List of films in the public domain in the United States

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A number of films exist that certain cited sources believe are in the public domain in the United States. Being in the public domain refers to cinematic, dramatic, literary, musical and artistic works that no government, organization, or individual owns, and as such is common property.[1]

Note: Films in this list may incorporate elements from other works that are still under copyright, even though the film itself is out of copyright.

Copyrightable elements of a film[edit]

There is no official list of films (or other works) in the public domain. It is difficult to determine the public domain status of a film because it can incorporate any or all of the following copyrightable elements:

Film copyright involves the copyright status of multiple elements that make up the film.[4] A film can lose its copyright in some of those elements while retaining copyright in other elements.[4] Experts in the field of public domain sometimes differ in their opinions as to whether a particular film is in the public domain.

The use of music in a film can cause uncertainty with regard to copyright. As of 2010, it is not known whether the use of music in a movie constitutes publication of the music for the purpose of copyright.[5] This is important because unpublished works are treated differently from published works under US copyright law.[6]

Judicial interpretation of public domain[edit]

Judges, too, differ in their interpretation of the laws governing copyright protection. The United States is a “patchwork quilt” of inconsistent copyright rules in different federal judicial districts. The courts of one jurisdiction are not obliged to follow the decisions of another.[7] The U.S. Supreme Court (which could resolve those inconsistencies) very seldom decides copyright cases, and then only when an important principle is involved.[citation needed]

Documenting public domain status[edit]

If a film appears on the list below, there is a high probability it has lost some or all of its United States copyright protection or in the case of U.S. government films, was never protected by copyright.

There is no single method for determining if a film, or parts of it, is in the public domain. There are several methods that can be used to document a film’s public domain status. These include the following:

Date of publication[edit]

All motion pictures made and exhibited before 1923 are indisputably in the public domain in the United States. Before the passage of the Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) in 1998, the term of copyright in the U.S. was a maximum of 75 years, with the work entering the public domain on January 1 of the 76th year from creation (so, for example, a film made in 1930 whose copyright was properly registered and renewed would enter the public domain on January 1, 2006). Although the CTEA added 20 years to the terms of all existing copyrights, it explicitly refused to revive any copyrights that had expired prior to its passage.

Work of the United States government[edit]

All copyrightable works made by United States government employees as part of their official duties are in the public domain from their creation. The status of works made by contractors is dependent on the terms of their contract. Note that this applies only to the federal government, and not to state or local governments, which may or may not claim copyright depending on state laws.[citation needed]

Determine copyright registration[edit]

Motion picture copyright registrations prior to 1978 were published in semi-annual Copyright Catalogs. The Library of Congress also published cumulative Copyright Catalogs of motion picture registrations for the periods

  • 1894–1912
  • 1913–1939
  • 1940–1949
  • 1950–1959
  • 1960–1969
  • 1970–1979
  • 1980–1989

All are out of print. However, the Film Superlist series is a complete reprint of all registrations in the Copyright Catalogs for 1894 through 1959. There is no cumulative Copyright Catalog for 1970–1977; the Copyright Office published 16 semi-annual Copyright Catalog booklets covering that eight-year period, but all are out of print and extremely rare. All copyright registrations from 1978 onward are online at the Library of Congress website.

Some films listed on this page were not registered, but it is unwise to presume an unregistered film is entirely copyright free without doing further research. For example, This Is the Army had no copyright registration, but it is a musical with several Irving Berlin songs, all of which were registered for copyright and renewed. The movie is shown on Turner Classic Movies, presumably with permission from the Berlin estate.

Some decades of The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures include copyright registration information for feature films (not shorts) of United States origin. This can include a statement that research failed to disclose copyright registration for a particular film. Copyright registration information is given in the following:

The United States copyright website catalogs all the works prior to 1978 that have been renewed.[8] Several pieces of work have been renewed in the form of collections, thus giving the collection as a whole copyright protection.

Copyright renewal status[edit]

For films registered in 1923–1963 inclusive, it is essential to know the renewal status. The semi-annual Copyright Catalog booklets have virtually complete (at least 99.99%) lists of renewals for the films registered 28 years earlier. Those semi-annual booklets all are out of print. However, for 1923 through 1959, the Film Superlist books match copyright renewals with earlier registrations. Copyright registrations and renewals can be found in

In 1992, Congress changed the copyright law to make renewal automatic for copyrights registered in 1964 and later.

Underlying rights[edit]

Many of the movies listed below are based on plays, novels, magazine stories or a combination of those sources. In some cases, a film’s copyright has lapsed because of non-renewal while the underlying literary or dramatic source is still protected by copyright. For example, the movie His Girl Friday (1940) became a public domain film in 1969 because it was not renewed, but it is based on the 1928 play The Front Page, which is still under copyright until 2024 and thus as a practical matter the film can't be used without permission.[4]

Studio and distributor abbreviations[edit]

Films[edit]

Any film that was first published before 1923 has been released already in the public domain in the United States for either expired copyright or failure to comply with copyright laws, such as omission of notice, failure to deposit a copy to the Copyright Office within demanded time, or no renewal registration. Therefore, it is not listed here: see Category:Films by year for pre-1923 films.

With an exception, if it has been released to the public domain under only special circumstances not previously mentioned, a pre-1923 film must be listed here.

Note: This list is not comprehensive, rather only those films where a reliable secondary source is available to verify Public Domain status. Films without a reliable source in the "Reasons" column should be removed. Archive.org is not a reliable source (see talk page discussion).
Film titleRelease yearDirectorStudio / DistributorEntered PD in (year)Reason for entering PDNote(s)
Africa Screams1949Charles BartonUnited Artists1970s[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [9]
The Amazing Mr. X1948Bernard VorhausEagle-Lion[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [10]Also known as The Spiritualist.
The Amazing Quest of Ernest Bliss1936Alfred ZeislerUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [11]Also known as The Amazing Adventure. This is a remake of the 1920 film The Amazing Quest of Mr. Ernest Bliss which is still under copyright.
Angel and the Badman1947James Edward GrantRepublic Pictures1975Failure to renew copyright.[12]
The Animal Kingdom1932Edward H. GriffithRKO Radio Pictures1960Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Algiers1938John CromwellUnited Artists1966Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Attack of the Giant Leeches1959Bernard L. KowalskiAmerican International Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [14]
At War with the Army1950
(registered: 1951)
Hal WalkerParamount Pictures1977[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [15]Despite the fact that the films copyright was registered on January 23, 1951(LP 679) and renewed on December 7, 1979 (RE43009) it still managed to lapse into the Public domain in 1977.[citation needed]
Bear Shooters1930Robert F. MacGowanMGM[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [16]
Beat the Devil1953John HustonBriitsh Lion Films, United Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [17]
Beau Brummel1924Harry BeaumontWarner Brothers1952Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Beau Ideal1931
(copyright notice: 1930)
Herbert BrenonRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Behind Office Doors1931Melville W. BrownRKO Radio Pictures1959Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Big Cat1949Phil KarlsonEagle-Lion1976[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [19]
The Big Trees1952Felix E. FeistWarner Bros.[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [20]
The Big Wheel1949Edward LudwigUnited Artists1976[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [21]
Bird of Paradise1932King VidorRKO Radio Pictures1960Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Blood on the Sun1945Frank LloydUnited Artists1973Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Bowery at Midnight1942Wallace FoxMonogram Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [22]
The Brain that Wouldn't Die1962
(completed: 1959)
Joseph GreenAmerican International Pictures1962Missing copyright notice [23]Originally completed in 1959 under the title The Black Door or The Head that Wouldn't Die, it wasn't released until May 3, 1962 where failure to add the copyright notice resulted in the film entering the Public Domain.[23]
Brideless Groom1947Edward BerndsColumbia Pictures1960s [24]Failure to renew copyright.[24]
Captain January1936David Butler20th Century Fox[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]"a legal loophole"[25]The 1924 version distributed by Principal Pictures is still under copyright.
Carnival of Souls1962Herk HarveyHerts-Lion International Corp.1962Missing copyright notice [26]
Carnival Story1954Kurt NeumannRKO Radio Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [27]
Charade1963Stanley DonenUniversal Pictures1963Missing full copyright notice.[28]Original music still in copyright.[29] Original story by Peter Stone still in copyright.[28][30] Film remade in 2006 as The Truth About Charlie.
Check and Double Check1930Melville W. BrownRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[31]
Colonel Effingham's Raid1946Irving Pichel20th Century Fox1973[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [32]
Conspiracy1930Christy CabanneRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Courageous Dr. Christian1940Bernard VorhausStephens-Lang Productions[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [33]Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[33]
The Dance of Life1929John CromwellParamount Pictures1957Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Danger Lights1930George B. SeitzRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Darling, How Could You!1951Mitchell LeisenParamount Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [34]Based on the James Barrie play Alice Sit-By-The-Fire.
The Deadly Companions1961Sam PeckinpahPathé-America1961Missing copyright notice [35]
Death Rides a Horse1967Giulio PetroniUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [36]
Delightfully Dangerous1945Arthur LubinUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [37]
Dementia 131963Francis Ford CoppolaAmerican International Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [14]Also Known as The Haunted and the Hunted.
Detour1945Edgar G. UlmerProducers Releasing Corporation[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]Failure to renew copyright.[38]
The Devil Bat1940Jean YarbroughProducers Releasing Corporation[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [22]
Disorder in the Court1936Preston BlackColumbia Pictures1960s [24]Failure to renew copyright.[24]
The Divorce of Lady X1938Tim WhelanUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [39]
Dixiana1930Luther ReedRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[31]
D.O.A.1950
(copyright notice: 1949)
Rudolph MatéUnited Artists1977Failure to renew copyright.[40]Remade in 1969 and 1988
Father's Little Dividend1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Vincente MinnelliMGM1978Failure to renew copyright.[41]
Farewell to Arms, AA Farewell to Arms1932Frank BorzageParamount Pictures1960Failure to renew copyright.[42]Based on copyrighted (R177406) novel by Ernest Hemingway
The Fight for the Sky1946[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]Office of War Information1946Work of the United States Government [G]
The First Legion1951Douglas SirkSédif Productions1978[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [43]
The General1927Clyde Bruckman
Buster Keaton
United Artists1955Failure to renew copyright.[44]
Glen or Glenda1953Ed WoodColumbia Classics[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [45]
God's Little Acre1958Anthony MannUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [46]Based on the Novel of the same name by Erskine Caldwell. The black and white version is Public Domain, the colorized version is Copyright.[47]
The Gold Rush1925Charlie ChaplinUnited Artists1953Failure to renew copyright.[44]1942 revised version in copyright. Original 1925 version possibly copyrighted.[48]
The Gorilla1939Allan Dwan20th Century Fox Film Corporation1976[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [49]
Go for Broke!1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Robert PiroshMGM1978Failure to renew copyright.[41]
Gulliver's Travels1939Dave FleischerParamount Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]Failure to renew copyright.[50][51]
Half Shot at Sunrise1930Paul SloaneRKO Radio Productions1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Hemp for Victory1942Raymond EvansU.S. Department of Agriculture1942Work of the United States Government [G]
His Girl Friday1940
(copyright date: 1939)
Howard HawksColumbia Pictures1967Failure to renew copyright.[44]Source material (stage play The Front Page) rights copyright until 2024.[44]
Hook, Line and Sinker1930Edward F. ClineRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Hunchback of Notre Dame1923Wallace WorsleyUniversal Pictures1951Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Indestructible Man1956Jack PollexfenAllied Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [52]
Inside the Lines1930Roy PomeroyRKO Radio Productions1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
It's a Wonderful Life1946
(copyright notice: 1947)
Frank CapraLiberty Films
RKO Pictures
1975Failure to renew copyright.[53]While the film images are public domain, under rulings of Stewart v. Abend, the film text (script) is based on the copyrighted short story "The Greatest Gift".[53][54][55] Republic also purchased exclusive rights to the movie’s copyrighted music to further shore up its rights.[56]
Kept Husbands1931Lloyd BaconRKO Radio Productions1959Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Kit Carson1940George B. SeitzUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]"Reissued by PCR Pictures" [57]
The Lady Refuses1931George ArchainbaudRKO Radio Productions1959Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Lady to Love, AA Lady to Love1930Victor SjöströmMGM1958Failure to renew copyright.[13]Based on the play They Knew What They Wanted. See also the film The Secret Hour (1928) based on the same play.[13]
Last Clear Chance1959Robert CarlisleUnion Pacific Railroad1959Not registered for copyright.[58]
The Last Man on Earth1964Ubaldo Ragona, Sidney SalkowAmerican International Pictures, 20th Century Fox1980s[59]Failure to renew copyright.[59]
The Last Time I Saw Paris1954
(copyright notice: 1944)
Richard BrooksMGM1972Failure to renew copyright.[60]Music score still protected by copyright.[61]
Lawful Larceny1930Lowell ShermanRKO Radio Productions1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Leathernecking1930Edward F. ClineRKO Radio Productions1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]It is a lost film.
Letter of Introduction1938John M. StahlUniversal Pictures1966Failure to renew copyright.[62]
Life with Father1947Michael CurtizWarner Bros.1975Failure to renew copyright.[63]
Little Men1940Norman Z. McLeodRKO Radio Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [64]
The Little Princess1939Walter LangTwentieth Century Fox1967Failure to renew copyright.[53]
Little Shop of HorrorsThe Little Shop of Horrors1960Roger CormanFilmgroup1988Failure to renew copyright.[44][65]
Lonely Wives1931Russell MackRKO Radio Pictures1959Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Love Affair1939Leo McCareyRKO Radio Pictures1967Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Love Laughs at Andy Hardy1946Willis GoldbeckMGM1974[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [66]Also known as Uncle Andy Hardy.
Malice in the Palace1949Jules WhiteColumbia Pictures1960s [24]Failure to renew copyright.[24]
Maniac1934Dwain EsperRoadshow Attractions[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [67]Also known as Sex Maniac
The Man on the Eiffel Tower1949Burgess MeredithRKO Radio Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [68]Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[68]
The March Hare1956George More O'FerrallB & A Productions[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [69]
March of the Wooden Soldiers1948Gus MeinsMGM1948Failure to display copyright notice.[28]This is a later abridgement of Babes in Toyland (1934) which is still in copyright. Public domain status unclear.[28]
McLintock!1963Andrew V. McLaglenUnited Artists1991Failure to renew copyright.[70][71]Music score still under copyright.[70]
Meet John Doe1941Frank CapraWarner Bros.1969Failure to renew copyright.[53]
Millie1931John Francis DillonRKO Radio Pictures1959Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Mr. Imperium1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Don HartmanMGM1978Failure to renew copyright.[41]
My Dear Secretary1949Charles MartinUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [72]
My Favorite Brunette1947Elliott NugentParamount Pictures1975Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Night of the Living Dead1968George A. RomeroWalter Reade1968Missing copyright notice[73]Remade in 1990 and 2006
Nothing Sacred1937William A. WellmanSelznick
United Artists
1965Failure to renew copyright.[44]
Of Human Bondage1934John CromwellRKO Radio Pictures1962Failure to renew copyright.[13]
The Outlaw1943Howard HughesHoward Hughes Prod.1971Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Painted Hills1951Harold F. KressMGM1979Failure to renew copyright.[41]
The Pay-Off1930Lowell ShermanRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Penny Serenade1941George StevensColumbia Pictures1968[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [16]Though the film was released by Columbia Pictures, it was OWNED by Stevens production firm, putting it's Public Domain status into question.[16]
The Phantom of the Opera1925Rupert JulianUniversal Studios1953Failure to renew copyright.[65]
Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor1936Dave FleischerParamount Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [74]First of 3 Popeye Technicolor Two-Reel Specials.
Private Snafu Series1943-1946VariousWarner Bros., MGM, UPA, Harman-Ising Studio1943-1946Work of the United States Government [G]
Rage at Dawn1955Tim WhelanRKO Radio Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [75]
Rain1932Lewis MilestoneUnited Artists1960Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Reefer Madness1936Louis J. GasnierMotion Picture Ventures1936Improper copyright notice.[76][77]Also called The Burning Question, Dope Addict, and Tell Your Children
Roberta1935William A. SeiterRKO Radio PicturesEarly 1980s [78][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [78]
Rock, Rock, Rock!1956Will PriceDistributors Corporation of America1984Failure to renew copyright.[65]The Chuck Berry soundtrack may not be in the public domain.
The Royal Bed1931
(copyright notice: 1930)
Lowell ShermanRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Royal Wedding1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Stanley DonenMGM1978Failure to renew copyright.[41]
Santa Claus Conquers the Martians1964Nicholas WebsterEmbassy Pictures Corporation[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [79]
Santa Fe Trail1940Michael CurtizWarner Bros.1968Failure to renew copyright.[80][81]
The Screaming Skull1958Alex NicolAmerican International Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [14]
Second Chorus1940H.C. PotterParamount Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [82]
The Secret Hour1928Rowland V. LeeParamount Pictures1956Failure to renew copyright.[13]Based on the play They Knew What They Wanted. See also the film A Lady to Love (1930) based on the same play.[13]
Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon1942Roy William NeillUniversal Studios1969[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [83]
The Silver Horde1930George ArchainbaudRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Sin Takes a Holiday1930Paul L. SteinRKO Radio Pictures1958Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Sing a Song of Six Pants1947Jules WhiteColumbia Pictures1960s [24]Failure to renew copyright.[24]
Sinners in Paradise1938James WhaleUniversal Pictures1966Failure to renew copyright.[62]
Slightly Honorable1939Tay GarnettUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [84]Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[84]
Smouldering Fires1925Clarence BrownUniversal Pictures1953Failure to renew copyright.[65]
Star Is Born, AA Star Is Born1937William A. WellmanSIP
United Artists
1965Failure to renew copyright.[42][44]Re-made in 1954 and 1976
The Stork Club1945Hal WalkerB.G. Desylva Productions Inc.1982[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [85]
The Strange Love of Martha Ivers1946Lewis MilestoneParamount Pictures1974Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Street Scene1931King VidorUnited ArtistsEarly 1980s [86][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [86]
Suddenly1954Lewis AllenUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [87][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [87]
Superman (1940s cartoons)1941-1942Dave Fleischer, VariousParamount Pictures[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [88][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [88]Although all entries are in the public domain, ancillary rights such as merchandising contract rights, as well as the original 35mm master elements, are owned today by Warner Bros. Animation. Warner has owned Superman publisher DC Comics since 1969.
Swing High, Swing Low1937Mitchell LeisenParamount Pictures1965Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Target for Today1941William KeighleyFirst Motion Picture Unit1941Work of the United States Government [G]
Teenagers from Outer Space1959Tom GraeffWarner Bros.1987Failed to renew copyright.[44]
Terror by Night1946Roy William NeillUniversal Studios[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [89]
The Terror1963Roger CormanAmerican International Pictures1963Missing copyright registration [90]In the early 90's, Corman asked Mark Griffiths to shoot 12 minutes of additional footage starring Dick Miller, thus making a new film titled The Return of the Terror (1991) so Corman could claim his copyright.[91]
This is the Army1943Michael CurtizWarner Bros.Mid-1970s [92][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [92]
Three Came Home1950Jean Negulesco20th Century Fox1977Failure to renew copyright.[93]
Three Guys Named Mike1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Charles WaltersMGM1978Failed to renew copyright.[41]
Till the Clouds Roll By1946Richard WhorfMGM1974Failed to renew copyright.[41]
Topper Returns1941Roy Del RuthUnited Artists1969Failure to renew copyright.[65]
Tulsa1949Stuart HeislerWalter Wanger Productions[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [94]Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[94]
Twin Beds1942Tim WhelanUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [95]Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[95]
Vengeance Valley1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Richard ThorpeMGM1978Failure to renew copyright.[41]
Waldo's Last Stand1940Edward L. CahnMGM[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [16]
White Zombie1932Victor HalperinUnited Artists[Data unknown/missing. You can help!][Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [96]Source material in the film may not be in the public domain.[97]
Why We Fight1942–1944Frank CapraUnited States Army Pictorial Services1942–44Work of the United States Government [G]
Wives Under Suspicion1938James WhaleUniversal Pictures1966Failure to renew copyright.[62]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "An Introduction to Films and Motion Pictures" at RoyaltyFreeMusic.com Retrieved August 4, 2009
  2. ^ Rich, Lloyd L. (1998). "Protection of Graphic Characters". The Publishing Law Center. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  3. ^ Adler, Kenneth A. (1999-10-01). "Using Dramatic Characters in Multimedia Works – Avoiding the Pitfalls". Thelen LLP. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  4. ^ a b c Fishman, Stephen (2010), pg.180
  5. ^ Fishman, Stephen (2010), pg.181
  6. ^ Hirtle, Peter B. (2010-10-04). "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States". Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  7. ^ Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain (1940–1949), page xii.
  8. ^ "United States Copyright Office Public Catalog". Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  9. ^ John M. Miller, "Africa Screams, Home Video Reviews", Turner Classic Movies 
  10. ^ Sullivan, Monica (1998). VideoHound's independent film guide. Visible Ink Press. pp. 12–13. 
  11. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Amazing Adventure Overview", New York Times 
  12. ^ a b c d e Pierce, David (2001)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pierce, David (2007), pp.131–34
  14. ^ a b c Smith, Gary A. (2009). The American International Pictures video guide. McFarland & Company. p. 8. 
  15. ^ Hal Erickson, "At War with the Army Overview", New York Times 
  16. ^ a b c d Hal Erickson, "Bear Shooters Overview", New York Times 
  17. ^ Hal Erickson, "Beat the Devil Overview", New York Times 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Pierce, David (2007), "Notes", pp. 140–43
  19. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Big Cat Overview", New York Times 
  20. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Big Trees Overview", New York Times 
  21. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Big Wheel Overview", New York Times 
  22. ^ a b Lennig, Arthur (2003). The Immortal Count: The Life and Films of Bela Lugosi. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 465. 
  23. ^ a b Nathaniel Thompson, "Cult Movies, The Brain that Wouldn't Die", Turner Classic Movies 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Hogan, David (2011). Three Stooges FAQ: Everything Left to Know about the Eye-Poking, Face-Slapping Head-Thumping Geniuses. Applause Theatre and Cinema Books. 
  25. ^ Hal Erickson, "Captain January Overview", New York Times 
  26. ^ Blake, Marc (2013). Writing the Horror Movie. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 91. 
  27. ^ Hal Erickson, "Carnival Story Overview", New York Times 
  28. ^ a b c d Pierce, David (2007), p.130
  29. ^ Online search results for keywords "Henry Mancini Charade", from US Copyright Office.
  30. ^ The original story basis for Charade is 'The Unsuspecting Wife' by Peter Stone and Marc Behm, which appeared in the July 1961 issue of Redbook magazine. The copyright in the story was renewed by Stone in 1989 (see source: David Pierce (2007), Note #20, pg. 141).
  31. ^ a b Pierce, David (2007), pg.137
  32. ^ Hal Erickson, "Colonel Effingham's Raid Overview", New York Times 
  33. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "The Courageous Dr. Christan Overview", New York Times 
  34. ^ Hal Erickson, "Darling, How Could You! Overview", New York Times 
  35. ^ Hal Erickson, "New DVDs, Peckinpah's Deadly Companions and Major Dundee", New York Times 
  36. ^ Cumbow, Robert C. (2009). The Films of Sergio Leone. The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. p. 9. 
  37. ^ Hal Erickson, "Delightfully Dangerous Overview", New York Times 
  38. ^ Herzogenrath, Bernd (2009). The Films of Edward G. Ulmer. Scarecrow Press. p. 151. 
  39. ^ Hal Erickson. "The Divorce of Lady X Overview". New York Times. 
  40. ^ Researching the Copyright Status of a Work from Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h Pierce, David (2007), pp.138–39
  42. ^ a b Pierce, David (2007), pp.134–37
  43. ^ "The First Legion Overview", New York Times 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Fishman, Stephen (2010), pp.174–180
  45. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group. 
  46. ^ Hal Erickson, "God's Little Acre Overview", New York Times 
  47. ^ "Public Domain Trouble Spots". Copyright Overview. Stanford University. Retrieved November 30, 2013. 
  48. ^ [1]
  49. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Gorilla Overview", New York Times 
  50. ^ John M. Miller, "Mr. Bug Goes to Town aka Hoppity Goes to Town", Turner Classic Movies 
  51. ^ David Kehr (March 6, 2009). "Classics From Disney and a Lilliputian Competitor". New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2013. 
  52. ^ Nathaniel Thompson, "The Indestructible Man, Cult Movies", Turner Classic Movies 
  53. ^ a b c d Pierce, David (2007), p.126
  54. ^ Cox, Stephen. It's a Wonderful Life: A Memory Book. Nashville, Tennessee: Cumberland House, 2003. 115. Print. ISBN 1-58182-337-1. Copyright of short story, The Greatest Gift, expires after 2038, 95 years after publication.
  55. ^ "Renewal Registrations, p. 1614." Catalog of Copyright Entries, January–June 1971, U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved: November 8, 2010.
  56. ^ Nesi, Ted. "Why You Can't Watch It's A Wonderful Life on Demand". WPRI.com. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  57. ^ Hal Erickson, "Kit Carson Overview", New York Times 
  58. ^ Prelinger, Rick (2006). The field guide to sponsored films. National Film Preservation Foundation. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-9747099-3-2. 
  59. ^ a b Jonathan Malcolm Lampley (2010). Women in the Horror Films of Vincent Price. McFarland. p. 98. 
  60. ^ Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site
  61. ^ Online results from keyword search: "Last Time I Saw Paris Conrad Salinger" in United States Copyright Office. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  62. ^ a b c Pierce, David (2007), pg.138
  63. ^ Hal Erickson, "Life with Father Overview", New York Times 
  64. ^ Hal Erickson, "Little Men Overview", New York Times 
  65. ^ a b c d e Pierce, David (2007), p.128
  66. ^ Hal Erickson, "Love Laughs at Andy Hardy Overview", New York Times 
  67. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group. 
  68. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "The Man on the Eiffel Tower Overview", New York Times 
  69. ^ Hal Erickson, "The March Hare Overview", New York Times 
  70. ^ a b "Court Rules for 'Goodtimes' in McLintock! Case", in Billboard, May 14, 1994,pg. 73 & 82
  71. ^ Fishman, Stephen (2010), pp.337
  72. ^ Hal Erickson, "My Dear Secretary Overview", New York Times 
  73. ^ Night of the Living Dead entered the public domain because the original theatrical distributor, the Walter Reade Organization, neglected to place a copyright indication on the prints. In 1968, United States copyright law required a proper notice for a work to maintain a copyright. See U.S. Copyright Office, Circular 92, Copyright Law of the United States of America, Chapter 4: Copyright Notice, Deposit, and Registration, Omission of notice on certain copies and phonorecords. Image Ten displayed such a notice on the title frames of the film beneath the original title, Night of the Flesh Eaters but the distributor removed the statement when it changed the title. See Boluk, Stephanie; Lenz, Wylie (June 16, 2011). "Introduction: Generation Z, the Age of Apocalypse". In Boluk, Stephanie; Lenz, Wylie. Generation Zombie: Essays on the Living Dead in Modern Culture. Jefferson, North Carolina, US: McFarland & Company. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7864-6140-0. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  74. ^ Grandinetti, Fred (2004). Popeye: an illustrated cultural history. McFarland & Company. p. 125. 
  75. ^ Hal Erickson, "Rage at Dawn Overview", New York Times 
  76. ^ Shaye, Robert (May 22, 2003). "Graduation 2003". 
  77. ^ Anderson, Patrick (1981). High in America: the true story behind NORML and the politics of marijuana. The Viking Press. p. 101. 
  78. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Roberta Overview", New York Times 
  79. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group. 
  80. ^ Filmmakers Newsletter Volume 7, Suncraft International Incorporated, 1973 
  81. ^ Segrave, Kerry. Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry. 
  82. ^ Hal Erickson, "Second Chorus Overview", New York Times 
  83. ^ Hal Erickson, "Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon Overview", New York Times 
  84. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Slightly Honorable Overview", New York Times 
  85. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Stork Club Overview", New York Times 
  86. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Street Scene Overview", New York Times 
  87. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Suddenly Overview", New York Times 
  88. ^ a b Rossen, Jake (2008). Superman Vs. Hollywood: How Fiendish Producers, Devious Directors, and Warring Writers Grounded an American Icon. Chicago Review Press. 
  89. ^ Hal Erickson, "Terror by Night Overview", New York Times 
  90. ^ Ray, Fred Olen (1991). The New Poverty Row: Independent Filmmakers as Distributors. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 51. 
  91. ^ Stevens, Brad (2003). Monte Hellman: His Life and Films. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 34. 
  92. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "This is the Army Overview", New York Times 
  93. ^ Hal Erickson, "Three Came Home Overview", New York Times 
  94. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Tulsa Overview", New York Times 
  95. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Twin Beds Overview", New York Times 
  96. ^ Rhodes, Gary D. (2001). White Zombie: Anatomy of a Horror Film. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 280. 
  97. ^ Ryan Turek (July 6, 2010). "What Happened to Tobe Hooper's White Zombie?". shocktillyoudrop.com. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]