List of fermented foods

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A woman preparing kenkey

This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.

Many pickled or soured foods are fermented as part of the pickling or souring process, but many are simply processed with brine, vinegar, or another acid such as lemon juice.

Fermented foods[edit]

NameImageOriginDescription
AmasiAmasi (3035444146).jpgA word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt. It is very popular in South Africa.
AppamPaalappam.JPGA type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name as Hoppers.
AtcharaAchara or Atsara (pickled geen Papaya).jpgA pickle made from grated unripe papaya hat is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue. The name may come from several names for South Asian pickle and is related to acar from neighbouring Indonesia and Malaysia.
AyranFresh ayran.jpgA cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[1] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus.[2] Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
BagoongBagoong 1.JPGPhilippinesA Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt.[3] The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).[4]
Bagoong monamonBagoong.jpgPrepared by fermenting salted anchovies
Bagoong terongBornayjars.jpgMade by salting and fermenting the bonnet mouth fish
Bánh cuốnBanhcuon.jpgNorthern Vietnam.[5]Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented[6] rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
BlaandA fermented milk product made from whey. It is similar in alcohol content to wine.
BreadFD 1.jpgSome breads, such as sourdough, use dough that is fermented
BremBrem Madiun.JPGA traditional fermented food of Indonesia
Burong manggaPhilippinesMade by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted
CalpisJapanAn uncarbonated soft drink, manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation
ChassGujarat, IndiaThe word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[7] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
CheeseShanklish.jpgSome cheeses, such as Shanklish (pictured), are fermented as part of their production
CheonggukjangCheonggukjang.jpgA fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans
ChichaChicha with Pipeño.jpgIn South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.[8] Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
Chinese picklesVarious vegetables or fruits, which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes
Crème fraîcheStrawberries and crème fraîche.jpgA soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[9] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
CurtidoCondiments for Pupusas in El Salvador 2012.jpgA type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice
DhoklaKhaman dhokla.jpgGujarat, IndiaA vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.[10]
DoenjangDoenjangwithbeans.jpgKoreaA thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation
DooghTan-raffi kojian-IMG 3584.JPGAncient PersiaA savory yogurt-based beverage
DosaRava dosa.JPGA fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is Rava dosa, a type of Dosa dish.
DoubanjiangDoubanjiang.jpgA spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices
DouchiDouchiphoto.jpgA type of fermented and salted black soybean
Fermented bean curdFermentedchilibeancurd.jpgFermented tofu (pictured) is a type of Fermented bean curd
Fermented bean pasteDoenjangwithbeans.jpgA category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.[11]
Fermented fishRakfisk.jpgA traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
Fermented milk productsTraditional jar of Matsoni.jpgAlso known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is matzoon, a fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
FilmjölkFilmjolk.jpgNordic countriesA mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[12][13]
Fish saucePhrik nam pla.jpg
GanjangKorean sauce-Choganjang-01.jpg
Garri
Garum
GejangKorean seafood-Ganjang gejang-01.jpg
GochujangKimchi and Gochujang by johl.jpg
GundrukGundruk Achar 02.jpg
HákarlHakarl near Bjarnahöfn in Iceland.JPGPictured is Hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland
HongeohoeKorean cuisine-Samhap-01.jpg
IdliIdli Sambar.JPG
IgunaqWalrus meat 1 1999-04-01.jpg
InjeraAlicha 1.jpgA sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour,[14] it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Iru (food)IRU.JPG
JeotgalKorea-Gyeongdong Market-Various jeotgal-01.jpg
Jogijeot
Kapusta kiszona duszona
KatsuobushiKatsuobushi.jpg
KaymakPoljorad domaci kajmak.jpg
KefirKefir in a glass.JPGA fermented milk product
KenkeyFante kenkey.jpg
KetchupKetchup example 2.jpgIn Indonesian cuisine, which is similar to Malay, the term kecap refers to fermented savory sauces.
Khanom chinKhanom Chin - Thai rice noodles.JPG
KimchiGimchi.jpg
Kiviak
KombuchaKombucha Mature.jpg
KumisKumys-bottle.jpg
Kuzhi paniyaramKuzhi Paniyaram.jpg
KvassMint bread kvas.jpg
LassiLassi in Varanasi.jpg
Leben (milk product)
Lufu (food)
MageuMageu (carton and glass).JPG
Meigan caiMeiganCaiBundle.jpg
MisoMiso sold in Tokyo foodhall.jpg
Mixian (noodle)米线 Rice Noodles - 原味小吃 Yuanwei Xiaochi Y3.jpg
Mohnyin tjinMohnninjinsellerTaunggyi.JPG
Murri (condiment)
Mursik
MyeolchijeotKorean salted anchovy-Myeolchijeot-01.jpg
Myeongran
Nata de cocoNata de coco.JPG
NattōNatto on rice.jpg
NgapiRaw ngapi.JPG
Ogi (cereal ferment)
Ogiri
OncomOncom tekstur.jpg
PalappamHoppers.jpg
Pesaha AppamKnajewfood.jpg
PeuyeumTapai peuyeum Pasar Baru.JPG
Pickles[15]Ogórki w trakcie kiszenia.jpg
Poi (food)Bowl of poi.jpg
PulquePulquebottle.JPG
PutoPuto in banana leaf.jpgPictured is puto in banana leaf
RakfiskRakfisk.jpg
Rượu nếpRuounepthan.jpg
SaeujeotKorean.cuisine-Jeotgal-Saewoojeot-02.jpg
SauerkrautChoucroute-p1030189.jpgFinely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[16][17] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
SCOBY
ShiokaraIka no shiokara.jpg
Shrimp pasteTerasi-dari-lombok.jpg
Sinki (food)
SkyrSkyr.is með vanillu.jpg
SmântânăNapolact Gospodar Cream.JPG
Smetana (dairy product)Borscht served.jpg
Som mooLao cuisine laoham.jpg
Sour creamSmietana.JPGObtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[18] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
Soured milkLatte 025.jpg
Sowans
Soy sauceTraditional Korean soy sauce.jpgPictured is traditional Korean soy sauce
SsamjangKorean condiment-Ssamjang-01.jpg
Stinky tofuDoufu puant facon Hangzhou a Pekin.jpg
Strained yogurtLabneh01.jpg
Suan caiSuan cai pork stew.jpg
Sumbala2014.06-418-103 African locust bean(aka Néré)(Parkia biglobosa),sd,pd(soumbala) Kera(Dédougou Distr.),BF thu05jun2014-1014h.jpg
Súrmjólk
SurströmmingSurströmming.jpg
Tabasco SauceTabasco-varieties.jpg
TapaiTapai peuyeum Pasar Baru.JPG
TarhanaTwo kinds of tarhana.JPG
TempehSliced tempeh.jpgIndonesiaA traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form
Tesgüino
Tianjin preserved vegetableTian jian preserved vegetable 天津冬菜.JPG
TianmianjiangSweetnoodlesauce.jpg
TibicosRipe Water kefir (also known as Tibicos), after 2 days.jpg
TsukemonoTsukemono.jpg
Tương
Viili
White sugar sponge cakeWhiteSugarCake.jpg
Worcestershire sauceLea & Perrins worcestershire sauce 150ml.jpg
YakultYakult brazil.jpg
Yellow soybean paste
YogurtObstjoghurt01.jpgA fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk
Zha caiTwoHeadsZhacai.jpg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  2. ^ For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.  For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996. 
  3. ^ J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0. 
  4. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133. 
  5. ^ Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
  6. ^ T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
  7. ^ Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7. 
  8. ^ [1] Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
  9. ^ Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". "Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology". CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0.  edit, p. 181f
  10. ^ Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5. 
  11. ^ The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  12. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  13. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  14. ^ Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
  15. ^ "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  16. ^ Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4. 
  17. ^ "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  18. ^ "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". Homecooking.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 

External links[edit]