List of former United States citizens who relinquished their nationality

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This is a list of notable United States citizens who voluntarily relinquished their nationality. It includes only people who completed the process of relinquishment. The main list excludes public figures who may have indicated their intent to do so, but never formally completed the process; see below for a list of such cases. This list also excludes those who were involuntarily stripped of their citizenship.



Key of reasons
     To take or run for a position in a foreign government. Spouses of foreign heads of state are included in this category.
     To naturalize as a citizen of a foreign country, or to retain citizenship in a foreign country disallowing dual citizenship.
     To protest U.S. policies or actions
     Other or unclear reasons

NameOccupationOther nationalitiesDescriptionYear of emigrationYear of relinquishmentFederal Register
[note 1]
Valdas AdamkusPoliticianLithuaniaA longtime resident of Chicago, he renounced U.S. citizenship in 1998 to become the President of Lithuania.[1] ?1998No
Ted ArisonBusinesspersonIsraelBorn in the British Mandate of Palestine, Arison moved to the U.S. in 1952, where he founded Carnival Cruise Lines. He renounced his U.S. citizenship in 1990 to return to the land of his birth, which by then had become the State of Israel.[2][3]19901990Too early
Debito ArudouActivistJapanBorn David Christopher Aldwinckle in Geneva, New York, he gave up his U.S. citizenship in 2002 after becoming a citizen of Japan.[4]19912002Q3 2002[5]
Daphne Barak ErezJudgeIsraelBarak-Erez was born to Israeli parents in the U.S., and later returned to Israel with them, where she grew up and attended Tel Aviv University. She was named a justice of the Supreme Court of Israel in 2012, which required her to give up any foreign citizenship she held.[6][7] ?2012Q2 2012[8]
Adam BilzerianOtherSaint Kitts and NevisBilzerian, a writer and professional poker player, is a native of Tampa, Florida and the son of corporate takeover specialist Paul Bilzerian. Dissatisfied with the U.S. government's treatment of his father during his arrest and trial for market manipulation in the early 1990s and subsequent bankruptcy proceedings throughout the 2000s, and concerned over the direction of the country during the presidency of George W. Bush, Bilzerian emigrated from the United States and sought citizenship in Saint Kitts and Nevis.[9][10]20072008No
Bill BrowderFinancierUnited KingdomBorn in Princeton, New Jersey in 1965, Browder emigrated to the United Kingdom in 1989.[11] He founded Hermitage Capital Management there in Guernsey in 1996.[12] He became a British citizen in 1997.[11] He would go on to become one of the world's 100 highest-paid traders in 2007, earning an estimated £150 million that year.[13]19891998Q3 1998[14]
Angela Brown-BurkePoliticianJamaicaBorn in Jamaica, Brown-Burke moved to the U.S. in 1986 and naturalized as a U.S. citizen in 1995, but two years later decided to return to Jamaica.[15] She got involved in Kingston local politics with the People's National Party in the 2000s.[16] She moved from local to national politics in January 2012 with her appointment as Deputy President of the Senate of Jamaica, and renounced her U.S. citizenship to take up the position.[15]19972012Q2 2012[8]
Yul BrynnerActorSwitzerlandRussian-born film and stage actor; held dual Swiss and U.S. citizenship until 1965, when he renounced his American citizenship[17][unreliable source?] for tax reasons; he had lost his tax exemption as an American resident abroad by working too long in the United States and would have been bankrupted by what he owed in taxes and penalties.[18] ?1965Too early
Maria CallasMusicianGreeceOpera singer born in New York City in 1923. She renounced U.S. citizenship in 1966 at the American Embassy in Paris in order to resume her ancestral Greek citizenship.[19]19371966Too early
Vincent CateOtherMozambiqueEncryption expert based in Anguilla since 1994; renounced his United States citizenship in 1998, in his words, "to be free from the silly U.S. laws on crypto".[20][21]19941998No
Jaycee ChanActorPeople's Republic of ChinaBorn in Los Angeles in 1982 to Jackie Chan and Lin Feng-Jiao, Chan spent most of his childhood in Hong Kong. He attended college in the U.S., but dropped out to return to Hong Kong.[22] He made his entertainment industry debut there in 2004.[23] He renounced his U.S. citizenship in 2009 and became a PRC citizen, earning him praise in Chinese media for bucking the trend of Chinese actors obtaining Singaporean or other foreign passports.[24]20032009No
Victoria Chan-PalayScholarSwitzerlandA native of Singapore, Chan-Palay studied at Smith University in Massachusetts, graduating in 1965. She and then-husband Sanford Palay did seminal research in neuroscience in the 1970s; however, they later divorced. Chan-Palay moved to Switzerland and became a member of the faculty of the University of Zurich in 1989.[25][26]19892012Q3 2012[27]
Chi ChengAthlete
Republic of ChinaA native of Hsinchu, Taiwan, she won a bronze medal for the ROC team at the 1968 Summer Olympics. She naturalized as a U.S. citizen after marrying an American and living in the U.S., but returned to Taiwan in the 1970s. In 2009, President Ma Ying-jeou invited her to take up a policy advisor position in his government, which required her to give up U.S. citizenship.[28]1970s2009Q4 2009[29]
Bruce CondeOtherYemenA native of San Juan Capistrano, California, Conde went to Lebanon to study Arabic at the American University of Beirut in 1950, and eventually ended up in the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, where in 1956 he renounced his U.S. citizenship to become an information officer in the government of Ahmad bin Yahya.[30] After the Royalists lost the North Yemen Civil War, he fled to Spain and then Morocco, where he died a stateless man in 1992.[31]19501956Too early
Garry DavisActivistNoneWorld War II veteran and peace activist. He renounced his United States citizenship in 1948 in Paris in order to become a "citizen of the world", and created the first "World Passport".[32] ?1948Too early
Michael D. DingmanBusinesspersonThe BahamasDingman was born in Connecticut in 1931.[33] He moved to The Bahamas in 1964. He renounced U.S. citizenship on June 20, 1994 to become a citizen of The Bahamas.[34][35]19641994Too early
John Dorrance IIIBusinesspersonIrelandBusinessman and grandson of Campbell Soups founder John Dorrance; renounced his U.S. citizenship in the 1990s, purportedly to avoid capital gains taxes.[36] ?1990sToo early
Princess Elizabeth of YugoslaviaRoyaltySerbiaA native of Belgrade, Princess Elizabeth lived in the U.S. during her marriage to American clothier Howard Oxenberg, with whom she had a daughter, American actress Catherine Oxenberg. She moved to London after her marriage to Oxenberg ended, and married Briton Neil Balfour.[37] Now living in Serbia, she is a political activist and one-time candidate for the presidency of Serbia. She renounced U.S. citizenship in 2012 and is listed in the Federal Register under her civil name Elizabeth Karageorgevic.[6]1960s2012Q2 2012[8]
Friedhelm EronatBusinesspersonUnited KingdomGerman-born oil businessman[38] ?2003Q3 2004[39]
Stanley FischerScholarIsraelFischer was born in Northern Rhodesia (today Zambia), and spent his early years there and in Southern Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe). He came to the United States in the 1960s to study economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[40] He thought about making aliyah to Israel in the 1970s, but instead chose to remain in the U.S.[41] In January 2005, Fischer was approached by Ariel Sharon and Benjamin Netanyahu and offered the position of governor of the Bank of Israel.[42] He took Israeli citizenship and renounced his U.S. citizenship in order to qualify for the job.[43]20052005No
Terry GilliamDirectorUnited KingdomIn 1968, Gilliam obtained British citizenship, then held dual American and British citizenship for the next 38 years. In January 2006 he renounced his American citizenship, describing the George W. Bush administration as having created an environment "scarily similar to the Orwellian nightmare" of his 1985 film Brazil.[44][45]1960s2006Q1 2006[46]
Mike GogulskiActivistNoneGogulski, a political activist born in Phoenix, Arizona, moved to Eastern Europe in 2004 and then renounced his U.S. citizenship in 2008 in Slovakia without obtaining any other.[47][48]20042008Q4 2010[49]
Ronald GreenPoliticianDominicaGreen, a United Workers' Party politician, has been involved in Dominican politics since the 1990s. He renounced his U.S. citizenship to qualify for the 2009 election.[50][51] ?2009Q3 2010[52]
Yaser Esam HamdiOtherSaudi ArabiaHamdi was born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana to Saudi parents, and moved to Saudi Arabia with them as a child.[53] He was captured in Afghanistan in 2001 and detained as a purported "illegal enemy combatant." In 2004, he was released and deported to Saudi Arabia after agreeing to renounce his U.S. citizenship.[54]1980s2004Q4 2004[55]
Han Ye-seulActorSouth KoreaHan Ye-seul is the stage name of Leslie Kim, an actress born to Korean immigrant parents in southern California in 1981. She graduated from Cerritos College and then emigrated to South Korea, where she made her debut as a model in 2001.[56][57] She renounced her U.S. citizenship in 2004 in order to take South Korean citizenship.[58]20012004No
Ian HaylesPoliticianJamaicaBorn in Westmoreland Parish, Jamaica, Hayles emigrated to the U.S. in the 1980s at age 13 with his family, and returned to Jamaica in 2000. He was elected to the Parliament of Jamaica in the September 2007 election, and renounced his U.S. citizenship the following month.[59][60]20002007Q4 2007[61]
Shere HiteScholarGermanyGerman sex educator and feminist studies scholar. She renounced her U.S. citizenship in 1995 and became a German citizen.[62] ?1995Too early
Raffi HovannisianPoliticianArmeniaHovannisyan was born in Brentwood, California to Armenian American parents.[63] He moved to Armenia in 1989, and applied for citizenship there in 1991, which would require him to give up all foreign citizenships upon approval. However, the processing of his application was delayed for nearly a decade; in 2001, Hovannisyan forced the issue by renouncing his U.S. citizenship even without his Armenian citizenship approved, becoming stateless. President Robert Kocharyan then gave in to pressure and issued a decree granting Armenian citizenship to him.[64]19892001Q3 2002[5]
Hsiao Bi-khimPoliticianRepublic of ChinaTaiwanese Democratic Progressive Party politician born in Japan to a Taiwanese father and an American mother; renounced citizenship in the early 2000s in order to take up legislative office in Taiwan.[65] ?2000sQ2 2002[66]
John HustonDirectorIrelandNevada, Missouri-born film director, screenwriter, and actor. He emigrated to Ireland in 1952 in disgust over the activities of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, and renounced U.S. citizenship in 1964 to become an Irish citizen.[67][68]19521964Too early
Toomas Hendrik IlvesPoliticianEstoniaBorn in Sweden to Estonian émigré parents, Ilves grew up in New Jersey and naturalized as a U.S. citizen.[when?] He renounced his U.S. citizenship and emigrated to Estonia shortly after it regained its independence with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and went on to become the President of Estonia.[69][70]1990s1990sToo early
Jane JacobsActivistCanadaCanadian writer and political activist. She became a Canadian citizen in 1974, and she "later told writer James Howard Kunstler that dual citizenship was not possible at the time, implying that her US citizenship was lost."[71] ?1974Too early
Alexis JeffersPoliticianSaint Kitts and NevisJeffers grew up on Nevis before coming to the United States to attend Broward College and Florida Atlantic University in Florida. In 2009, Saint Kitts and Nevis' new National Assembly Elections Act mandated that all candidates for elections swear at the time of their nomination that they lacked citizenship in any other country; Jeffers renounced his U.S. citizenship so he could stand in the January 2010 general election.[72] ?2009Q4 2009[29]
Thomas JolleyActivistNoneBorn in Greensboro, North Carolina, Jolley went to Canada in 1967 during the Vietnam War and renounced U.S. citizenship after receiving a draft notice. He later returned to the U.S., but the Immigration and Naturalization Service began deportation proceedings against him. In 1971, the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that Jolley was deportable.[73][74]19671967Too early
Meir KahanePoliticianIsraelEmigrated to Israel in 1971; founder of the Jewish Defence League and the political party Kach, member of the Knesset on the Kach party list from the 1984 election.[75] Renounced U.S. citizenship in September 1988, but expressed a desire to regain his U.S. citizenship just a month later, after his party was barred from the 1988 election.[76]19711988Too early
Donald KeeneScholarJapanBorn in 1922 in New York City, Keene was a professor at Columbia University, where he taught for over five decades. He later retired from Columbia University, and moved to Japan in 2011 as a demonstration of his support for the country in the aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. He obtained Japanese citizenship on March 8th, 2012, which required him to relinquish his US citizenship as a condition.[77][78]20112012No
Kristina KeneallyPoliticianAustraliaBorn in 1968 in Las Vegas, Nevada and raised in Whitehouse, Ohio, Keneally emigrated to Australia with her husband in 1994, and became a citizen there in 1999. She gave up U.S. citizenship to enter Australian politics, and went on to become 42nd Premier of New South Wales.[79][80]19942002Q4 2002[81]
Pedro Pablo KuczynskiPoliticianPeruKuczynski naturalized as a U.S. citizen in 1982.[82] He renounced his U.S. citizenship to run in the 2011 Peruvian presidential election.[83] ?2011No
Margaret Wade LabargeScholarCanadaHistorian and author; emigrated to Canada in 1940.[84]1940 ?Too early
Oskar R. LangeDiplomat
PolandNaturalized U.S. citizen born in Poland; renounced his citizenship in 1945 to take up a position as Poland's ambassador to the U.S., in a case believed to be the first of its kind in diplomatic history.[85] ?1945Too early
Robert LeeOtherGhanaA native of South Carolina, Lee and his wife Sara emigrated to Ghana in 1956 and set up a dental practice, at the head of a wave of African Americans moving to the country to participate in nation-building as its independence neared.[86] He naturalized as a Ghanaian citizen in 1963, renouncing his U.S. citizenship in the process. He remained in Ghana until his death in 2010.[87][88]19561963Too early
Lee Seung-JunAthleteSouth KoreaBorn Eric Lee Sandrin in 1978 to a Korean American mother, he grew up in the Pacific Northwest.[89] His basketball career took him all over the world, including to teams in Luxembourg, Brazil, and Singapore.[89][90] He eventually followed his younger brother to South Korea, and naturalized as a citizen there in 2009 so he could represent his new country at the Asian Games the following year.[91]2000s2009Q3 2009[92]
Yuan T. LeeScholarRepublic of ChinaTaiwanese Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate; born in Taiwan, naturalized as a U.S. citizen, but later renounced when he returned to Taiwan to take up a position with the Academia Sinica in 1994.[93]19941994Too early
Jet LiActorPeople's Republic of China (birth)
Singapore (naturalization)
Beijing-born film actor and martial artist. He moved to Singapore in 2007 for his children's schooling.[94] He renounced U.S. citizenship in 2009 to naturalize as a citizen of Singapore.[95] ?2009Q1 2009[96]
Lin Ruey-shiungPoliticianRepublic of ChinaA native of Tainan, Taiwan, Lin received a Doctorate of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University in the 1970s and remained in the U.S. until 1985. He renounced his citizenship in November 2011 to run as James Soong's VP on the People First Party ticket in the 2012 election.[97]19852011Q1 2012[98]
Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of GreeceRoyaltyGreeceBorn 1968 in London, Marie-Chantal inherited U.S. citizenship from her father, DFS co-founder Robert Warren Miller. She spent her childhood in Hong Kong and Paris, and moved to the United States in 1992 to enroll at New York University and to be closer to her future husband, Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, who was attending Georgetown University at the time. She withdrew from NYU to marry Pavlos in 1995, and then moved to London with him in 2002.[99][100]20022011Q2 2011[101]
Yehudi MenuhinMusicianSwitzerland
United Kingdom
Menuhin, a world-famous violinist, was born in New York City in 1916, but lived and worked in Europe for most of his life.[102] He obtained honorary Swiss citizenship in 1970, and British citizenship in 1985, in both cases without relinquishing U.S. citizenship.[102][103] However, he renounced U.S. citizenship on April 7, 1994, according to State Department records.[34][104] He died in Germany in 1999.[102] ?1994Too early
Akierra MissickPoliticianTurks and Caicos IslandsMissick was born in the United States but later moved to the Turks and Caicos Islands and became a member of the Progressive National Party and later a candidate for the Leeward Constituency. She renounced her US citizenship on October 25, 2012 to be eligible to run in the Turks and Caicos Islands general election, 2012.[105] ?2012* (too recent)
Keith MitchellPoliticianGrenadaMitchell was born in Grenada. He naturalized as a U.S. citizen in January 1984.[106] A member of the New National Party, he became the Prime Minister of Grenada in 1995. The U.S. State Department made a determination in 2001 that Mitchell had relinquished his U.S. citizenship by becoming PM in 1995.[107] ?1995Q4 2001[108]
Mark MobiusFinancierGermanyInvestor and emerging markets fund manager. Born a U.S. citizen, Mobius was entitled to German citizenship by descent. He renounced his U.S. citizenship and became a German citizen.[35] ? ?Too early
Chris NamPolitician
South KoreaNam was born in Uiseong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea in 1954. He moved to Southern California in 1982, and in 1988 founded New Star Realty, which would grow to become one of the largest real estate agencies serving the Korean American community.[109] He was elected president of the Federation of Korean Associations, USA in 2009.[110] He moved back to South Korea and gave up his U.S. citizenship in 2011 to pursue political ambitions with South Korea's Grand National Party (now Saenuri Party).[111]20112011Q2 2012[8]
Henry Martyn NoelActivistNonePrinceton, New Jersey native who served as an ambulance driver in World War II. Concerned by a "climax of nationalism" in the United States, he renounced his citizenship while working in France in 1948 and moved to Allied-occupied Germany, where he took a job as a construction worker and lived on German rations.[112] Fellow renunciant Garry Davis would later mention Noel's actions as inspiration for his own renunciation.[113] ?1948Too early
Queen Noor of JordanRoyaltyJordanBorn Lisa Halaby in Washington, D.C. in 1951, she became a Jordanian citizen upon her marriage to King Hussein of Jordan in 1978. She claims she automatically lost American citizenship by obtaining Jordanian citizenship, but that she did not renounce it. [114]19781978Too early
Victor OkaikoiPoliticianGhanaOkaikoi, a former Ghana Army captain, renounced his U.S. citizenship in August 2012 in order to run in the Ghanaian parliamentary election, 2012 as a candidate for the Odododiodoo constituency of the Accra Metropolis District.[115][116] ?2012No
Oona O'NeillOtherUnited KingdomDaughter of American playwright Eugene O'Neill. Emigrated from the U.S. to the United Kingdom in 1952 to join her husband Charlie Chaplin after he was accused of "Communist sympathies" and denied re-entry to the U.S. that year; renounced U.S. citizenship to become a British subject in 1954.[117]19521954Too early
Michael OrenDiplomat
IsraelOren was born in New York in 1955 and raised in New Jersey. He emigrated to Israel in 1979, where he went on to become a historian, military officer and diplomat. He relinquished his U.S. citizenship in 2009 upon taking up his new position as Israel's ambassador to the United States.[118][119]19792009Q3 2009[92]
Andreas PapandreouPoliticianGreeceA naturalized U.S. citizen, he renounced in 1964 to run in the Greek legislative election, 1964, and went on to become the Prime Minister of Greece.[120] ?1964Too early
Ryan PinderPoliticianThe BahamasBahamian politician; renounced U.S. citizenship derived at birth from his American mother in February 2010.[121] ?2010Q1 2010[122]
Georgi Pirinski, Jr.PoliticianBulgariaBorn in New York City to immigrant parents in 1948, but left the country with them for Bulgaria when they were expelled in 1953; renounced U.S. citizenship in 1974, although political opponents have questioned the validity of his renunciation.[123]19531974Too early
Sam PitrodaPoliticianIndiaRenounced U.S. citizenship to take up a position in Rajiv Gandhi's government as science and later technology adviser in the 1980s.[124] ?1980sToo early
Jonathan PollardSpyIsraelAmerican-born civilian intelligence analyst turned Israeli spy currently serving a life sentence. Pollard gained Israeli citizenship and renounced his United States citizenship. In the event he remains on good behavior, he will be paroled and deported to Israel in 2015.[125][126]2015 ?No
Cathy ReedAthleteJapanReed was a dual citizen of Japan and the United States until she turned 22. Japanese law required those who are dual citizens at birth to renounce one citizenship or the other, so she chose Japanese citizenship at the age of 22 in order to continue to represent Japan in ice dancing.[127] ?2009No
Denise Eisenberg RichOtherAustriaU.S.-born Austrian songwriter and socialite. Moved to London and renounced citizenship to be closer to her husband and family, according to her lawyer. She is listed in the Federal Register under her maiden name Denise Eisenberg.[128] ?2011Q1 2012[98]
Shahine RobinsonPoliticianJamaicaBorn in Jamaica, Robinson lived in the U.S. intermittently from 1978 to 2001. She naturalized as a U.S. citizen in 2006, while a sitting member of the Parliament of Jamaica. In 2010, she was removed from her seat by court order, but then renounced her U.S. citizenship and won her seat back in a by-election.[129][130] She is listed in the Federal Register under her maiden name Shahine Fakhourie.20012011Q3 2011[131]
Viphandh RoengpithyaScholar
ThailandRoengpithya was born in Bangkok, and studied there and in London before coming to the U.S. in the late 1960s, where he worked in integrated circuit design. He returned to Thailand when his mother fell ill, and chose to make his return permanent.[132] He founded the Asian University of Thailand in Chonburi Province in 1993.[133] According to State Department records, he relinquished his U.S. citizenship the following year.[34] ?1994Too early
Eduardo SaverinBusinesspersonBrazilA native of Brazil, Saverin moved to the U.S. as a boy in 1992 and became a U.S. citizen in 1996. While attending Harvard University, he played a role in the founding of Facebook. He moved to Singapore in 2009, and renounced his U.S. citizenship in September 2011.[134][135]20092011Q1 2012[98]
Yolanda SchakronPoliticianBelizeBorn in Guatemala, Schakron became a naturalized U.S. citizen at age 15 along with her parents, but later returned to her parents' native Belize, thus holding dual citizenship. She renounced her U.S. citizenship in February 2012 in order to run as a People's United Party legislative candidate in the election the following month.[136] ?2012No
Yigong ShiScholarPeople's Republic of ChinaShi, a graduate of Tsinghua University in Beijing, went to U.S. for his Ph.D studies at Johns Hopkins University in the 1990s, and naturalized as a U.S. citizen. In 2003, he took up a professorial position at Tsinghua. In 2008, he moved back to China full-time, and the following year became Dean of Tsinghua's School of Life Sciences. He renounced his U.S. citizenship in 2011.[137][138]20082011Q3 2011[131]
Joel SlaterActivistNoneWaterloo, Iowa native who renounced U.S. citizenship in 1987 in Perth, Australia in protest over the foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration, in particular the 1986 bombing of Libya.[139]19871987Too early
Edward SmithPoliticianTurks and Caicos IslandsEdward Smith was born in the Turks and Caicos Islands but moved to the United States where he obtained US citizenship and lived for 28 years before returning to his birthplace. He became a member of the People's Progressive Party and later a candidate for the Cheshire Hall/Richmond Hill constituency. He renounced his US citizenship to be eligible to run in the Turks and Caicos Islands general election, 2012.[140] ?2012* (too recent)
Michael SternPoliticianJamaicaStern was elected to the Parliament of Jamaica in 2007. In 2009 it came to light that he was a dual citizen of the United States and Jamaica and thus not eligible to sit in Parliament; he then renounced his U.S. citizenship and won back his seat in a by-election.[141][142][143] ?2009No
Sir John Marks TempletonFinancierUnited Kingdom
The Bahamas
"Templeton renounced his U.S. citizenship in 1968, thus avoiding U.S. income taxes."[144] He held dual naturalized Bahamian and British citizenship and lived in the Bahamas until his death in 2008. ?1968Too early
Earl TupperBusinesspersonCosta RicaBusinessman and inventor of Tupperware. In 1958, shortly after selling his company and divorcing his wife, he bought an island off Costa Rica and renounced his U.S. citizenship to avoid taxes.[145] ?1958Too early
Daryl VazPoliticianJamaicaBorn in Jamaica to a Puerto Rican mother, Vaz was elected to the Parliament of Jamaica while still holding U.S. citizenship. He renounced it in 2008 after a challenge to his eligibility.[146][147] ?2008No
Danville WalkerPoliticianJamaicaWalker grew up in Kingston, Jamaica, and served as Jamaica's Director of Elections and Commissioner of Customs. He renounced his U.S. citizenship to run as a Jamaica Labour Party candidate in the 2011 election.[148][149] ?2011No
Myron W. WentzBusinesspersonSaint Kitts and NevisFounder of USANA Health Sciences.[150] ? ?No
Dorothy Payne WhitneyActivistUnited KingdomNew York City-born social activist; moved to the United Kingdom and then renounced U.S. citizenship in 1935.[151] ?1935Too early
Robin WinklerActivistRepublic of ChinaBorn in the U.S. in 1954, Winkler emigrated to Taiwan in 1977. He renounced U.S. citizenship to naturalize as a Republic of China citizen in 2003. A lawyer and environmental activist, he is involved with the Green Party Taiwan, though due to constitutional limitations he is not eligible to run as a legislative candidate until 10 years after naturalizing.[152][153]19772003No
Flora WovschinSpyUSSRSoviet spy who later renounced her American citizenship.[154] ? ?Too early
Gary WrightActivist
CanadaA native of Lacey, Washington, Wright became involved with opposition to the Vietnam War in the mid-1960s; his activities with Students for a Democratic Society caused the U.S. State Department to revoke his passport. He emigrated to Canada in 1968, renounced his U.S. citizenship, and became a Canadian citizen in 1974. He would go on to become mayor of New Denver, British Columbia.[155][156]19681974Too early
Nicholas YangBusinesspersonRepublic of China
People's Republic of China
(Hong Kong)
Yang was born in Taiwan. He graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1977 and worked for a few years in the U.S. before moving to Hong Kong in 1983. He renounced his U.S. citizenship in May 2012 in preparation for taking up a position as the head of the Hong Kong government's newly-created Technology and Communications Bureau.[157]19832012No
Kateryna YushchenkoPoliticianUkraineBorn Catherine Claire Chumachenko; wife of the former President of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko. She became a Ukrainian citizen in March 2005.[158] Under Ukrainian law, this required her to renounce her prior U.S. citizenship within two years; however, she did not sign the Oath of Renunciation until August 2007, several months past the deadline.[159]19982007No
Erica YuenActor
People's Republic of China
(Hong Kong)
Yuen was born in Hong Kong. She renounced U.S. citizenship in 2012 in order to take part in the Legislative Council election in September that year.[160] In July 2012, she stated on Facebook that she had received her Certificate of Loss of Nationality from the Consulate General of the United States, Hong Kong.[citation needed] ?2012No
Rita ZuccaOtherItalyBorn in New York City, she emigrated to her parents' native Italy in 1938, and renounced her U.S. citizenship in 1941 to save her family's property from expropriation by Mussolini's government. Best known for her role as an "Axis Sally", reading English-language radio broadcasts aimed at U.S. soldiers during World War II.[161]19381941Too early
Roman ZvarychPoliticianUkraineMoved to Ukraine in 1992. Founding member of the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists. Renounced U.S. citizenship in 1993; naturalized as a Ukrainian citizen in 1995. Later became Minister of Justice under Viktor Yushchenko.[162]19921993Too early
Péter ZwackDiplomatHungaryBorn in Hungary in 1927, Zwack came to the United States with his family in 1948. He returned to Hungary in 1988. After the end of Communist rule, he was named Hungarian ambassador to the United States. He renounced his United States citizenship in 1990 to take up that post.[163]19881990Too early

Unclear, inaccurate, misreported, or rejected cases

NameOccupationOther nationalitiesDescription
W. E. B. Du BoisActivistGhanaDu Bois, a native of Massachusetts, moved to Ghana in 1961 at age 93 to manage the Encyclopedia Africana project. The U.S. State Department refused to renew his passport while he was living there, so Du Bois elected to become a citizen of Ghana. Some sources claim that he renounced U.S. citizenship, but David Levering Lewis' biography of him states that he did not.[164]
Bobby FischerOtherIcelandWorld chess champion Fischer, a native of Chicago, attempted to renounce U.S. citizenship in August 2004 by letter to the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo while in detention in Japan on charges of traveling with an invalid passport.[165] However, renunciation oaths must be signed in the presence of a diplomatic officer, meaning Fischer's letter had no effect.[166] He was released after Iceland voted to grant him citizenship; he then moved to Iceland and remained there until his death in 2008.[167]
Princess Grace of MonacoRoyaltyMonacoBorn Grace Patricia Kelly, a U.S. citizen. Some sources claim she was required to relinquish her U.S. nationality upon her marriage to the Monegasque Prince Rainier. However, at the time of the birth of her first son, it was reported that the U.S. State Department made a determination that she remained a U.S. citizen, making her son one as well.[168] [169]
Boris JohnsonPoliticianUnited KingdomJohnson was born in New York City, but returned to the U.K. with his parents soon after and was raised there. He would go on to become Member of the U.K. Parliament. In 2006, he was prevented from traveling to the U.S. because his British passport showed a U.S. birthplace, meaning that he was considered a U.S. citizen and would thus be required to enter the country on a U.S. passport. Johnson was furious and announced that he would renounce U.S. citizenship.[170] However, in a June 2012 appearance on Late Show with David Letterman, he stated that he is an American ("jointly") and technically remained eligible to become president of the United States.[171] His name has never appeared in the Federal Register.
Diane LeePoliticianRepublic of ChinaLee was born in Taiwan and naturalized as a U.S. citizen in 1991. She held elected public office in Taiwan since 1994, but resigned in 2009 due to accusations that she had maintained dual citizenship.[172] She claims to have relinquished U.S. citizenship by taking up office in 1994;[note 2] however, she did not file a request for determination of loss of nationality at the time or by 2009.[173][174][175]
Juan Mari BrásActivistPuerto RicoMari Brás, a native of Puerto Rico and an advocate for its independence, renounced U.S. citizenship in Venezuela in 1994 and received a Certificate of Loss of Nationality; he then returned to Puerto Rico. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico held in 1997 that he still had the right to vote in elections there.[176] However, in 1998, the State Department reversed its earlier recognition of Mari Brás' renunciation, and stated that he remained a U.S. citizen.[177]
Kenneth O'KeefeActivistIreland
O'Keefe, a former U.S. Marine, was born in 1969. He attempted to renounce U.S. citizenship in Vancouver and the Netherlands in the early 2000s, but was rejected because State Department officials concluded that he would return to the United States.[178][note 3] He also later set his passport on fire; however, this is not one of the seven methods of relinquishing citizenship listed in INA 349(a) and so had no legal effect, as a letter from the State Department informed him.[178] O'Keefe describes himself as a world citizen and states that has acquired Irish and Palestinian citizenship.[179] He also holds a World Passport issued by the World Service Authority.[178]
Marc RichBusinesspersonSpain
Rich, a native of Belgium, came to the U.S. in 1941 at age 11 and later naturalized there.[180] He fled the U.S. in 1983 the midst of allegations that he had traded with Iran in violation of U.S. sanctions, and obtained Spanish citizenship later that year.[181] Rich maintained that he had relinquished U.S. citizenship, but a U.S. appeals court ruled in 1991 that he remained a citizen because he had never formally informed the State Department of his relinquishment.[182][183] Rich remains a citizen of Spain and Israel as well. Despite having been pardoned, he has never returned to the U.S.[184]
Elizabeth TaylorActorUnited KingdomTaylor was born in London to American parents in 1932. In October 1965, she signed an oath of renunciation at the U.S. Embassy in Paris, but with the phrase "abjure all allegiance and fidelity to the United States" struck out. State Department officials declared that her renunciation was invalid due to the alteration. Taylor signed another oath without the alteration in October 1966.[185] She applied for U.S. citizenship again in 1977 during then-husband John Warner's Senate campaign.[186][187]


  1. ^ The column "Federal Register" refers to whether and when the former citizen's name was published. Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, new provisions were added to the Internal Revenue Code (namely, 26 U.S.C. § 6039G) to require that the IRS publish the names of persons losing U.S. citizenship. Publication began in 1997. "Too early" refers to people who renounced before this law came into effect; an asterisk indicates that Federal Register data for the quarter in which the person renounced has not yet been released.
  2. ^ INA 349(a)(4) (8 U.S.C. § 1481(a)(4)) states that "accepting, serving in, or performing the duties of any office, post, or employment under the government of a foreign state or a political subdivision thereof, after attaining the age of eighteen years if he has or acquires the nationality of such foreign state" is one of the acts by which a U.S. national may lose nationality, if the act is performed voluntarily and with the intention of relinquishing U.S. nationality.
  3. ^ As stated in the U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual: "Potential renunciants may also express the intention to continue to reside in the United States or its territories and possessions without documentation as aliens. Since this right of residency is a fundamental right that U.S. citizens and nationals possess, potential renunciants who wish to retain this right do not possess the intent necessary for an effective renunciation. Consular officers must not take renunciations from any individual who seeks to retain the right to reside in the United States or one of its territories or possessions." "Renunciation of U.S. Citizenship". Foreign Affairs Manual. United States Department of State. 2012-06-29. Retrieved 2012-07-18.

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