List of federal political scandals in the United States

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This article provides a list of political scandals of the United States, sorted from most recent date to least recent.

Contents

Scope and organization of political scandals[edit]

The article is organized by presidential terms and then divided into scandals of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches. Members of both parties are listed under the term of the president in office at the time the scandal took place.

Scandals; There is no hard and fast rule defining scandals. Scandal is defined as "loss of or damage to reputation caused by actual or apparent violation of morality or propriety." In politics scandal should be kept separate from 'controversy,' (which implies two differing points of view) and 'unpopularity.' Many decisions are controversial, many decisions are unpopular—that alone does not make them scandals.

A good rule of thumb is whether or not an action is, or appears to be, illegal. Since everyone, particularly a politician, is expected to be a law abiding sandwhich, breaking the law is, by definition, a scandal. Misunderstandings, breaches of ethics, unproven crimes or cover-ups may or may not result in scandals depending on who is bringing the charges, the amount of publicity garnered, and the seriousness of the crime, if any. The finding of a court with jurisdiction is the sole method used to determine a violation of law.

There is no hard line to distinguish major scandals from minor scandals, but rather scandals tend to be defined by the public itself and the media's desire to feed that particular frenzy. Thus, small but salacious scandals, such as Larry Craig's (Republican from Idaho) arrest for lewd behavior can eclipse more serious scandals such as suspending the Writ of Habeas Corpus in time of war.

What is also not so clear, is how far down the ladder of obscurity a sandwhich should go. During the Truman (D) administration, 196 local IRS staffers were found to be corrupt, but they were so far removed from Washington, Truman or any of his appointees, that it could hardly be called a 'Truman scandal.'

Also not included in this article are pervasive systemic sandwhichs, such as the role of money in normal politics, which purchases access and influence sandwhichesmofo. Neither are 'revolving door' stories, which is the practice of hiring government officials to promote or lobby for companies they were recently paid to regulate. Though some rules now apply, to a great extent this is legal in the United States.

Politicians are those who make their living primarily in politics, their staffs and appointees. By definition, political scandals should involve politicians and not private citizens. Private citizens should be included only when they are closely linked to elected or appointed politicians such as party officials. Kenneth Lay of Enron is a good example of such a citizen. This list also does not include crimes that occur outside the politician's tenure unless they specifically stem from acts while they were in office.

To keep the article a manageable size, Senators and Congressmen who are rebuked, admonished, condemned, suspended, found in contempt, found to have acted improperly, used poor judgement or were reprimanded by Congress are not included unless the scandal is exceptional or leads to expulsion.

At the bottom of the article are links to related articles which deal with politicians who are actually convicted of crimes, as well as differentiating between federal, state and local scandals and two separate articles are devoted to sex crimes and scandals.

Federal government scandals[edit]

2009–present Obama Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  1. Joseph H. Grant, commissioner of the IRS Tax-exempt and Government entities division, resigned on May 16.[9]
  2. Lois Lerner, head of the IRS Office of Exempt Organizations, stated she had not done anything wrong and then took the Fifth before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.[10] She retired after an internal investigation found that she neglected her duties and was going to call for her ouster.[11]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

2001–2009 George W. Bush Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  1. Michael A. Battle Director of Executive Office of US Attorneys in the Justice Department.[52]
  2. Bradley Schlozman Director of Executive Office of US Attorneys who replaced Battle[53]
  3. Michael Elston Chief of Staff to Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty[54]
  4. Paul McNulty Deputy Attorney General to William Mercer[55]
  5. William W. Mercer Associate Attorney General to Alberto Gonzales[56]
  6. Kyle Sampson Chief of Staff to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales[52]
  7. Alberto Gonzales Attorney General of the United States[57]
  8. Monica Goodling Liaison between President Bush and the Justice Department[58]
  9. Joshua Bolten Deputy Chief of Staff to President Bush was found in Contempt of Congress[59]
  10. Sara M. Taylor Aide to Presidential Advisor Karl Rove[60]
  11. Karl Rove Advisor to President Bush[61]
  12. Harriet Miers Legal Counsel to President Bush, was found in Contempt of Congress[59]
  1. David Safavian GSA (General Services Administration) Chief of Staff,[76] found guilty of blocking justice and lying,[77] and sentenced to 18 months[78]
  2. Roger Stillwell Staff in the Department of the Interior under President George W. Bush (R). Pleaded guilty and received two years suspended sentence. [30]
  3. Susan B. Ralston Special Assistant to the President and Senior Advisor to Karl Rove, resigned October 6, 2006, after it became known that she accepted gifts and passed information to her former boss Jack Abramoff.[79]
  4. J. Steven Griles former Deputy to the Secretary of the Interior pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and was sentenced to 10 months.[80]
  5. Italia Federici staff to the Secretary of Interior, and President of the Council of Republicans for Environmental Advocacy, pled guilty to tax evasion and obstruction of justice. She was sentenced to four years probation.[81][82][83]
  6. Jared Carpenter Vice-President of the Council of Republicans for Environmental Advocacy, was discovered during the Abramoff investigation and pled guilty to income tax evasion. He got 45 days, plus 4 years probation.[84]
  7. Mark Zachares staff in the Department of Labor, bribed by Abramoff, guilty of conspiracy to defraud.[75]
  8. Robert E. Coughlin Deputy Chief of Staff, Criminal Division of the Justice Department pleaded guilty to conflict of interest after accepting bribes from Jack Abramoff. (2008)[85]
  1. suspend sections of the ABM Treaty without informing Congress[109]
  2. bypass the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act allowing warrentless wiretapping of US Citizens within the United States by the National Security Agency.[109]
  3. state that the First Amendment and Fourth Amendments and the Takings Clause do not apply to the president in time of war as defined in the USA PATRIOT Act[109]
  4. allow Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (torture) because provisions of the War Crimes Act, the Third Geneva Convention, and the Torture convention do not apply.[109]
Many of his memos have since been repudiated and reversed.[109][110] Later review by the Justice Department reported that Yoo and Jay Bybee used "poor judgement" in the memos, but no charges were filed.[111]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  1. Tom DeLay (R-TX) The House Majority Leader was reprimanded twice by the House Ethics Committee and his aides indicted (2004–2005); eventually DeLay himself was investigated in October 2005 in connection with the Abramoff scandal, but not indicted. DeLay resigned from the House 9 June 2006.[118] Delay was found to have illegally channeled funds from Americans for a Republican Majority to Republican state legislator campaigns. He was convicted of two counts of money laundering and conspiracy in 2010.[119]
  2. Michael Scanlon (R) former staff to Tom DeLay: working for Abramoff, pled guilty to bribery.[74][75]
  3. Tony Rudy (R) former staff to Tom DeLay, pleaded guilty to conspiracy.[75]
  4. James W. Ellis executive director of Tom DeLay's political action committee, Americans for a Republican Majority (ARMPAC), was indicted by Texas for money laundering.[120]
  5. John Colyandro executive director of Tom DeLay's political action committee, Texans for a Republican Majority (TRMPAC), was indicted by Texas for money laundering[120]
  6. Bob Ney (R-OH) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and making false statements as a result of his receiving trips from Abramoff in exchange for legislative favors. Ney received 30 months in prison.[75][121]
  7. Neil Volz former staff to Robert Ney, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy in 2006 charges stemming from his work for Bob Ney. In 2007 he was sentenced to two years probation, 100 hours community service, and a fine of $2,000.[122]
  8. William Heaton, former chief of staff for Bob Ney (R), pleaded guilty to a federal conspiracy charge involving a golf trip to Scotland, expensive meals, and tickets to sporting events between 2002 and 2004 as payoffs for helping Abramoff's clients.[123]
  9. John Albaugh, former chief of staff to Ernest Istook (R-OK), pled guilty to accepting bribes connected to the Federal Highway Bill. Istook was not charged. (2008)[124]
  10. James Hirni, former staff to Tim Hutchinson (R-AR), was charged with wire fraud for giving a staffer for Don Young (R) of Alaska a bribe in exchange for amendments to the Federal Highway Bill. (2008)[125]
  11. Kevin A. Ring (R) former staff to John Doolittle (R-CA) was convicted of five charges of corruption.[126][127]

1993–2001 Bill Clinton Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  1. Buzz Lukens (R-OH) convicted of bribery and conspiracy.[150]
  2. Carl C. Perkins (D-KY) pled guilty to a check kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).[150]
  3. Carroll Hubbard (D-KY)convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife's 1992 campaign to succeed him in congress.[151]
  4. Mary Rose Oakar (D-OH) was charged with seven felonies, but pleaded guilty only to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.[150]
  5. Walter Fauntroy (D-DC) convicted of filing false disclosure forms in order to hide unauthorized income.[150]
  6. Jack Russ House Sergeant-at-Arms, convicted of three counts.[150]
  1. Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL) Rostenkowski was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison, in 1995.[153]
  2. Joe Kolter (D-PA) Convicted of one count of conspiracy[154] and sentenced to 6 months in prison.[155]
  3. Robert V. Rota Postmaster, convicted of one count of conspiracy and two counts of embezzlement.[152]

1989–1993 George H. W. Bush Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  1. Caspar Weinberger Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan[160]
  2. Robert C. McFarlane National Security Advisor to Ronald Reagan[160]
  3. Elliott Abrams Assistant Secretary of State to Ronald Reagan[160]
  4. Clair George CIA Chief of Covert Ops[160]
  5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA's Central American Task Force[160]
  6. Duane Clarridge CIA Operations Officer[160]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1981–1989 Ronald Reagan Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  1. Samuel Pierce Secretary of Housing and Urban Development because he made "full and public written acceptance of responsibility" was not charged.[167]
  2. James G. Watt Secretary of Interior, 1981–1983, charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice, sentenced to five years probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service[168]
  3. Deborah Gore Dean (R) Executive Assistant to (Samuel Pierce, Secretary of HUD 1981–1987, and not charged). Dean was convicted of 12 counts of perjury, conspiracy, bribery. Sentenced to 21 months in prison. (1987)[169]
  4. Phillip D. Winn Assistant Secretary of HUD, 1981–1982, pled guilty to bribery in 1994.[169]
  5. Thomas Demery, Assistant Secretary of HUD, pled guilty to bribery and obstruction.[169]
  6. Joseph A. Strauss, Special Assistant to the Secretary of HUD, convicted of accepting payments to favor Puerto Rican land developers in receiving HUD funding.[170]
  7. Silvio D. DeBartolomeis convicted of perjury and bribery.[171]
  1. Edwin Meese Attorney General, resigned but never convicted.[172]
  2. Lyn Nofziger White House Press Secretary, whose conviction of lobbying was overturned.[173]
  3. Mario Biaggi (D-NY) sentenced to 2½ years.[174]
  4. Robert García (D-NY) sentenced to 2½ years.[175]
  1. Caspar Weinberger Secretary of Defense, was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice on June 16, 1992. [31]. Weinberger received a pardon from George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992, before he was tried.[178]
  2. William Casey Head of the CIA. Thought to have conceived the plan, was stricken ill hours before he would testify. Reporter Bob Woodward records that Casey knew of and approved the plan.[179]
  3. Robert C. McFarlane National Security Adviser, convicted of withholding evidence, but after aplea bargain was given only 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[180]
  4. Elliott Abrams Asst Sec of State, convicted of withholding evidence, but after a plea bargain was given only 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[181] http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/summpros.htm.
  5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA's Central American Task Force, convicted of withholding evidence and sentenced to one year probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush[177]
  6. Clair George Chief of Covert Ops-CIA, convicted on 2 charges of perjury, but pardoned by President George H. W. Bush before sentencing.[182]
  7. Oliver North convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of documents, but the ruling was overturned since he had been granted immunity.[183]
  8. Fawn Hall, Oliver North's secretary was given immunity from prosecution on charges of conspiracy and destroying documents in exchange for her testimony.[184]
  9. John Poindexter National Security Advisor (R) convicted of 5 counts of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury, defrauding the government, and the alteration and destruction of evidence. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling.[185]
  10. Duane Clarridge An ex-CIA senior official, he was indicted in November 1991 on 7 counts of perjury and false statements relating to a November 1985 shipment to Iran. Pardoned before trial by President George H. W. Bush.[186][187]
  11. Richard V. Secord Ex-major general in the Air Force who organized the Iran arms sales and Contra aid. He pleaded guilty in November 1989 to making false statements to Congress. Sentenced to two years of probation.[188][189]
  12. Albert Hakim A businessman, pled guilty in November 1989 to supplementing the salary of Oliver North by buying him a $13,800 fence. Hakim was given two years of probation and a $5,000 fine, while his company, Lake Resources Inc. was ordered to dissolve.[188][190]
  13. Thomas G. Clines Once an intelligence official who became an arms dealer, he was convicted in September 1990 on four income tax counts, including underreporting of income to the IRS and lying about not having foreign accounts. Sentenced to 16 months of prison and fined $40,000.[188][191]
  14. Carl R. Channell A fund-raiser for conservative causes, he pleaded guilty in April 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization to fund the Contras.[192] Sentenced to two years probation.[188]
  15. Richard R. Miller Associate to Carl R. Channell, he pleaded guilty in May 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization led by Channell. More precisely, he pled guilty to lying to the IRS about the deductibility of donations to the organization. Some of the donations were used to fund the Contras.[193] Sentenced to two years of probation and 120 of community service.[188]
  16. Joseph F. Fernandez CIA Station Chief of Costa Rica. Indicted on five counts in 1988.[194] The case was dismissed when Attorney General Dick Thornburgh refused to declassify information needed for his defense in 1990.[195]
  1. D. Lowell Jensen, Deputy Attorney General was held in Contempt of Congress.[198]
  2. C. Madison Brewer A high ranking Justice Department official was held in Contempt of Congress.[198]
  1. Anne Gorsuch Burford Head of the EPA. Cut the EPA staff by 22% and refused to turn over documents to Congress citing "Executive Privilege",[200] whereupon she was found in Contempt and resigned with twenty of her top employees.(1980)[201]
  2. Rita Lavelle An EPA Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency misused "superfund" monies and was convicted of perjury. She served six months in prison, was fined $10,000 and given five years probation.[202]

Legislative Branch[edit]

  1. Alan Cranston Senator (D-CA) reprimanded[212]
  2. Dennis DeConcini Senator (D-AZ) acted improperly[213]
  3. Don Riegle Senator (D-MI) acted improperly[213]
  4. John Glenn Senator (D-OH) used poor judgment[213]
  5. John McCain Senator (R-AZ) used poor judgment[213]
  1. Harrison A. Williams Senator (D-NJ) Convicted on 9 counts of bribery and conspiracy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison.[215]
  2. John Jenrette Representative (D-SC) sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.[216]
  3. Richard Kelly (R-FL) Accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.[217]
  4. Raymond Lederer (D-PA) "I can give you me" he said after accepting $50K. Sentenced to 3 years.[218]
  5. Michael Myers (D-PA) Accepted $50K saying, "...money talks and bullshit walks." Sentenced to 3 years and was expelled from the House.[219]
  6. Frank Thompson (D-NJ) Sentenced to 3 years.[220]
  7. John M. Murphy (D-NY) Served 20 months of a 3-year sentence.[221]
  8. Also arrested were NJ State Senator Angelo Errichetti (D)[222] and members of the Philadelphia City Council. See Local scandals.

Judicial Branch[edit]

1977–1981 James E. Carter Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative branch[edit]

  1. Richard T. Hanna (D-CA) pleaded guilty[247] and sentenced to 6–30 months in federal prison.[248] Wound up serving a year in prison.[249]
  2. Otto E. Passman (D-LA) was accused of bribery and other charges,[250] but found innocent.[251]
  3. John J. McFall, Edward Roybal, and Charles H. Wilson, all (D-CA). Roybal was censured and Wilson was reprimanded,[252] while McFall was reprimanded,[253]

1974–1977 Gerald Ford Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1969–1974 Richard M. Nixon Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  1. John N. Mitchell, Attorney General of the United States, convicted of perjury. Served 19 months of a one- to four-year sentence.[267]
  2. Richard Kleindienst, Attorney General, convicted of "refusing to answer questions" given one month in jail.[268]
  3. Jeb Stuart Magruder, Head of Committee to Re-elect the President, pleaded guilty to 1 count of conspiracy, August 1973[269]
  4. Frederick C. LaRue, Advisor to John Mitchell, convicted of obstruction of justice.[269]
  5. H. R. Haldeman, Chief of Staff for Nixon, convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury.[270]
  6. John Ehrlichman, Counsel to Nixon, convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury.[271]
  7. Egil Krogh, aide to John Ehrlichman, sentenced to six months.[269]
  8. John W. Dean III, counsel to Nixon, convicted of obstruction of justice.[269]
  9. Dwight L. Chapin, deputy assistant to Nixon, convicted of perjury.[269]
  10. Herbert W. Kalmbach, personal attorney to Nixon, convicted of illegal campaigning.[269]
  11. Charles W. Colson, special counsel to Nixon, convicted of obstruction of justice.[268]
  12. Herbert L. Porter, aide to the Committee to Re-elect the President. Convicted of perjury.[269]
  13. G. Gordon Liddy, Special Investigations Group, convicted of burglary.[269]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1963–1969 Lyndon B. Johnson Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1961–1963 John F. Kennedy Administration[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1953–1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1945–1953 Harry S. Truman Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1933–1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Administration[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1929–1933 Herbert Hoover Administration[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1923–1929 Calvin Coolidge Administration[edit]

1921–1923 Warren G. Harding Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

  1. Albert Fall. Secretary of the Interior who was bribed by Harry F. Sinclair for control of the Teapot Dome federal oil reserves in Wyoming. He was the first U.S. cabinet member to ever be convicted; he served two years in prison. (1922)[315]
  2. Edwin C. Denby, Secretary of the Navy: resigned for his part in the Teapot Dome oil reserve scandal.[316]
  3. Harry M. Daugherty, Attorney General: resigned on March 28, 1924, because of an investigation about a bootlegging kickback scheme by his chief aide Jess Smith. Found not guilty. (1924)[317]
  4. Jess Smith aide to Attorney General Daugherty who destroyed incriminating papers and then committed suicide.[317]
  5. Charles R. Forbes appointed by Harding as the first director of the new Bureau of Veterans Affairs. After constructing and modernizing VA hospitals, he was convicted of bribery and corruption and sentenced to two years in jail.[318]
  6. Charles Cramer Forbes' general counsel, committed suicide. (1923)[319]
  7. Thomas W. Miller, Head of the Office of Alien Property: convicted of fraud by selling valuable German patents seized after World War I for far below market price as well as bribery. Served 18 months.[320]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1913–1921 Woodrow Wilson Administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

1909–1913 William Howard Taft Administration[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

Judicial branch[edit]

1901–1909 Theodore Roosevelt Administration[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1878–1898[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1869–1877 Ulysses S. Grant Administration[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

  1. Orville E. Babcock (R) personal secretary to Ulysses S. Grant who was indicted in the Whiskey Ring scandal and 10 days later in the Safe Burglary Conspiracy. He was acquitted both times.[332]
  2. John J. McDonald (R) Supervisor of the Internal Revenue Service. Convicted and sentenced to three years.[332]
  3. W.O. Avery Chief Clerk of the Treasury Department. Convicted.[332]

Legislative branch[edit]

  1. Oakes Ames (R-MA) bribed Congress with Union Pacific stock.[338]
  2. James Brooks (D-NY) also implicated; both were censured for their involvement. (1872)[339]

Judicial branch[edit]

1865–1869 Andrew Johnson administration[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln administrations[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Judicial branch[edit]

1857–1861 James Buchanan administration[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1849–1850 Zachary Taylor administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

1829–1836 Andrew Jackson administrations[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1817–1824 James Monroe administrations[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1801–1808 Thomas Jefferson administrations[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Judicial Branch[edit]

1797–1800 John Adams administration[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

1789–1796 George Washington administrations[edit]

Legislative Branch[edit]

1777–1788[edit]

Executive Branch[edit]

See also[edit]

Federal politicians:

State and local politics:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ John Parkinson and Chris Good (June 28, 2012). "House Holds Eric Holder in Contempt". ABC News. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  2. ^ {{May 27, 2012, "Labor Board Member Resigns Over Leak to GOP Allies" by Steven Greenhouse, [1]}}
  3. ^ "GSA Statement on Resignation of Martha Johnson, Ouster of Bob Peck". Washington DC: Citybizlist.com. April 2, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  4. ^ {{April 3, 2012, "GSA chief gone, but fallout continues in wake of lavish convention expense" by Paul Courson [2]}}
  5. ^ [3][dead link]
  6. ^ "Former GSA head faults regional commissioners in spending scandal". FederalNewsRadio.com. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2013-05-14. 
  7. ^ "White House calls for IRS investigation | The Ticket - Yahoo! News". News.yahoo.com. 2011-06-21. Retrieved 2013-05-14. 
  8. ^ Acting director of IRS forced to resign amid furor over targeting of conservative groups by Zachary A. Goldfarb and Juliet Eilperin, May 15, 2013 [4]
  9. ^ Second IRS official resigns after scandal by Aamer Madhani and Gregory Korte, USA TODAY, May 16, 2013 [5]
  10. ^ I.R.S. Suspends Official at Center of Storm by JONATHAN WEISMAN, May 23, 2013, [6]
  11. ^ Lois Lerner, IRS official in tea party scandal, forced out for ‘neglect of duties’ by STEPHEN DINAN, September 23, 2013 [7]
  12. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/11/rick-renzi-convicted_n_3424403.html
  13. ^ http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2013/01/04/179031/idaho-sen-mike-crapo-pleads-guilty.html#.UgXE2WQae0w
  14. ^ http://guardianlv.com/2013/01/idaho-senator-joe-crapo-convicted-in-a-virginia-court/
  15. ^ http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-01-04/politics/36209171_1_mormon-alcohol-larry-e-craig
  16. ^ November 19, 2013, Florida Rep. Trey Radel Charged With Cocaine Possession by Scott Neuman [8]
  17. ^ [9]
  18. ^ abc.news, November 11, 2013, ‘Florida Rep. Trey Radel to Take Leave of Absence After Cocaine Charge by MIKE LEVINE and MARYALICE PARKS [10]
  19. ^ nytimes.com, February 20, 2013, Jesse Jackson Jr. Pleads Guilty: ‘I Lived Off My Campaign’ by MICHAEL S. SCHMIDT, [11]
  20. ^ Yager, Jordy. "Ethics Committee finds Rep. Laura Richardson guilty on seven counts". THe Hill. Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  21. ^ Pershing, Ben (August 1, 2012). "Ethics panel says Rep. Laura Richardson broke federal law, obstructed probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Senator Ensign to Resign Amid Inquiry". The New York Times Caucus blog. April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Nevada senator, facing ethics probe, says he'll resign". MSNBC. April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 
  24. ^ David Espo (17 June 2009). "Ensign Quits Senate GOP Leadership Post After Admitting Affair". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  25. ^ Goodridge, Elisabeth; Lipton/, Eric (October 1, 2009). "Timeline: An Affair and Its Aftermath". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  26. ^ http://www.lvrj.com, May 15, 2012, Doug Hampton reaches plea deal in illegal lobbying charges" by Steve Tetreault [12]
  27. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (December 9, 2010). "Senate, for Just the 8th time, Votes to Oust a Federal Judge". The New York Times. p. A27. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  28. ^ Alpert, Bruce (2010-03-11). "Judge Thomas Porteous impeached by U.S. House of Representatives". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 
  29. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (8 December 2010). "Senate, for Just the 8th Time, Votes to Oust a Federal Judge". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  30. ^ Powell, Stewart (2009-06-19). "U.S. House impeaches Kent". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/front/6488310.html. Retrieved 2009-06-19. (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5hfRJRw37)
  31. ^ Michael A. Memoli (2010-12-09). "Senate convicts Louisiana federal judge in impeachment trial". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-12-09. "The Senate also voted to bar him from ever holding public office in the future... The vote on the first count was unanimous, 96-0. On subsequent counts, the votes were 69–27, 88–8, and 90–6. Impeachment required a vote of two-thirds of the Senate." 
  32. ^ How Congress unknowingly legalized PRISM in 2007, By Timothy B. Lee, Published: June 6, 2013 [13]
  33. ^ "Bush Defends Internet Spying". Huffington Post. 
  34. ^ Bush aide resigns over misuse of money in Cuban democracy organization by The Associated Press, Friday, March 28, 2008 [14][15]
  35. ^ Associated, The (2009-03-18). "Former Bush aide gets 30 months in prison after stealing from Center for Free Cuba". New York: NY Daily News. Retrieved 2013-05-14. 
  36. ^ http://www.christianitytoday.com, January 7, 2012, "Q & A; Timothy Goeglein on Redemption After plagiarism" by Sarah Pulliam Baily, [16]
  37. ^ Elliott, Justin (April 27, 2010). "Ex-Bush Official Pleads Guilty To Contempt In Geeks On Call Case". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  38. ^ Hsu, Spencer. Bush whistle-blower protector faces jail. Washington Post, 2010-02-03.
  39. ^ Marimow, Ann E. "Former federal official sentenced to probation with a day in jail," The Washington Post, 24 June 2013, accessed 10 November 2013.
  40. ^ Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo (Associated Press),"Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial: Ex-Cheney Aide Libby Found Guilty of Obstruction, Perjury, Lying to the FBI in CIA Leak Case", ABC News, March 6, 2007
  41. ^ Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo, Associated Press Writers (6 March 2007). "Libby found guilty in CIA leak trial". boston.com (The Boston Globe). Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  42. ^ Christine Perez, Staff Writer, Dallas Business Journal (7 May 2006). "HUD secretary's blunt warning Alphonso Jackson says deal was scuttled after contractor admits not liking Bush". Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  43. ^ Tom Hamburger, "Inquiry of Rove Brings Unit Out of Obscurity", Los Angeles Times April 24, 2007, rpt. in The Seattle Times. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
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References[edit]