List of island countries

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Countries fully on islands
Countries without land borders

This is a list of island countries. An island is a land mass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water.[1] Many island countries are spread over an archipelago, as is the case with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Philippines (which consists of thousands of islands). Others consist of a single island, such as Nauru, or part of an island, such as Haiti. Although Australia is designated as a continent, it is often[clarification needed] referred to as an island and has no land borders. Some declared island countries are not universally recognized as politically independent, such as Northern Cyprus.


Sovereign states[edit]

NameGeographic configurationGeologic locationPopulationArea (km²)Density (per km²)Geographic location
 Antigua and BarbudaTwo main islandsContinental shelf85,632440194Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Australia[n 1]One main islandAustralian continent22,547,8707,686,8482.93Australia
 BahamasArchipelagoContinental shelf330,00013,87823.27Atlantic Ocean, Bahamas
 BahrainOne main islandContinental shelf791,0007501,189.5Persian Gulf
 BarbadosOne main islandContinental shelf269,556430627Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 BruneiPart of a larger islandContinental shelf388,1905,76567.3Maritime Southeast Asia
 Cape VerdeArchipelagoOceanic567,0004,033125.5Atlantic Ocean, Africa
 ComorosArchipelagoOceanic798,0002,235275Indian Ocean, Africa
 Cook Islands[n 2]ArchipelagoOceanic10,77723645.7Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 CubaOne main islandContinental shelf11,241,161109,884102.3Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Cyprus[n 3]Part of a larger islandContinental shelf793,9639,25185Mediterranean Sea
 DominicaOne main islandContinental shelf72,660754105Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
 Dominican RepublicPart of a larger islandContinental shelf10,990,00048,442208.2Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 East TimorPart of a larger islandContinental shelf1,066,58214,87476.2Maritime Southeast Asia
 Federated States of MicronesiaArchipelagoOceanic111,000702158.1Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 FijiArchipelagoOceanic849,00018,27446.4Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 GrenadaOne main islandContinental shelf110,000344319.8Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 HaitiPart of a larger islandContinental shelf9,700,00027,750350Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 IcelandOne main islandOceanic316,252103,0003.1Atlantic Ocean
 IndonesiaArchipelagoTwo continental shelves237,556,3631,904,569124.7Maritime Southeast Asia
 IrelandShares one main islandContinental shelf4,588,25270,27365.3Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
 JamaicaOne main islandContinental shelf2,847,23210,991252Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 JapanArchipelagoContinental shelf127,433,494377,873337Pacific Ocean, East Asia
 KiribatiArchipelagoOceanic98,000811135Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 MadagascarOne main islandOceanic20,653,556587,04135.2Indian Ocean, Africa
 MaldivesArchipelagoOceanic329,1982981,105Indian Ocean
 MaltaTwo main islandsContinental shelf404,5003161,282Mediterranean Sea
 Marshall IslandsArchipelagoOceanic62,000181342.5Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 MauritiusArchipelagoOceanic1,244,6632,040610Indian Ocean, Africa
 NauruOne islandOceanic13,63521649Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 New ZealandTwo main islandsContinental shelf4,027,947268,68015Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Niue[n 2]Single islandOceanic1,2692604.9Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Northern Cyprus[n 4]Part of a larger islandContinental shelf285,3593,35578Mediterranean Sea
 PalauArchipelagoOceanic20,00045943.6Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Papua New GuineaPart of a larger islandContinental shelf6,732,000462,84014.5Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 PhilippinesArchipelagoContinental shelf88,574,614300,000295Maritime Southeast Asia
 Saint Kitts and NevisTwo main islandsContinental shelf51,300261164Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Saint LuciaOne main islandContinental shelf173,765616298Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesArchipelagoContinental shelf120,000389307Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 SamoaArchipelagoOceanic179,0002,83163.2Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 São Tomé and PríncipeTwo main islandsContinental shelf163,0001,001169.1Atlantic Ocean, Africa
 SeychellesArchipelagoOceanic87,500455192Indian Ocean, Africa
 Singapore[2]One main islandContinental shelf5,399,200716.17,540Maritime Southeast Asia
 Solomon IslandsArchipelagoOceanic523,00028,40018.1Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Sri LankaOne main islandContinental shelf23,650,00065,610314Indian Ocean
 Taiwan [n 5]One main islandContinental shelf22,911,29236,188633Pacific Ocean, East Asia
 TongaArchipelagoOceanic104,000748139Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Trinidad and TobagoTwo main islandsContinental shelf1,299,9535,131254.4Caribbean Sea, South America
 TuvaluArchipelagoOceanic12,37326475.88Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 United KingdomOne main islandContinental shelf60,587,300244,820246Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
 VanuatuArchipelagoOceanic243,30412,19019.7Pacific Ocean, Melanesia

Dependencies and other notable regions[edit]

NameGeographic configurationGeologic locationSovereign statePopulationArea (km²)Density (per km²)Geographic Location
 Åland[n 6]ArchipelagoContinental shelf Finland28,3551,58017.9Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia
 AlderneySingle islandContinental shelf Guernsey

 United Kingdom

2,4007.8307.7English Channel
 American Samoa[n 7]ArchipelagoOceanic United States54,947199276Polynesia
 AnguillaOne main islandContinental shelf United Kingdom15,42391169Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 ArubaSingle islandContinental shelf Netherlands107,635180598Caribbean Sea, Leeward Antilles
 BermudaArchipelagoOceanic United Kingdom62,50053.31,170Atlantic Ocean, North America
 British Virgin IslandsArchipelagoContinental shelf United Kingdom31,148151206Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Caribbean NetherlandsThree main islandsContinental shelf Netherlands21,133127166Caribbean Sea
 Cayman IslandsThree islandsContinental shelf United Kingdom52,560264199Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Christmas IslandOne main island Australia1,49613511.1Maritime Southeast Asia
 Cocos (Keeling) IslandsTwo main islands Australia5961442.6Maritime Southeast Asia
 CuraçaoOne main islandContinental shelf Netherlands145,834444328Caribbean Sea, Leeward Antilles
 Falkland Islands[n 8]Two main islandsContinental shelf United Kingdom3,14012,1730.26Atlantic Ocean, South America
 Faroe IslandsArchipelago Denmark49,4831,39335.5Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
 French PolynesiaArchipelagoOceanic France274,5123,82771.7Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 GreenlandOne major islandContinental shelf Denmark57,6952,166,0860.03North America
 GuadeloupeOne main islandContinental Shelf France405,5001,628250Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Guam[n 7]Single islandOceanic United States159,914544293Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Guernsey[n 9][3]One main islandContinental shelf United Kingdom65,34578838English Channel
(formerly Territory, Republic, and Kingdom of Hawaii)
ArchipelagoOceanic United States1,392,31328,31182.6Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Isle of ManSingle islandContinental shelf United Kingdom85,421572149Irish Sea, British Isles
 Jersey[n 10]Single islandContinental shelf United Kingdom94,949116819English Channel
 MartiniqueSingle IslandContinental Shelf France403,7951,128360Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 MayotteOne main island France194,000374498.5Indian Ocean, Africa
 MontserratOne main islandContinental shelf United Kingdom5,16410250.6Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 New CaledoniaOne main islandContinental shelf France260,16618,27514.2Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Norfolk IslandOne main island Australia2,1823660.6Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Northern Mariana Islands[n 7]ArchipelagoOceanic United States51,395464111Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Pitcairn IslandsArchipelagoOceanic United Kingdom48471.0Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Puerto Rico[n 7]One main islandContinental shelf United States3,690,9238,870416Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 RéunionOne main island France893,5002,512330Indian Ocean, Africa
 Saint BarthélemyOne main islandContinental shelf France7,33221349Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaThree main islands distant from each otherOceanic United Kingdom7,72830825.1Atlantic Ocean
 Collectivity of Saint MartinPart of a larger islandContinental shelf France30,95954.4569Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Saint Pierre and MiquelonTwo main islandsContinental shelf France5,83124224.1North America
 SarkSingle islandContinental shelf Guernsey

 United Kingdom

6005.45110English Channel
 Sint MaartenPart of a larger islandContinental shelf Netherlands39,088341,150Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Svalbard[n 11]Archipelago Norway1,97062,0450.03Arctic Ocean
 Tokelau[n 2]ArchipelagoOceanic New Zealand1,36812114Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Turks and Caicos IslandsArchipelagoContinental shelf United Kingdom46,33594848.9Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 U.S. Virgin Islands[n 7]ArchipelagoContinental shelf United States105,275346304Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Wallis and FutunaThree main islandsOceanic France15,28926457.9Pacific Ocean, Polynesia

Former nations[edit]

Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Australia is often considered a continent. This makes its status as an island country disputable.
  2. ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are in free association with New Zealand. See Niue Constitution Act. Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand.
  3. ^ The north part of the island of Cyprus is the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey. In the south of the island are the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, controlled by the United Kingdom.
  4. ^ Recognized as part of Cyprus by all countries except Turkey.
  5. ^ The Republic of China (commonly known as "Taiwan") only controls the islands of Taiwan, Matsu, Kinmen, Penghu etc after the Chinese Civil War, but has not renounced claim on areas currently under control of People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Tuva (a Russian republic) etc. If those territories are taken into account, the Republic of China is not a borderless country or a country centered with a major island. The area under ROC control is also claimed by the People's Republic of China. See Legal status of Taiwan, Political status of Taiwan and One-China policy.
  6. ^ Market Reef defines the border between Finland and Sweden. The lighthouse on the reef is administered directly from Finland and is usually not considered a part of the autonomous Åland Islands.
  7. ^ a b c d e An insular area of the US. See Territories of the United States.
  8. ^ The Falkland Islands are also claimed by Argentina.
  9. ^ Guernsey is not part of the United Kingdom although some aspects of foreign relations and defence are the responsibility of the UK.
  10. ^ The Minquiers off Jersey are claimed by France.
  11. ^ Administered by Norway under the Svalbard Treaty.
  12. ^ Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State included all of the island of Ireland but Northern Ireland exercised its option to leave the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom on 8 December 1922. Therefore, from 6 December 1922 to 8 December 1922, the Irish Free State was a borderless island country.
  13. ^ The Crown Colony of Hong Kong covered only Hong Kong Island from 1841 to 1860. Kowloon, south of Boundary Street on the continent, was added in 1860, and extended to include the New Territories in 1898.


External links[edit]