c. 821 – c. 640)[13]
UnknownKing of Elam ?–?c. 821 BCc. 821 BC ?cont. Shamshi-Adad V king of Assyria
Humban-Tahrah IKing of Elam ?–743 BC ?743 BC ?
Humban-Nikash IKing of Elam ?–717 BC743 BC717 BCSon of Humban-Tahrah I
Shutur-Nahhunte IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–699 BC717 BC699 BCSon (Ruhushak) of Humban-Nikash I
Hallushu-InshushinakKing of Anshan & Susa ?–c. 693 BC699 BCc. 693 BCBrother of Shutur-Nahhunte II
Kutir-Nahhunte IIIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–c 692 BCc. 693 BCc. 692 BCSon of Hallushu-Inshushinak
Humban-Numena IIIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–c. 688 BCc 692 BCc. 688 BCSon of Hallushu-Inshushinak
Humban-Haltash IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–c. 681 BCc. 688 BCc. 681 BCSon of Humban-Numena III (?)
Humban-Haltash IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–c. 675 BCc. 681 BCc. 675 BCSon of Humban-Haltash I
Urtak-InshushinakKing of Anshan & Susa ?–663 BCc. 675 BC663 BCBrother of Humban-Haltash II
Temti-Humban-Inshushinak IKing of Anshan & Susa ?–c. 653 BC663 BCc. 653 BCBrother of Urtak-Inshushinak
Humban-Nikash IIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–651 BCc. 653 BC651 BCSon of Urtak-Inshushinak
TammarituKing of Anshan & Susa ?–after 645/4 BC652 BC649 BCSon of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
IndabibiKing of Anshan & Susa ?–after July 648 BC649 BCafter July 648 BC ?
Humban-Haltash IIIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–after 645/4 BCafter July 648 BC645/4 BCSon of Atta-hamiti-InshushinakHe was defeated and then captured by Assyrians.
TammarituKing of Anshan & Susa ?–after 645/4 BC647 BC647 BCSon of Humban-Hapua & Urtak-Inshushinak
Humban-Nikash IIIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–after 645/4 BC647 BC647 BCSon of Atta-Merra-Halki
UmhulumaKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?647 BC647 BC ?
Indattu-Inshushinak IVKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?647 BCc. 646 BC ?
Humban-HapuaKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?647 BC647 BC ?
Pa'eKing of Anshan & Susa ?–after 645/4 BCautumn 646after 645/4 BC ?
Shutur-Nahhunte IIIKing of Anshan & Susa ?–?c. 646 BC ?Son of Indattu-Inshushinak IVAfter him, kingdom of Anshan transferred to Achaemenids

Median Empire (674–652 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Median Empire (674–652 BC)[14]
PhraortesXšaθrita (?)King of Media ?–652 BC674 BC652 BCSon of DeiocesKilled in battle with Assyrians and Scythians. Domination of Scythia 652–625 BC
Kingdom of Scythia (652–625 BC)
MadeaKing of Scythia ?–625 BC652 BC625 BCSon of PartatuaKing of Scythia
Median Empire[14] (625–535 BC)
CyaxaresHuvaxšaθraKing of Media ?–585 BC625 BC585 BCSon of Xšaθrita
Astyages / AhasuerusIshtuviguKing of Media ?–585 BC585 BC550 BCSon of CyaxaresDeposed and later killed
Cyaxares II / DariusKing of Media600?–535? BC550 BC535? BCSon of AstyagesDied at Babylon of old age. Co-reigned with Cyrus the Great

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)
Cyrus the GreatCyrus II of Persia.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World600–530 BC559 BC530 BCSon of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of AstyagesKing of Anshan from 559 BC. Killed in battle with Massagetes
CambysesCambyses II of Persia.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–521 BC530 BC522 BCSon of Cyrus the GreatDied while en route to put down a rebellion.
BardiyaGaumata (?)The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–522 BC522 BC522 BCSon of Cyrus the Great (possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya)Killed by Persian aristocrats
Darius IDarius In Parse.JPGThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt550–486 BC522 BC486 BCSon of Hystaspes
Xerxes IXerxes I of Persia.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt519–465 BC485 BC465 BCSon of Darius IKilled
Artaxerxes I LongimanusArtaxerxes I of Persia.JPGThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–424 BC465 BC424 BCSon of Xerxes I
Xerxes IIArtaxerxesThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–424 BC424 BC424 BCSon of Artaxerxes IOnly recognised in Persia itself, killed by Sogdianus
 ?SogdianusThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–423 BC424 BC423 BCSon of Artaxerxes IOnly recognised in Persia and Elam, killed by Darius II
Darius IIOchusTomb of Darius II.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–404 BC424 BC404 BCSon of Artaxerxes I
Artaxerxes IIArsaces20101229 Artaxerxes II tomb Persepolis Iran.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings436–358 BC404 BC358 BCSon of Darius II
Artaxerxes IIIOchusArtaxerxes III of Persia.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–338 BC358 BC338 BCSon of Artaxerxes IIKilled
Artaxerxes IVArsesThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–336 BC338 BC336 BCSon of Artaxerxes IIIKilled
Darius IIIArtashataDarius III of Persia.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt380–330 BC336 BC330 BCSon of Artaxerxes IVKilled by Artaxerxes V
Artaxerxes VBessusThe punishment of Bessus by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899).jpgThe Great King, King of Kings ?–329 BC330 BC329 BCProbably a descendant of Artaxerxes IIKilled by Alexander III

Macedonian Empire (330–309 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Macedonian Empire (330–312 BC)
Alexander the GreatAlexander III of Macedon.jpgKing356 – 13 June 323 BC330 BC323 BCSon of Philip II of MacedoniaKing of Macedonia from 336 BC as Alexander III
Philip IIIArrhidaeusKingc. 359 – 317 BCJune 323 BC317 BCSon of Philip II of MacedoniaKilled by Olympias
Alexander IVKingSept. 323 – 309 BCSept. 323 BC309 BCSon of Alexander IIIKing of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater
PerdiccasRegent ?–321 BCJune 323 BC321 BCRegent for Alexander IV & Philip III, Prince of Orestis
AntipaterRegent398?–319 BC321 BC319 BCSon of IollasRegent for Alexander IV & Philip III
PolyperchonRegent394–303 BC319 BC316 BCSon of SimmiasRegent for Alexander IV & Philip III
Antigonus MonophthalmusAntigone le Borgne (pièce).jpgKing382–301 BC312 BC301 BCSon of Philip of ElymiotisRuler over Anatolia from 323, adding Syria and the east in 317. King from 306 BC until 301 BC. Killed at the Battle of Corupedium

Seleucid Empire (311–129 BC)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Seleucid dynasty (311–129 BC)
Seleucus I NicatorSeleuco I Nicatore.JPGKingc. 358–281 BC311 BC281 BCSon of Antiochus son of SeleucusAssumed title of "King" from 306 BC.
Antiochus I SoterAntiochusI.jpgKing ?–261 BC281 BC261 BCSon of Seleucus ICo-ruler from 291
Antiochus II TheosAntiochusIIMET.jpgKing286–246 BC261 BC246 BCSon of Antiochus I
Seleucus II CallinicusSeleucusII.jpgKing ?–225 BC246 BC225 BCSon of Antiochus II
Seleucus III CeraunusAlexanderSeleucusIII.jpgKingc. 243–223 BC225 BC223 BCSon of Seleucus II
Antiochus III the GreatAntiochos III.jpgGreat Kingc. 241–187 BC223 BC187 BCSon of Seleucus II
Seleucus IV PhilopatorSeleucusIV.JPGKing ?–175 BC187 BC175 BCSon of Antiochus III
Antiochus IV EpiphanesAntiokhos IV.jpgKingc. 215–163 BC175 BC163 BCSon of Antiochus IIIKilled in Elymais
Antiochus V EupatorAntiochus v.jpgKingc. 172–161 BC163 BC161 BCSon of Antiochus IV
Demetrius I SoterDemetriosISoter.JPGKing185–150 BC161 BC150 BCSon of Seleucus IV
Alexander BalasAlexanderI.jpgKing ?–146 BC150 BC146 BCPurported son of Antiochus IV
Demetrius II NicatorDemetriusII.jpgKing ?–139 BC146 BC139 BCSon of Demetrius IDefeated and captured by Parthians. He married Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
Antiochus VI DionysusAntiochos VI.jpgKing148–138 BC145 BC142 BCSon of Alexander III.Jointly with Demetrius II.
Antiochus VII SidetesAntiochus VII coin (Mary Harrsch).jpgKing ?–129 BC139 BC129 BCSon of Demetrius IKilled in battle with Phraates II

Parthian Empire (247 BC – AD 228)[edit]

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid-2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BC. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – 228 AD)
Arsaces ITiridates I or ArsacesCoin of Arsaces I of Parthia.jpgKing, Karen, Autocrator ?–211 BC247 BC211 BCA descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II
Arsaces IIArsacesCoin of Arsaces II of Parthia.jpg ?–185 BC211 BC185 BC[15]Son of Arsaces I
Arsaces IIIPhriapatiusPhriapatiusCoinHistoryofIran.jpg ?–170 BC185 BC170 BC[15]Grandson of Tiridates I
Arsaces IVPhraates IPhraates I.jpg ?–167 BC170 BC167 BC[16]Son of Phriapatius
Arsaces VMithridates IMithradatesi.jpgThe Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene ?–132 BC167 BC[16]132 BC[17]Son of Phriapatius
Arsaces VIPhraates IIPhraatesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgThe Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros ?–127 BC132 BC127 BC[17]Son of Mithridates IKilled in battle with Scythians
Arsaces VIIArtabanus ICoin of Artabanus I of Parthia.jpgKing ?–126 BC127 BC126 BC[17]Son of PhriapatiusKilled in battle with Tocharians
Arsaces VIIIVologases (I)[17]The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes ?–122 BC126 BC122 BC[17]Son of PhriapatiusHe was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
Arsaces IXArtabanus (II)[17]The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–121 BC122 BC121 BCSon of Artabanus IKilled in battle with Medians
Arsaces XMithridates IIMithradatesII.jpgThe Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter ?–91 BC121 BC[18]91 BCSon of Artabanus I
Arsaces XIGotarzes ICoin of Gotarzes I of Parthia.jpgThe Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator ?–87 BC91 BC87 BCSon of Mithridates II
Arsaces XIIArtabanus (III)[16]The Great King, Theopator, Nicator ?–77? BC91 BC77? BCSon of Vologases (I)
Arsaces XIIIMithridates (III)[17]The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes ?–67 BC88 BC67 BCSon of Mithridates II
Arsaces XIVOrodes IOrodesi.jpgThe Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–75 BC80 BC75 BCSon of Mithridates II
Arsaces XVSanatruces ICoin of Sanatruces of Parthia.jpgThe Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene157–70 BC77 BC70 BCSon of Vologases (I)[16]
Arsaces XVI[16] ?The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes ?–66 BC77 BC66 BC ?
Arsaces XVIIPhraates IIICoin of Phraates III of Parthia.jpgThe Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–57 BC70 BC57 BCSon of Sanatruces IKilled by Orodes II
Arsaces XVIII[16] ?The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–63 BC66 BC63 BCSon of Arsaces XVI
Arsaces XIXMithridates III (or IV)Coin of Mithridates III of Parthia.jpgThe Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene ?–54 BC65 BC[16]54 BCSon of Phraates IIIKilled by Orodes II
Arsaces XXOrodes IICoin of Orodes II of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes ?–38 BC57 BC38 BCSon of Phraates IIIKilled by Phraates IV
Arsaces XXIPacorus ICoin of Pacorus I of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–38 BC50 BC38 BCSon of Orodes IIKilled in battle with Romans
Arsaces XXIIPhraates IVPhraatesIVProfile.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–2 BC382 BCSon of Orodes IIKilled by Musa
Arsaces XXIIITiridates IIKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos ?–after 23 BC30 BC25 BCProbably a descendant of Mithridates (III)Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXIVMithridates (V)[19] ? ?–? BC12 BC9 BCProbably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
MusaMusaParthian Queen Bust.jpgQueen of Queens, Thea, Urania ?–4? AD2 BC4 ADQueen of Phraates IV
Arsaces XXVPhraates VCoin of Phraates V of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–4 AD2 BC4 ADSon of Phraates IV & MusaDeposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXVIOrodes IIIOrodesIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–646Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)Killed by Parthian aristocrats
Arsaces XXVIIVonones ICoin of Vonones I of Parthia.jpgThe Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus ?–19812Son of Phraates IVDeposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.
Arsaces XXVIIIArtabanus IIICoin of Artabanus II of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–401040Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Arsaces XXIXTiridates III ? ?–?3536Probably a descendant of Tiridates IIDeposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXXCinnamus ? ?–?3737Son of Artabanus IIIAbdicated
Arsaces XXXIGotarzes IIGodarz.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene11–5140 –51Son of Artabanus III
Arsaces XXXIIVardanes IVardanesICoinHistoryofIran.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–464046Son of Artabanus IIIKilled by Gotarzes II
Arsaces XXXIIIVonones IIVononesii.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–51c. 4551
Arsaces XXXIVMithridates (VI)[20] ? ?–?4950Son of Vonones IIDeposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
Arsaces XXXVVologases I (or II)VologasesI.JPGKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord ?–775177Son of Vonones II
Arsaces XXXVIVardanes IIKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–?5558Son of Vologases I (or II)Deposed
Arsaces XXXVIIVologases II (or III)VologasesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–?7789/90Probably son of Vologases I
Arsaces XXXVIIIPacorus IIPacorusII .jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–11577115Son of Vonones II
Arsaces XXXIXArtabanus IVKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–?8081Probably son of Artabanus III
Arsaces XLOsroes ICoin of Osroes I of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–13089/90130Probably son of Vologases II (or III)
Arsaces XLIVologases III (or IV)Coin of Vologases III of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–148105148 ?
Arsaces XLIIMithridates IV (or VII)Coin of Mithridates IV of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–c. 145115c. 145Brother of Osroes IKilled in battle with Romans
Arsaces XLIIIParthamaspatesCoin of Parthamaspates of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–after 123116117Son of Osroes IDeposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XLIV[21]Sanatruces IIKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–c. 145c. 145c. 145son of Mithridates IV (or VII)Killed in battle with Romans
Arsaces XLVVologases IV (or V)Coin of Vologases IV of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–191148191Son of Mithridates IV (or VII)
Arsaces XLVIVologases V (or VI)Coin of Vologases V of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–208191208Son of Vologases IV (or V)
Arsaces XLVIIOsroes IIKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–?c. 190c. 195Probably son of Vologases IV (or V)
Arsaces XLVIIIVologases VI (or VII)Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene181–228208228Son of Vologases V (or VI)Killed by Ardashir I
Arsaces XLIXArtabanus VArtabanusiv.jpgKing of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–226213226Son of Vologases V (or VI)Killed by Ardashir I
Arsaces LTiridates IV[22]King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–?217222Son of Vologases IV (or V)He was also king of Armenia

Sasanian Empire (224–651)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
House of Sasan
Ardashir IArdashirIGoldCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah[23]180 – February 24228 April 224February 242Son of Papak, who was son of Sasan
Shapur IShapurICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah215 – May 27012 April 240May 270Son of Ardashir I
Hormizd IHormozd-ArdashirHormizdICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah[24] ?–June 271May 270June 271Son of Shapur I
Bahram IBahramINoFireAltarCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah, Gilanshah ?–September 274June 271September 274Son of Shapur I
Bahram IIBahramIICroppedCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–293September 274293Son of Bahram I
Bahram IIIBahram III.jpgShahanshah, Sakanshah ?–293293293Son of Bahram IIDeposed
Narseh INarsehCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah ?–302293302Son of Shapur I
Hormizd IIHormizdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–309302309Son of Narseh IKilled by Iranian aristocrats
Adhur NarsehShahanshah ?–309309309Son of Hormizd IIKilled by Iranian aristocrats
Shapur IIShapur.jpgShahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf[25]309 – 379309379Son of Hormizd II
Ardashir IIArdashirIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–383379383Son of Shapur II
Shapur IIIShapurIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–Dec. 388383Dec. 388Son of Shapur IIKilled by Iranian aristocrats
Bahram IVBahramIVOtherCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah, Kirmanshah ?–399Dec. 388399Son of Shapur II
Yazdegerd IYazdegerdICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah363 – 21 January 42039921 January 420Son of Shapur IIIKilled by Iranian aristocrats
Bahram VBahramVCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah406 – 20 June 43821 January 42020 June 438Son of Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd IIYazdegerdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–15 December 45720 June 43815 December 457Son of Bahram V
Hormizd IIIShahanshah399–459457459Son of Yazdegerd IIKilled by Peroz I
Peroz IPerozi.jpgShahanshah ?–Jan. 484457Jan. 484Son of Yazdegerd IIKilled in battle with Hephthalites
BalashBalash.jpgShahanshah ?–488Feb. 484488Son of Yazdegerd II
Kavadh IKavad i.jpgShahanshah449 – 13 September 531488496Son of Peroz IDeposed
DjamaspZamarzp.jpgShahanshah ?–502496498Son of Peroz IDeposed
Kavadh IKavad i.jpgShahanshah449 – 13 September 53149813 September 531Son of Peroz I
Khosrau IAnoushiravan.jpgShahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just500 – 31 January 57913 September 53131 January 579Son of Kavadh I
Hormizd IVHormizdIV.jpgShahanshah540 – 5 September 59031 January 5795 September 590Son of Khosrau IKilled by Vistahm
Khosrau IIGold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpgShahanshah, Aparviz570 – February 28, 628Sept. 590Sept. 590Son of Hormizd IVDeposed and went to Byzantine territory
House of Mihran
Bahram VIMehrbandakBahramChobinCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah, Chubineh ?–591Sept. 590Jan. 591Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of MihranAssassinated under the order of Khosrau II
House of Sasan
Khosrau IIGold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpgShahanshah, Aparviz570 – February 28, 628Jan. 59125 February 628Son of Hormizd IVExecuted by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II
House of Ispahbudhan
VistahmBistamCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–596 or 600591596 or 600Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan. He was the uncle of Khosrau II and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VIKilled by his wife Gorduya or by his general Pariowk
House of Sasan
Kavadh IIShiruyahKavadhIICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–15 September 62825 February 62815 September 628Son of Khosrau IIDied from plague
Ardashir IIIAradashiriii.jpgShahanshah621 – 27 April 62915 September 62827 April 629Son of Kavadh IIKilled by Shahrbaraz
House of Mihran
ShahrbarazShahrbarazCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah, Shahrvaraz ?–17 June 62927 April 62917 June 629Sasanian general from the House of MihranKilled by Farrokh Hormizd under the orders of Borandukht
House of Sasan
Khosrau IIIKhusrau iii.jpgShahanshah ?–630630630Nephew of Khosrau IIKilled after a few days reign
Borandukht (First reign)Puran Dokht Imaginary Portrait.jpgShahbanu[26]590 – 63217 June 62916 June 630Daughter of Khosrau IIDeposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz
Shapur-i ShahrvarazShahanshah ?–?630630Son of Shahrbaraz and an unknown sister of Khosrau IIDeposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht
Peroz IIGushnasp-BandehShahanshah ?–630630630Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I.Killed by Iranian aristocrats
AzarmidokhtAzarmedukht.jpgShahbanu ?–631630631Daughter of Khosrau IIKilled by Iranian aristocrats
Khosrau IVKhurrazadhKhosrauIVCoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–631631631Son of Khosrau IIKilled by Iranian aristocrats
House of Ispahbudhan
Farrokh HormizdFarrokhHormizdVCoin.jpgShahanshah ?–631630631Son of Sasanian general Vinduyih, the brother of VistahmKilled by Siyavakhsh under the orders of Azarmidokht
House of Sasan
Hormizd VIHormizdVICoinHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah ?–631630631Grandson of Khosrau IIKilled by Iranian aristocrats
Borandukht (Second reign)Puran Dokht Imaginary Portrait.jpgShahbanu[26]590 – 632631632Daughter of Khosrau IIRestored to the Sasanian throne, and later strangled to death by Piruz Khosrow
Yazdegerd IIIYazdegerdIIICoinCroppedHistoryofIran.jpgShahanshah624 – 65116 June 632651Son of Shahryar the son of Khosrau IIKilled by a miller

Rulers of Tabaristan[edit]

Dabuyid dynasty (642–760)[edit]

NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Dabuyid dynasty (642–760)
Gil GavbaraGilGavbaraHistoryofIran.jpgIspahbadh ?–660642660Son of Piruz
DabuyaIspahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–676660676Son of Gil Gavbara
Farrukhan the GreatIspahbod FarXan's coin-3.jpgIspahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–728712728Son of Dabuya
DadhburzmihrDād-būrzmihr.jpgIspahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–740/741728740/741Son of Farrukhan the Great
Farrukhan the LittleIspahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–747/48740/741747/48Son of Farrukhan the GreatRegent for Khurshid of Tabaristan
Khurshid of TabaristanIspahbod Xurshid's coin-1.jpgIspahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah734 – 761740/741760Son of DadhburzmihrCommitted suicide

Rashidun Caliphate (651–661)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661)
Uthman ibn AffanUthman.pngAbu Amr, Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin579–656644656Son of Affan, of the Umayyad clan.Killed by Kharijites
Ali Ibn Abi TalibMeshed ali usnavy (PD).jpgAbul-Hasan, Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam598–661656661Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad.Killed by Kharijites

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)[edit]

KunyaNamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Umayyad Clan (661–750)
Abu AbdullahMuawiyah ICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin661680Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, cousin of Uthman ibn Affan and distant cousin of Muhammad
Abu KhalidYazid ICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin680683Son of Muawiyah I
Abu Abd ur-RahmanMuawiyah IICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin683684Son of Yazid IAbdicated (?)
Abu Abd al-MalikMarwan ICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin684685Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah IKilled by his wife
Abu'l-WalidAbd al-MalikCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin685705Son of Marwan I
Abu'l-Abbasal-Walid ICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin705715Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu AyyubSulaymanCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin715717Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu HafṣUmar IICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin717720Son of Abd al-Aziz son of Marwan I
Abu KhalidYazid IICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin720724Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu'l-WalidHishamCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin724743Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu'l-Abbasal-Walid IICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin743744Son of Yazid II
Abu KhalidYazid IIICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin744744Son of al-Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz IIIKilled
Abu IshaqIbrahimCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin744744Son of al-Walid IKilled
Abu Abd al-MalikMarwan IICaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin744750Son of Muhammad son of Marwan IRuled from Harran in the Jazira. Killed by Saffah

Abbasid Caliphate (750–946)[edit]

Throne nameOriginal namePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Abbasid Clan (750-946)
As-SaffahAbu'l-Abbas AbdullahBalami - Tarikhnama - Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah is proclaimed the first 'Abbasid Caliph (cropped).jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin721-754750754Son of Muhammad son of Ali son of Abdullah son of Abbas who was Muhammad's paternal uncle
Al-MansurAbu Ja'far AbdullahCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin714-775754775Brother of As-Saffah
Al-MahdiAbu Abdullah MuhammadAbbasid al-Mahdi dirham Kirman 166AH.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin744/5-785775785Son of Al-Mansur
Al-HadiAbu Mohammad MusaCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin764-786785786Son of Al-Mahdi
Ar-RashidAbu Ja'far HarunHarun Al-Rashid and the World of the Thousand and One Nights.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin763/766-809786809son of Al-Mahdi
Al-AminAbu Abdullah MuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin787-813809813Son of Harun al-RashidKilled by Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'munAbu'l-Abbas AbdullahJohn the Grammarian as ambassador before Theophilos and Mamun.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin786-833813833Son of Harun al-Rashid
Al-Mu'tasimAbu Ishaq MuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin795-842833842son of Harun al-Rashid
Al-WathiqAbu Ja'far HarunCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin816-847842847Son of Al-Mu'tasim
Al-MutawakkilAbu'l-Fazl Ja'farCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin821-861847861Son of Al-Mu'tasimKilled by Al-Muntasir
Al-MuntasirAbu Ja'far MuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin837-862861862Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Musta'inAbu'l-Abbas AhmadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin836-866862866Son of Muhammad son of Al-Mu'tasimDeposed and later killed
Al-Mu'tazzAbu Abdullah ZubayrCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin847-869866869Son of Al-MutawakkilDeposed and later killed
Al-MuhtadiAbu Ishaq MuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin ??-870869870Son of Al-Wathiq
Al-Mu'tamidAbu'l-Abbas AhmadDinar of al-Mu'tamid, AH 271.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin844-892870892Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mu'tadidAbu'l-Abbas AhmadDinar of al-Mu'tadid, AH 285.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin854/861-902892902Son of Talha al-Muwaffaq son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-MuktafiAbu Mohammad AliCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin877/8-908902908son of Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Muqtadir
(First reign)
Abul-Fazl Ja'farDinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin895-932908929Son of Al-Mu'tadidBriefly deposed.
Al-Qahir
(First reign)
Abu Mansur MuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin899-950929929Son of Al-Mu'tadidForced to resign the throne in the face of public protest
Al-Muqtadir
(Second reign)
Abul-Fazl Ja'farDinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin895-932929932Son of Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Qahir
(Second reign)
Abu Mansur MuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin932934Son of Al-Mu'tadidDeposed and blinded
Abu'l-Abbas Ar-RadiMuhammadCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin907-940934940Son of Al-MuqtadirDe facto power in the hands of Ibn Ra'iq 936-938
Al-MuttaqiAbu Ishaq IbrahimDirham of al-Muttaqi.jpgCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin908-968940944Son of Al-MuqtadirDe facto power in the hands of Bajkam 940-941, Ibn Ra'iq 941-942, Nasir al-Dawla 942-943 & Tuzun 943-844, who deposed and blinded him.
Al-MustakfiAbu'l-Qasim AbdullahCaliph, Amir al-Mu'minin905-949944946Son of Al-MuktafiDe facto power in the hands of Tuzun 944-945 & Abu Jafar 945-946. Deposed and blinded by Mu'izz al-Dawla

Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

KunyaNamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Saffarid Dynasty (861–1003)
Ya'qub as-SaffarYa'qubfounderofSaffarid.jpgEmir840 – 879861879Son of al-LaythDied of sickness
AmrEmir ?–902879901Son of al-LaythCaptured by the Samanids, later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad
Abu'l-HasanTahirEmir ?–?901908Son of Muhammad, son of AmrImprisoned in Baghdad
Al-LaythEmir ?–928909910Son of Ali, son of al-LaythDies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad in 928
MuhammadEmir ?–?910911Son of Ali, son of al-LaythImprisoned in Baghdad
Abu HafsAmrEmir902 – ?912913Son of Ya'qubOverthrown by the Samanids
Abu Ja'farAhmadAhmadIbnMuhammadSaffaridCoin.jpgEmirJune 21, 906 – March 31, 963923963Son of Muhammad, son of AmrKilled by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman
Abu AhmadKhalafKhalafibnAhmadCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmirNovember 937 – March 10099631003Son of Ahmad ibn MuhammadOverthrown by the Ghaznavids in 1003, dies as exile in 1009

Buyid Empire (934–1062)[edit]

The Buyid Empire was divided into a number of separate emirates, of which the most important were Fars, Ray, and Iraq. Generally, one of the emirs held a sort of primus inter pares supremacy over the rest, which would be marked by titles like Amir al-umara and Shahanshah. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Buyids of Fars (933–1062)
Imad al-DawlaAbu'l-Hasan AliEmir, Amir al-umara891 – 949934949Son of BuyaAlso Senior Buyid Emir (934-949)
Adud al-DawlaFanna KhusrawAdud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, Shahanshah936–983949983Son of Rukn al-Dawla and nephew of Imad al-DawlaSenior Buyid Emir (976-983) and Emir of Iraq (978-983)
Sharaf al-DawlaAbu'l-Fawaris ShirdilEmir, Amir al-umara962–989983989Son of Adud al-DawlaAlso Senior Buyid Emir and Emir of Iraq (987-989)
Samsam al-DawlaAbu Kalijar MarzubanEmir, King964–998989998son of Adud al-DawlaAlso Emir of Iraq and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986)
Baha' al-DawlaAbu Nasr FiruzBaha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, King, Shahanshah971–10129981012Son of Adud al-DawlaAlso Emir of Iraq (988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012)
Sultan al-DawlaAbu ShujaEmir992–102410121024Son of Baha' al-DawlaAlso Emir of Iraq and Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021)
Abu KalijarMarzubanAbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, Shahanshah ?1011 – 104810241048Son of Sultan al-DawlaAlso Emir of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048) and Emir of Iraq (1044-1048)
Abu Mansur Fulad SutunEmir ?–106210481054Son of Abu KalijarLost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Abu Sa'd Khusrau ShahEmir ?–?10511054Son of Abu KalijarLost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Abu Mansur Fulad SutunEmir ?–106210541062Son of Abu KalijarKilled by the Shabankara tribal chief Fadluya
Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan (935–1038)
Rukn al-DawlaAbu Ali HasanRuknal-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, Amir al-umara898–976935976Son of BuyaAlso Senior Buyid Emir (949-976)
Fakhr al-Dawla
(First reign)
Abu'l-Hasan AliEmir952–997976980Son of Rukn al-Dawla
Mu'ayyad al-DawlaAbu MansurMuayyadal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir941–983976983Son of Rukn al-DawlaAlso Emir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)
Fakhr al-Dawla
(Second reign)
Abu'l-Hasan AliEmir, King, Shahanshah983–997976997Son of Rukn al-DawlaAlso Emir of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)
Majd al-DawlaAbu Taleb RostamAbuTalebRostamCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir993–10299971029Son of Fakhr al-DawlaOnly in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Shams al-DawlaAbu TaherShamsal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir ?–10219971021Son of Fakhr al-DawlaOnly in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Sama' al-DawlaAbu'l-Hasan AliEmir ?–102310211023Son of Shams al-DawlaOnly in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids
Buyids of Iraq and Khuzistan (945–1055)
Mu'izz al-DawlaAbu'l-Husayn AhmadMu'izzal-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, Amir al-umara915–966945966Son of Buya
Izz al-DawlaAbu Mansur BakhtiyarEmir, Amir al-umara943–979966979Son of Mu'izz al-DawlaSelf-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (976-978)
Adud al-DawlaFanna KhusrawAdud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, Shahanshah937–983977983Son of Rukn al-DawlaAlso Emir of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir (976-983)
Samsam al-DawlaAbu Kalijar MarzbanEmir, King964–998983987Son of Adud al-DawlaAlso self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986) and Emir of Fars & Kerman (989-998)
Sharaf al-DawlaAbu'l-Fawaris ShirdilEmir, Amir al-umara962–989987989Son of Adud al-DawlaAlso Emir of Fars (983-989) and Senior Buyid Emir (987-989)
Baha' al-DawlaAbu Nasr FiruzBaha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir970–10129891012Son of Adud al-DawlaAlso Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012) and Emir of Fars (999-1012)
Sultan al-DawlaAbu ShujaEmir992–102410121021Son of Baha' al-DawlaAlso Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021) and Emir of Fars (1012-1024)
Musharrif al-DawlaAbu 'AliEmir, Shahanshah, King1002–102510211025Son of Baha' al-DawlaClosest thing to Senior Buyid Emir (1024-1025)
Jalal al-DawlaAbu Tahir Jalal al-DawlaEmir994–104310271043Son of Baha' al-Dawla
Abu KalijarMarzubanAbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpgEmir, Shahanshah ?1011 – 104810431048Son of Sultan al-DawlaAlso Emir of Fars (1024-1048), Emir of Kerman (1028-1048) and Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048)
Al-Malik al-RahimAbu Nasr Khusrau FiruzEmir ?–105810481055Son of Abu KalijarAlso Senior Buyid Emir (1051-1055). Deposed by Tughril of the Seljuqs

Great Seljuq Empire (1029–1194)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
House of Seljuq (1029–1191)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinToğrül I Abu Talib MohammadBeg, Sultan995–106310291063Son of Mikha'il son of Seljuq
ʿAdud ad-DawlaAlp Arslan Abu Shujaʿ MohammadAlpArslan.PNGSultan1039–107210631072Son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I
Jalal ad-Dawla wa'd-DinMalik Shah I Abu'l-Fath HasanBüyük Selçuklu Sultanı Melikşah.jpgSultan1055–109210721092Son of Alp ArslanKilled by Assassins
Nasir ad-Dawla wa'd-DinAbu'l-Qasim Mahmud ISultan1086–109410921094Son of Malik Shah I
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu'l-Muzaffar BarkiyaruqSultan1080–110510941105Son of Malik Shah I
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Shuja Muhammad I TaparSultan1082–111811051118Son of Malik Shah I
Muglith ad-Dunya wa'd-DinMahmud IISultan1104–113111181131Son of Muhammad IDominated by his uncle Sanjar and killed in a rebellion against him.
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Talib Toghrul IISultan1109–113411321134Son of Muhammad IRuled only in Iraq, dominated by his uncle Ahmed Sanjar
As-Salatin Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa'd-DīnAbu'l-Harith Ahmed SanjarSultan1087–115710971157Son of Malik Shah IRuled in Khorasan, dominating a series of nephews in Iraq.
Ghiyath ad-Dawla wa'd-DinAbu'l-Fath Mas'udSultan1109–115211341152Son of Muhammad IRuled over the western portion of the empire. Preoccupations in the east meant Sanjar was unable to dominate him.
Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(First reign)
Malik Shah IISultan1128–116011521153Son of Mahmud IIDeposed by Khass Bey
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Shuja Muhammad IISultan1128–116011531160Son of Mahmud IIRule contested with his uncle Sulayman Shah (1153-1155)
Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(First reign)
Abu'l-Harith Sulayman ShahSultan1118–116211531155Son of Muhammad IRule contested with his nephew Muhammad II
Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(Second reign)
Malik Shah IISultan1128–116011601160Son of Mahmud IIDeposed by the people of Isfahan after 16 days.
Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(Second reign)
Abu'l-Harith Sulayman ShahSultan1118–116211601161Son of Muhammad IDeposed by Inanj, Lord of Reyy and the court officials
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinArslanSultan1134–117611611176Son of Toghrul IIDe facto power in the hands of Ildeniz (1160-1174) and his son Pahlavan (1174-1176)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(First reign)
Abu Talib Toghrul IIISultan ?–119411761194Son of ArslanDe facto power in the hands of Pahlavan (1176-1186) and Qizil Arslan (1186-1188). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.
Sanjar IISultan11891191Son of Sulayman ShahDe facto power in the hands of Qizil Arslan (1189-1191). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.
Atabegs of Azerbaijan (1191)
Qizil ArslanSultan ?–119111911191Son of IldenizHeld de facto power (1186-1188). Deposed Qizil Arslan in 1191, declared himself Sultan and died an hour before his coronation.
House of Seljuq (1191–1194)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(Second reign)
Abu Talib Toghrul IIISultan ?–119411761194Son of ArslanKilled by Khwarazm Shah Tekish

Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1231)[edit]

An empire built from Khwarezm, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1231)
341AtsizAla' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan ?–115611531156son of Muhammad I of KhwarazmRuling in Khwārazm from 1127
342Il-ArslanTaj od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ?–117111561172son of Atsiz
345SoltanshahMahmudJalal od-Din, Abolqasem, Sultan ?–117211721193son of Il-Arslan
346TekishAla' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan ?–119911721200son of Il-Arslan
348MohammadAla' od-Din, Qotb od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ?–122112001221son of Tekish
349MingburnuПамятник Джелал ад-Дину Манкбурны.JPGJalal od-Din, Sultan ?–123112201231son of Mohammad IIKilled

Mongol Empire (1230–1357)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Great Khans (1221–1256)
350GenghisTemuchinYuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpgKhan, Qa'an1162–122712211227son of Yesugei BaghaturRuling in Mongolia from 1206
ToluiTolui Khan.jpgKhan1192–123225 August 122713 September 1229son of GenghisRegent
351ÖgedeiYuanEmperorAlbumOgedeiPortrait.jpgKhan, Qa'anc. 1186 – 11 December 124113 September 122911 December 1241son of Genghis
TöregeneTöregene Khatun coin.pngKhatun ?–?12421246Wife of ÖgedeiRegent
352GüyükKhan, Qa'anc. 1206–124812461248son of Ögedei and Töregene
Oghul QaimishKhatun ?–?12481251Wife of GüyükRegent
353MöngkeKhan, Qa'an10 January 1209 – 11 August 12591 July 125111 August 1259son of Tolui
Ilkhanate (1256–1357)
354HulaguHulagu Khan.jpgKhan, Ilkhanc. 1217 – 8 February 126512568 February 1265son of Tolui
355AbaqaAbaqa Khan.jpgKhan, Ilkhan1234–128212651 April 1282son of Hulagu
356TekuderNicholas, AhmadTegüder recevant une ambassade.jpegKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan ?–128412821284son of HulaguKilled
357ArghunAbaqaOnHorseArghunStandingGhazanAsAChild.jpgKhan, Ilkhan, Soltanc. 1258 – 7 March 129112847 March 1291son of Abaqa
358GaykhatuKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan ?–129512911295son of AbaqaKilled
359BayduBaydu coin with Khagan's name.jpgKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan ?–129512951295son of Toghay son of HulaguKilled
360GhazanMahmudGhazan with wife at his court.jpgKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan1271–130412951304son of Arghun
361ÖljaitüMohammadMajma' al-Tavarikh 001.jpgKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Khodabandeh1280 – 16 December 1316130416 December 1316son of Arghun
362Abu Sa'idIlhanli Ebu said enguriye 720.jpgKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Ala' od-Din, Bahador2 June 1305 – 1 December 133513161 December 1335son of Öljaitü
363ArpaMahmudKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Kauen, Mo'ezz od-Din ?–1336133510 April 1336son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malektemur son of Eriqbuka son of ToluiKilled
364MusaKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Naser od-Din ?–133712 April 13361337son of Ali son of Baydu
365MohammadKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Mozaffar od-Din ?–133813361338son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu
366Sati begKhatunc.1300 – after 134513381339daughter of Öljaitü
367Jahan TemurKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Izz od-Din ?–?13391340son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu
368SoleimanKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan ?–?May 13391345Husband of Sati beg. Also he was son of Yusef Shah son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu
369Togha TemürKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan ?–135313351353son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur
370AnushirwanKhan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Adel ?–?13441357 ?

Rival Dynasties (1332–1501)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Sarbadars (1332–1386)[edit]

NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Sarbadars (1332 - 1386)
Abd al-Razzaq ibn FazlullahAmir ??-133813371338Revolted against Togha Temür, stabbed to death by his brother
Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn FazlullahAmir ??-134413381344brother of Abd al-RazzaqCaptured by the Paduspanids and executed.
Muhammad Aytimur (1343–1346)Amir ??-134613441346Unrelated to predecessorsOverthrown and executed
Kulu IsfendiyarAmir ??-c.13471346c.1347Unrelated to predecessors
Shams al-Din ibn Fazl AllahAmir ??-??c.13471347brother of Abd al-RazzaqForced to abdicate by successor
Khwaja Shams al-Din 'AliAmir ??-1351/135213471351/1352Unrelated to predecessorsAssassinated by a disgruntled official
Yahya KarawiAmir ??-1355/13561351/13521355/1356Unrelated to predecessorsEliminated Togha Temür, assassinated.
Zahir al-Din KarawiAmir ??-1355/13561355/13561355/1356Nephew of Yahya KarawiDeposed by vizier
Haidar QassabAmir ??-13561355/13561356Unrelated to predecessorsAssassinated by a Turkish slave
Lutf AllahAmir ??-1357/1358 or 136113561357/1358 or 1361Son of Wajih ad-Din MasudDeposed and executed by his vizier
Hasan al-DamghaniAmir ??-1361/13621357/1358 or 13611361/1362Unrelated to predecessorsOverthrown by Dervish rebels
Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn MasudAmir ??-??1361/13621376/1377Unrelated to predecessors
Rukn ad-DinAmir1376/13771376/1377Unrelated to predecessorsInstalled by Dervish rebels.
Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn MasudAmir ??-??1376/13771381Unrelated to predecessorsRestored, became vassal of Tamerlane in 1381

Chupanids (1335–1357)[edit]

  1. Chupan
  2. Bagdad Katun
  3. Hasan Kucek
  4. Malek Ashraf

Jalayirids (1335–1432)[edit]

  1. Hasan Buzurg (1336–1356)
  2. Shaikh Uvais I (1356–1374)
  3. Hasan (1374)
  4. Husain I (1374–1382)
  5. Bayazid (1382–1383)
  6. Ahmad (1383–1410)
  7. Shah Walad (1410–1411)
  8. Mahmud (1411–1415)
  9. Uwais II (1415–1421)
  10. Mohammed (1421–1422)
  11. Mahmud II (1422–1424)
  12. Husain II (1424–1432)

Injuids (1335–1357)[edit]

  1. Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah (1304–1325)
  2. Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau (1336–1338/9)
  3. Amir Jalal al-Din Mas'ud Shah (in opposition to Kai-Khusrau) (c. 1338–c. 1342)
  4. Shams al-Din Muhammad (in opposition to Mas'ud Shah) (1339)
  5. Shaikh Abu Ishaq (c. 1343–1357)

Muzaffarids (1314–1393)[edit]

  1. Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  2. Abu'l Fawaris Jamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  3. Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  4. Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  5. Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387
  6. Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  7. Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  8. Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  9. Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)[edit]

  1. Qara Muhammad Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja, 1378/9–c. 1388
  2. Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad, c. 1388–1399/1400 and 1405/6–1420/1
  3. Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf, 1420/1–1436
  4. Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf, 1436 – 10 November 1467
  5. Hasan ’Ali ibn Jahan Shah, November 1467 – 1468

Ak Koyunlu (1378–1508)[edit]

  1. Kara Yülük Osman, 1378/9 to 1435/6
  2. Hamza, 1435/6 to 1444/5
  3. Nur al-Din ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1435/6 to 1438
  4. M‘uizz al-Din Jihangir ibn ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1444/5 to 1453/4
  5. Uzun Hasan ibn ‘Ali, 1453/4 to 1478/9
  6. Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan, 1478/9 to 1479/80
  7. Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan, 1479/80 to 1490/1
  8. Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub, 1490/1 to 1491/2
  9. Rustam ibn Maqsud, 1491/2 to 1496/7
  10. Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad, 1496/7 to 1497/8
  11. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1497/8 to 1499/1500
  12. Alwand ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  13. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  14. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1500/01 to 1501/2
  15. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1501/2 to 1508 (second term)

Timurid Empire (1370–1507)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedReign beganReign endedFamily RelationsNote
Timurid Empire (1370–1449)
1TimurTarmashirin Khan BarlasTimur reconstruction01.jpgEmir, Beg, Khan, Mirza, Gurkani9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405137018 February 1405Son of Muhammad Taraghai
2Pir MuhammadPir Muhammad Khan bin JahangirEmir, Khanc. 1374 – 22 February 140718 February 140522 February 1407Grandson of Timur
3Khalil SultanKhalil Sultan bin Miran ShahXalil-Sulton.jpgEmir, Sultan, Shahc. 1384 – 4 November 141118 February 140513 May 1409Grandson of Timur
4Shahrukh MirzaShahrukh MirzaShahruch reconstruction.jpgMirza30 August 1377 – 12 March 144718 February 140512 March 1447Son of Timur
5Ulugh BegMirza Muhammad TāraghayMirza, Sultan22 March 1394 – 27 October 144912 March 144727 October 1449Son of Shahrukh Mirza
Division of the Timurid Empire (1449–1507)

Rulers in Transoxiana:

  1. Abd al-Latif ibn Muhammad Taraghay Ulughbek, son of Ulugh Beg, 1449–1450
  2. 'Abdullah Mirza, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1450–1451
  3. Abu Sa'id ibn Muhammad, grandson of Miran Shah, 1451–1469, conquered Khurasan in 1459

Rulers in Khurasan:

  1. Babur Ibn-Baysunkur, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1449–1457
  2. Shah Mahmud, son of Babur, 1457
  3. Ibrahim, 1457
  4. Jahan Shah, leader of the Black Sheep Turcomans, 1457–1458

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

  1. Sultan Ahmad, son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  2. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  3. Masud, 1495
  4. Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  5. Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500

Conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

  1. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1469
  2. Husayn Bayqarah, 1469–1506
  3. Badi' al-Zaman, son of Husayn, 1506–1507, fled to the court of Ismail I

Conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Safavid dynasty (1501–1786)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
1Ismail IСефи 1-й 1629-42.jpgShah, Sultan1487–15247 November 150223 May 1524son of Sultan Heidar
2Tahmasp ITahmasb-1.jpgShah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin1514–157623 May 152525 May 1576son of Ismail I
3Ismail IIIranianShahIsmail2.jpgShah1537–157725 May 157624 November 1577son of Tahmasp IPoisoned (?)
4Mohammad IMohammen xudabende Sefevid.jpgKhodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan1532–159625 May 15761 October 1587son of Tahmasp IDeposed
5Abbas IPortraits du schah de Perse Abbas Ier (1571-1629).JPGShahanshah, Sultan, Great1571–16291 October 158719 January 1629son of Mohammad I
6SafiSam MirzaShah Safi.pngShah, Mirza1611–164219 January 162912 May 1642son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza son of Abbas I
7Abbas IIRecueil. Portraits du schah de Perse Abbas II.JPGShah1632–166612 May 164226 October 1666son of Safi
8Suleiman ISafi MirzaSuleiman I of Persia.jpgShah, Hakem-ol Hokama1645–169426 October 166629 July 1694son of Abbas II
9Sultan HusaynSultan Husayn by Bruyn.jpgShah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem1668–172629 July 169411 September 1722son of Suleiman IDeposed & then killed by Mahmud Hotaki
Afghan Conquest
1Mahmud HotakiSHAH-MAHMUD-HOTAK.jpgShah1697?–172523 October 172222 April 1725son of Sultan HusaynRecognised as Shah of Persia after the Siege of Isfahan
2Ashraf HotakiAshraf Shah Hotaki 1725-1729.jpgShah ?–173022 April 17255 October 1729brother of Mahmud HotakiRuled in opposition to Tahmasp II and lost control of Persia after the Battle of Damghan
Safavid restoration
10Tahmasp IIPersia, scià thamasp II, decuplo afshari d'oro, 1722-1732.JPGShah1704–174011 September 172216 April 1732son of Sultan HusaynRuled in opposition to Mahmud Hotaki, later deposed & then killed by Nader
11Abbas IIIShah1730–173916 April 173222 January 1736son of Tahmasp IIUnder control of Nader. Deposed & then killed by Nader

Afsharid dynasty [27] (1736–1796)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
15Nader ShahNadhar Qoli KhanNaderShahPainting.pngShah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf1698–174722 January 173619 June 1747son of Imam Qoli Beig AfsharBefore crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed
17Adil ShahAli Qoli BeigShah1719/20–174919 June 174729 July 1748son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of NaderDeposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim
18Ebrahim AfsharMohammd Ali BeigShah1724–174929 July 17483 September 1748son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of NaderDeposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar
19Shahrukh AfsharShah1734–17963 September 17481796son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I SafaviDeposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

Zand dynasty[28] (1751–1794)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
22Karim KhanMohammad KarimKarim khan Zand.jpgKhan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa1705–177917516 March 1779son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
24Mohammad Ali KhanKhan1760–17796 March 177919 June 1779son of Karim
25Abol Fath KhanKhan1755–17876 March 177922 August 1779son of Karim
26Zaki KhanKhan ?–22 August 17796 March 177922 August 1779son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha
27Sadiq Khan ZandMohammad SadeqKhan ?–178222 August 177914 March 1781son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
28Ali Murad KhanKhan1720–178514 March 178111 February 1785son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh
29Jafar KhanKhan ?–178918 February 178523 January 1789son of Sadeq
31Sayed Murad KhanKhan ?–178923 January 178910 May 1789son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh
32Lotf Ali KhanLotf Ali Khan.jpgKhan1769–179423 January 178920 March 1794son of Ja'farDeposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Qajar dynasty[29] (1794–1925)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
33Mohammad Khan QajarAgha Mohammad KhanMohammad Khan Qajar.jpgKhan, Shah, Khaqan1742–179720 March 179417 June 1797Son of Mohammad Hassan Khan QajarKilled
34Fat′h-Ali Shah QajarBaba KhanFath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpgShah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran1772–183417 June 179723 October 1834son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad
35Mohammad Shah QajarMohammadshah.jpgShah, Khaqan1808–184823 October 18345 September 1848son of Abbas Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat'h Ali
36Naser al-Din Shah QajarNāser al-Dīn Schah.jpgShah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam1831–18965 October 18481 May 1896son of Mohammad and Mahd-e OliaKilled
37Mozaffar al-Din Shah QajarMozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpgShah, Khaqan1853–19071 May 18963 January 1907son of Naser ed-Din
38Mohammad Ali Shah QajarMohammad Ali Shah.jpgShah1872–19253 January 190716 July 1909son of Mozaffar ed-DinDeposed
39Ahmad Shah QajarAhmadShahQajar2.jpgShah1898–193016 July 190915 December 1925son of Mohammd AliDeposed

Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)[edit]

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
40Reza ShahReza shahpahlavi.jpgAlahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Sardar Sepah1878–194415 December 192516 September 1941Son of Abbas AliDeposed during the Anglo-Soviet invasion
41Mohammad Reza ShahShah of iran.pngAlahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan1919–198016 September 194111 February 1979son of Reza ShahDeposed during the Iranian Revolution

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Awan's geographical site is unknown. But it is very probable that it was near Poshtkuh of Lorestan.
  2. ^ The first three kings of Awan were also kings of Mesopotamia.
  3. ^ Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  4. ^ a b Cameron, 1936.
  5. ^ a b c d e Potts, 1999.
  6. ^ a b Hinz, 1972.
  7. ^ Some archaeologists have suggested that Simashki was located in the north of Elam and Anshan near modern Isfahan.
  8. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  9. ^ a b c d Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  10. ^ a b Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  11. ^ "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings. See Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  12. ^ a b c Vallat, Francois. Elam: The History of Elam.
  13. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Vallat, 1995; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998; Reade, 2000; Henkelman, 2003; Tavernier, 2004.
  14. ^ a b Cameron, 1936; D’yakonov 1956; The Cambridge History of Iran
  15. ^ a b Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  18. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C."
  19. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  20. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  21. ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. A.D. 140)
  22. ^ See: Tiridates III (c. A.D. 224 – 228?)
  23. ^ In Persian it means "King of Kings"
  24. ^ "The great king of Armenians"
  25. ^ "The penetrator of the shoulders"
  26. ^ a b "Queen"
  27. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 960.
  28. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 961.
  29. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 962.

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]