List of haplogroups of notable people

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This is a list of haplogroups of notable people. Haplogroups can be determined from the remains of historical figures, or derived from genealogical DNA tests of people who trace their direct maternal or paternal ancestry to a noted historical figure. Some contemporary notable figures have made their test results public in the course of news programs about this topic.

Contents

mtDNA[edit]

MtDNA results come from historical persons whose mitochondrial DNA has been tested; it identifies direct maternal ancestry, which is just one line out of many.

Ancient samples[edit]

These are results from ancient samples of the person or reputed remains of the person. Because mtDNA breaks down more slowly than nuclear DNA, it is often possible to obtain mtDNA results where other testing fails.

Petrarch[edit]

The supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca were tested for DNA in 2003.[1]

Namemitochondrial DNA sequenceHaplogroup
body attributed to Petrarch16126C, 16193T, 16311CJ2

Ötzi the Iceman[edit]

Analysis of the mtDNA of Ötzi the Iceman, the frozen mummy from 3300 BC found on the Austrian-Italian border, has shown that Ötzi belongs to the K1 subclade. His mtDNA cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has preliminarily been named K1ö for Ötzi.[2]

Kostenki from Don[edit]

Analysis of the 33,000 years old mtDNA from Kostenki 14, found by the Don river, Russia has shown that Kostenki belongs to the U2 subclade.[3]

The Cheddar Man[edit]

The skeleton excavated from the Cheddar Gorge is in haplogroup U5a. The Cheddar Man is the nickname for the ancient human remains found in Cheddar Gorge; his approximate date of death was 7150 BCE.

Namemitochondrial DNA sequenceHaplogroup
Cheddar Man16192T, 16270TU5a

mitosearch member code: 7MRU2

Oseberg ship remains[edit]

The remains of the younger of the two women buried with the Oseberg ship was tested and discovered to have mtDNA of U7.[3]

Namemitochondrial DNA sequenceHaplogroup
Young GirlN/AU7

Sweyn II of Denmark[edit]

In order to verify whether the body of a woman entombed near Sweyn II of Denmark in Roskilde Cathedral is that of his mother Estrid, mtDNA from pulp of teeth from each of the two bodies was extracted and analysed. The king was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H and the woman was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H5a. Based on the observation of two HVR1 sequence differences, it was concluded that it is highly unlikely that the woman was the king's mother.[4]

Nicholas II of Russia[edit]

The last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II of Russia, was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup T, based on the following mutations: 16126C, 16169Y, 16294T, 16296T, 73G, 263G, 315.1C. His results matched those of a cousin, Count Nikolai Trubetskoy.[5][better source needed]

Deduction by descendant testing[edit]

Because mtDNA is carried through the direct female line, some researchers have identified the haplotype of historic persons by testing descendants in their direct female line. In the case of males, their mother's direct female lineage descendants are tested.

Benjamin Franklin[edit]

Doras Folger, one of Benjamin Franklin's mother's six sisters, passed on her mtDNA to her 9th-great-granddaughter, Charlene Chambers King, therefore showing Franklin to belong to haplogroup V.[6]

Namemitochondrial DNA sequenceHaplogroup
Benjamin FranklinT16298C, 315.1C, 309.1C, A263G, and T72C.V

Queen Victoria[edit]

mtDNA Haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C): Empress Alexandra of Russia's identity was confirmed by matching her mtDNA with that of her grand-nephew, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Their common maternal ancestor, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, and her mother, Queen Victoria, must therefore have shared this haplotype. Genealogies show that Charles II of England had the same matrilineal ancestress as Queen Victoria, an unknown mistress of Theobald I of Navarre.

Richard III of England[edit]

In 2004 British historian John Ashdown-Hill traced a British-born woman living in Canada, Joy Ibsen (née Brown), who is a direct maternal line descendant of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, a sister of Richard III of England. Joy Ibsen's mtDNA was tested and belongs to mtDNA Haplogroup J, which by deduction should also be the mtDNA haplogroup of Richard III.[7][8] Joy Ibsen died in 2008. On 4 February 2013, University of Leicester researchers announced that there was an mtDNA match between that of a skeleton exhumed in Leicester suspected of belonging to Richard III and that of Joy Ibsen's son, Michael Ibsen, and a second unnamed direct maternal line descendant.[9][10][11] They share mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.[12][13]

Namemitochondrial DNA sequenceHaplogroup
Richard III of England16069T, 16126C, 73G, 146C, 185A, 188G, 263G, 295T, 315.1CJ

Edward IV of England[edit]

Edward IV of England and his brother Richard III of England, both sons of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, would have shared the same mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.[12]

Figures from popular culture[edit]

The following are contemporary individuals who have had mtDNA results publicized:

Christian Cardell Corbet[edit]

The Canadian portrait artist Christian Cardell Corbet belongs to mtDNA haplogroup H.[14][15]

Namemitochondrial DNA sequenceHaplogroup
Christian Cardell Corbet16519CH

Katie Couric[edit]

During an interview with Dr. Spencer Wells of The National Geographic Genographic Project, the host Katie Couric was revealed to belong to haplogroup K.[16]

Stephen Colbert[edit]

Stephen Colbert was told by Dr Spencer Wells that he is a member of haplogroup K.[17]

Desmond Tutu[edit]

Desmond Tutu, South African activist and Christian cleric, according to a study on Southern African genetics belongs to mtDNA haplogroup L0d, a subgroup of Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA).[18]

Nelson Mandela[edit]

Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa, belonged to mtDNA haplogroup L0d (previously known as L1d), a subgroup of Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA).[19][20][21][22]

Bono[edit]

Bono, the vocalist for the Irish rock band U2, belongs to mtDNA haplogroup V.[23][24][25]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

 Mitochondrial Eve (L)  
L0L1–6
L1L2L3 L4L5L6
 MN 
CZDEGQ AS R IWXY
CZBFR0 pre-JTP U
HVJTK
HVJT

Y-DNA[edit]

The results for Y-DNA genealogical DNA tests are either from the men themselves, or from men who have inferred paternal descent from historical figures. Scientists make the inference as a hypothesis which could be disproved or improved by future research.

Ancient samples[edit]

Cao Cao, the Cao Wei State of Ancient China & the Takamuko Clan of Japan[edit]

Chinese warlord Cao Cao, who was posthumously titled Emperor Wu of the state of Cao Wei, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O2 according to DNA tests of some documented descendants.[26][27] Ancient DNA analysis of the tooth of Cao Cao's granduncle, Cao Ding, showed that Cao Cao belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O2*-M268.[28] The Takamuko clan of Japan claims agnatic descent from Cao Pi, who was the first Emperor of the state of Cao Wei and the eldest son of Cao Cao. This suggests that the Takamuko clan also belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup O2. The Takamuko clan is most famous for Takamuko no Kuromaro.

Tutankhamun[edit]

An academic study which included DNA profiling of some of the related male mummies of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2010. Tutankhamun's Y-DNA haplogroup was not published in the academic paper,[29][30][31] however iGENEA, a Swiss personal genomics claimed to have reconstructed King Tut's Y-DNA profile based on screencaps from a Discovery Channel documentary about the study. iGENEA found that King Tut belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1a2,[32][33][34] Members of the research team that conducted the academic study published in 2010 stated they had not been consulted by iGENEA before they published the haplogroup information and described iGENEA's claims as "unscientific." [31] After pressure to publish Tutankhamun's full DNA report to confirm his Y-DNA results, the researchers refused to respond.

Ramesses III[edit]

In December 2012, a genetic study conducted by the same researchers who decoded King Tutankhamun's DNA found that Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1a.[35]

Nicholas II of Russia[edit]

Nicholas II of Russia has been predicted as having an R1b haplotype.[36][37]

DYS39339019391385a385b439389i392389ii458456635Y-GATA-H4437438448
Alleles1324141011141113132917162412151219

Ötzi the Iceman[edit]

Ötzi the Iceman has been found to be Y-DNA haplogroup G2a2b.[38] The actual term used was G2a4, but the presumed L91 mutation has since been given a new category, G2a2b.

Birger Magnusson[edit]

Birger Jarl, the founder of Stockholm the modern capital of Sweden, according to Andreas Carlsson at The National Board of Forensic Medicine of Sweden, belonged to haplogroup I1. Birger Magnusson was the ancestor of a line of kings of both Sweden and Norway, starting with his son Valdemar Birgersson.[39]

Deduction by descendant testing[edit]

Charles Darwin[edit]

Charles Darwin belonged to Haplogroup R1b, based on a sample from his great-great-grandson. (assuming paternity being as the family argues)[40]

Albert Einstein[edit]

Albert Einstein belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1b2* E-Z830, with a sample taken from a paternal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein.[41][42]

Gediminas[edit]

As it was thought that the Lithuanian family of Gediminas or the Gediminids might ultimately belong to the Rurikid line, the same Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project sought to discover the haplogroup of their famous founder Gediminas. It was surprisingly found that while this is not precisely the case, the Gediminids also belong to the Y-DNA Haplogroup N1c1, yet of a different subclade. In fact the Gediminids and Rurikids are actually very distant cousins, sharing a common ancestor circa 2,500 years ago.[43]

PersonDYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii458459a459b455454447437448449464a464b464c464d
KhovanskyAlleles142315111113111210151531179911122514192714141515
CzartoryskiAlleles142315111113111211141530179911122514192914141515
GalitzineAlleles142315111113111211141530179911122514192814141515
TrubetskoyAlleles142315111113111210131529179911122514202814141515

Ysearch: HP2VB, 7FWBE, HUD38,

Russian Nobility DNA Project- note, however, that this information originally came from the Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project: [4]

Genghis Khan[edit]

DNA purported to be from Genghis Khan does not have the benefit of near and easily documented lineages. A distinct 'modal' result centers today on Mongolia.

According to Zerjal et al. (2003),[44] Genghis Khan is believed to have belonged to Haplogroup C-M130711(xC3c-M48).

DYS393390391425426434435436437i438439388389i389ii392
Alleles13251012111111128101014102611

According to Family Tree DNA,[45] Genghis Khan is believed to have belonged to Haplogroup C-M217.

Extended 25 Marker Y-DNA modal based on Mongolians matching the above modal haplotype in the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation database,[46] which also corresponds to the modal assigned to Genghis Khan released by Family Tree DNA:[45]

DYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii458459a459b455454447437448449464a464b464c464d
Alleles132516101213111410131129188811122614222711111216

Ysearch: GF44B

Oxford university's department of biochemistry gives an extended haplotype (SMGF standard allele count).[47]

DYS393392449446390389b464a464b464c464d461394458462391459a459b460YGATAA10385a385b455YGATAH4
Alleles13112721251611111216111718131088101312131111
DYSYGATAC4426454YCAIIaYCAIIbGGAAT1B07388447456441439437442445389I448438452444463
Alleles2111122223101426151510141112132510311423

Ysearch: GF44B (78 Y-STRs)

Gia Long[edit]

Gia Long, who was the first emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam as founded by the Nguyen-Phuoc family, may have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O2a according to the DNA test of one documented descendant (if paternity matches genealogy).[48] Given the sample size, however, this result cannot be regarded as conclusive and further testing of other documented descendants is necessary to help confirm or refute this finding.

Alexander Hamilton[edit]

Alexander Hamilton belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup I1.[49]

DYS39339019391385A385B426388439389I392389II458459A459B455454447437448449464A464B464C464D
Alleles132214;1510131411141213112915898112216203112141515
DYS460GATA-H4YCAIIAYCAIIB456607576570CDYACDYB442438
Alleles101019211416161935381210

William Harvey[edit]

Famous English physician William Harvey, who was the first in the Western world to describe systemic circulation, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b1, more specifically to the subclade E1b1b1c1 (M34). Most ancient ancestor known was Humphrey Harvey (1459–1526, Kent, England). Ysearch: B2YWY. Look also Harvey Y-DNA Genetic Project

Adolf Hitler[edit]

According to research published in 2004, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany during 1933–1945, likely belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1b1 (E-M35), a haplogroup which originated in East Africa about 22,400 years BP.[50]

In 2010, journalist Jean-Paul Mulders and historian Marc Vermeeren publicised analysis of samples taken from 39 patrlineal relatives of Hitler, supporting the above finding and pointing out that Haplopgroup E1b1b was now common among Berbers, Somalis and Jews. Mulders contradicted interpretations of his research by some media outlets, which claimed that Hitler definitely had Jewish ancestry. Mulders commented: "I never wrote that Hitler was a Jew, or that he had a Jewish grandfather. I only wrote that Hitler's haplogroup is E1b1b, being more common among Berbers, Somalian people and Jews than among overall Germans. This, in order to convey that he was not exactly what during the Third Reich would have been called 'Aryan.' All the rest are speculations of journalists who didn't even take the trouble to read my article, although I had it translated into English especially for this purpose."[51] Family Tree DNA, the largest Y-chromosome testing organization for genealogy and ancestry purposes, with a Y-chromosome database containing close to 200,000 samples from different populations, also said that some assertions about Hitler’s ancestry, based on information released by Mulders and Vermeeren, are "highly questionable". Family Tree DNA’s Chief Y-DNA Scientist, Professor Michael Hammer said that "scientific studies as well as records from our own database[,] make it clear that one cannot reach the kind of conclusion featured in the published articles". Family Tree DNA records showed that at least 9% of the populations of Germany and Austria belonged to Haplogroup E1b1b, and about 80% of that group had no Jewish ancestry. "This data clearly show that just because one person belongs to the branch of the Y-chromosome referred to as haplogroup E1b1b, that does not mean the person is likely to be of Jewish ancestry," said Professor Hammer.

Ronny Decorte, a genetics expert at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven pointed out that Hitler would, nevertheless, "not have been happy" with the existing research, as it suggested that his origins were neither "pure" nor "Aryan". Decorte said that he had sought permission from the Russian government to obtain DNA samples from the only physical remains of Hitler known to exist, namely his jawbone and a bloodstained cloth, but had not been successful.[52][53]

Thomas Jefferson[edit]

Main article: Jefferson DNA data

Direct male-line descendants of a cousin of United States president Thomas Jefferson were DNA tested to investigate historical assertions that Jefferson fathered children with his slave Sally Hemings.[54] An extended 17-marker haplotype was published in 2007,[55] and the company Family Tree DNA has also published results for other markers in its standard first 12-marker panel.[56] Combining these sources gives the consolidated 21-marker haplotype below. The Jeffersons belong to Haplogroup T (former K2).

DYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii437460438461462436434435DXYS
156Y
Alleles13241510131611121212152714109111312111112

(Note: the value of DXYS 156Y was reported as 7 in the original paper. This is believed to translate to 12 in the convention now used by DNA testing labs and online databases).

Lyndon B. Johnson[edit]

Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States, belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1 (E-M35).[57]

King of France Louis XIV[edit]

Louis XIV of France belonged to haplogroup Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) ".[58]

Napoleon[edit]

Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (E-M34*). This haplogroup has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and in the Near East (Jordan). According to the authors of the study, "Probably Napoléon also knew his remote oriental patrilineal origins, because Francesco Buonaparte (the Giovanni son), who was a mercenary under the orders of the Genoa Republic in Ajaccio in 1490, was nicknamed “The Maur of Sarzane” ".[59]

Niall of the Nine Hostages[edit]

A recent study conducted at Trinity College, Dublin,[60] found that a striking percentage of men in Ireland (and quite a few in Scotland) share the same Y chromosome. Results suggested that the 5th-century warlord known as "Niall of the Nine Hostages" (or a male ancestor) may be the male-line ancestor of one in 12 Irishmen. Niall established a dynasty of powerful chieftains who dominated the island for six centuries. Niall belongs to Haplogroup R1b1c7 (M222). It should be noted that Dr. Moore's results examined some different parts of DNA (loci) from the result given here. More recently, however, it has been determined that the emergence of R-M222 predates Niall and may be more than 2,000 years old. Therefore, not all men who belong to this haplogroup are descendants of Niall.

DYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii458459a459b455454447437448449464a464b464c464d
Alleles1325141111131212121314291791011112515183015161617

Ysearch: M5UKQ

Nurhaci & the Qing Dynasty of China[edit]

Nurhaci, founding father of the Qing Dynasty, may have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup C3c according to DNA tests of men from northeastern China and Mongolia which revealed a unique haplotype. This haplotype belongs to haplogroup C3c, and is estimated to be about five centuries old. Its very recent spread corresponds with the rise to power of the Qing dynasty.[61] Testing of known descendants of Nurhaci would help confirm this finding.

Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan[edit]

Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1.[62][63]

Fath Ali Shah Qajar[edit]

Fath Ali Shah Qajar (1772-1834), the second emperor/shah of the Qajar Dynasty of Persia belonged to haplogroup J1 with DYS388 = 13 as deducted from testing of descendants of several of his sons.[64]

Edmund Rice[edit]

Edmund Rice, an early immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony and a founder of Sudbury and Marlborough, belonged to haplogroup I1.[65]

Rurik of Novgorod[edit]

Rurik, whose male-line descendants founded Kievan Rus', and ultimately the Tsardom of Russia including Ivan the Terrible until 1598, belonged to the Uralo-Finnic Y-DNA Haplogroup N (N1c1).[66][67] Most living Princes of the Rurik Dynasty or Rurikids also belong to this haplogroup, specifically those descending from Vladimir II Monomakh. The remainder belong to Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) below, and so have been suggested to be of Slavic origin.

PersonDYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii458459a459b455454447437448449464a464b464c464d
PuzynaAlleles142314101113111211131429189911122514192814141414
GagarinAlleles142314111113111210141430189911122514192914151515
RzhevskyAlleles142314111113111210141431189910122514192914141515
KropotkinAlleles142314111113111210141430189911122414192814141515
MyshetskyAlleles142314111113111211141530189911122514193214141515
VadbolskyAlleles142314111113111210141430189911122514192714141515
KhilkovAlleles142314111113111210141430189911122514192914141515
PutyatinAlleles142314111113111210141431189911122514193014141515

Ysearch: EAKVQ, WYAK3, HP2VB,

Russian Nobility DNA Project - note, however, that this information originally came from the Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project: [5]

All Russian emperors from at least Nicholas I to Nicholas II "Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov"[edit]

The haplotype of Nicholas II of Russia has been predicted to belong to R1b.[36][37]

It matched a member of another line of Nicholas I's descendants. So, all the Emperors from Nicholas I to Nicholas II shared this Y-DNA. It can also be said that this result is German-specific, so Paul I was most likely the real son of his official father Peter III, and not the son of a lover, as was speculated.[citation needed][dubious ]

It also allowed to validate the remains of Alexei, son of Nicholas II.

Somerled[edit]

Main articles: Somerled and Clann Somhairle

In 2003 Oxford University researchers traced the Y-chromosome signature of Somerled of Argyll, one of Scotland's greatest warriors, who is credited with driving out the Vikings. He was also paternal grandfather of the founder of Clan Donald. Through clan genealogies, the genetic relation was mapped out.[68] Somerled belongs to haplogroup R1a1.

In 2005 a study by Professor of Human Genetics Bryan Sykes of Oxford University led to the conclusion that Somerled has possibly 500,000 living descendants — making him the second most common historical ancestor after Genghis Khan.[69] Sykes deduced that despite Somerled's reputation for having driven out the Vikings from Scotland, Somerled's own Y-DNA most closely matched that of the Vikings he fought.

The Y-DNA sequence is as follows (12 markers):[70]

DYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii458459a459b455454447437448449464a464b464c464d
Alleles1325151111141212101411311681011112314203112151516

Ysearch: YS495

Joseph Stalin[edit]

Joseph Stalin, from a genetic test on his grandson (his son Vasily's son, Alexander Burdonsky) and his grand-nephew, is shown to be Y-DNA-wise of G2a1.[71]

DYS39339019391385A385B426388439389I392389II458459A459B455454447437448449464A464B464C464D
Alleles14231591516111211111028179911112516212813131414

Leo Tolstoy[edit]

Leo Tolstoy, the Russian writer, belonged to Haplogroup I1

Tonu Trubetsky[edit]

R1a1a, shown not related to real Princes Trubetskoy.

DYS39339019391385a385b426388439389i392389ii458459a459b455454447437448449464a464b464c464d
Alleles1325151111141212101311311591011112514213212121414

Ysearch: WUZG2

John L. Worden[edit]

John Lorimer Worden of the U.S. Navy, commanding officer of U.S.S. Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, first historical battle between ironclad ships, as member of main lineage of Worden family, is supposed to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup J2b2.[72]

Zhu Xi & the Ming Dynasty of China[edit]

Zhu Xi, the most influential Neo-Confucian scholar and philosopher in Chinese history, may have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O2a1a according to the DNA test of one documented descendant.[73] This finding is significant since Zhu Xi was allegedly a distant cousin several times removed of Zhu Yuanzhang, founding emperor and ancestor of China's Ming Dynasty according to Zhu (surname) records. Given the sample size, however, this result cannot be regarded as conclusive and further testing of other documented descendants of Zhu Xi is necessary to help confirm or refute this finding. Furthermore, testing of documented descendants of Zhu Yuanzhang would help confirm whether there is in fact a recent, common male ancestry between Zhu Xi and the Emperors of the Ming Dynasty.

Figures from popular culture[edit]

Warren Buffett and Jimmy Buffett[edit]

Warren Buffett and Jimmy Buffett belong to Y-DNA haplogroup I1 which is most common in and around Scandinavia.[74] However, they are not closely related.[75]

Nick Donofrio[edit]

Nick Donofrio belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2.[76]

William Welles Hollister[edit]

William Welles Hollister, a famous Californian rancher, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1a1. William was a direct descendant of John Hollister, an early colonist who immigrated to New England in 1612.[77][78]

Eddie Izzard[edit]

Eddie Izzard belongs to haplogroup I-M223 according to the documentary series Meet the Izzards.[79]

Nelson Mandela[edit]

Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa, belonged to Haplogroup E1b1a (Y-DNA) (also known as E-M2) typical of Bantu peoples.[19][21]

Mike Nichols[edit]

Mike Nichols belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b.[80]

Dr. Mehmet Cengis Oz also known as Dr. Oz[edit]

Dr. Mehmet Oz belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b.[81]

Chris Rock[edit]

American comedian Chris Rock belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup B (subclade B2a1). He is paternally descended from the Uldeme people of Cameroon.[82]

Desmond Tutu[edit]

Desmond Tutu, South African retired Archbishop of Cape Town, according to a study on Southern African genetics belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1a1g.[18]

Spencer Wells[edit]

Spencer Wells, the project director of The Genographic Project, is a member of haplogroup R1b.[83]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00A0'1'2'3'4
A0A1'2'3'4
A1A2'3'4
A2'3A4=BCDEF
A2A3BCDEF
DECF
DECF
GHIJKLT
GHIJKLT
HIJKLT
IJKLT
IJLTK
LTMPSX
MSPNO
QRNO
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Caramelli, D; Lalueza-Fox, C; Capelli, C; Lari, M; Sampietro, ML; Gigli, E; Milani, L; Pilli, E; Guimaraes, S; Chiarelli, B; Marin, VT; Casoli, A; Stanyon, R; Bertranpetit, J; Barbujani, G. (November 2007). "Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca". Forensic Science International 173 (1): 36–40. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.01.020. PMID 17320326. 
  2. ^ Ermini, Luca (30 October 2008). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman". Current Biology. 
  3. ^ Per Holck (2006-08-01). "The Oseberg Ship Burial, Norway: New Thoughts On the Skeletons From the Grave Mound". Eja.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  4. ^ Dissing et al (2006-05-09). "The last Viking King: a royal maternity case solved by ancient DNA analysis". PubMed.gov. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  5. ^ "Famous DNA". Isogg.org. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  6. ^ "DNA Analysis of 5 People Who Helped Create America". Thegeneticgenealogist.com. 2007-11-01. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  7. ^ Joy Ibsen's mtDNA sequence: 16069T, 16126C, 73G, 146C, 185A, 188G, 263G, 295T, 315.1C in Ashdown-Hill, John (2010). The Last Days of Richard III. Stroud: The History Press. ISBN 9780752454047. 
  8. ^ "Richard III dig: 'It does look like him'". BBC News. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  9. ^ "Results of the DNA analysis". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  10. ^ "Geneticist Dr Turi King and genealogist Professor Kevin Schürer give key evidence on the DNA testing". University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
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