List of fallacies

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A fallacy is incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Fallacies are either formal fallacies or informal fallacies.

Formal fallacies[edit]

A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can be seen in the argument's form.[1] All formal fallacies are specific types of non sequiturs.

Propositional fallacies[edit]

A propositional fallacy is an error in logic that concerns compound propositions. For a compound proposition to be true, the truth values of its constituent parts must satisfy the relevant logical connectives which occur in it (most commonly: <and>, <or>, <not>, <only if>, <if and only if>). The following fallacies involve inferences whose correctness is not guaranteed by the behavior of those logical connectives, and hence, which are not logically guaranteed to yield true conclusions.
Types of Propositional fallacies:

Quantification fallacies[edit]

A quantification fallacy is an error in logic where the quantifiers of the premises are in contradiction to the quantifier of the conclusion.
Types of Quantification fallacies:

Formal syllogistic fallacies[edit]

Syllogistic fallacies – logical fallacies that occur in syllogisms.

Informal fallacies[edit]

Informal fallacies – arguments that are fallacious for reasons other than structural (formal) flaws and which usually require examination of the argument's content.[12]

Faulty generalizations[edit]

Faulty generalizations – reach a conclusion from weak premises. Unlike fallacies of relevance, in fallacies of defective induction, the premises are related to the conclusions yet only weakly buttress the conclusions. A faulty generalization is thus produced.

Red herring fallacies[edit]

A red herring fallacy is an error in logic where a proposition is, or is intended to be, misleading in order to make irrelevant or false inferences. In the general case any logical inference based on fake arguments, intended to replace the lack of real arguments or to replace implicitly the subject of the discussion.

Red herring – argument given in response to another argument, which is irrelevant and draws attention away from the subject of argument. See also irrelevant conclusion.

Conditional or questionable fallacies[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Bunnin & Yu 2004, "formal fallacy".
  2. ^ http://logical-critical-thinking.com/logical-fallacy/appeal-to-probability/
  3. ^ http://www.toolkitforthinking.com/critical-thinking/anatomy-of-an-argument/deductive-logic-arguments/appeal-to-probability-1
  4. ^ Curtis, "Fallacy Fallacy".
  5. ^ "Base Rate Fallacy". Psychology Glossary. AlleyDog.com. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  6. ^ Straker, David. "Conjunction Fallacy". ChangingMinds.org. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  7. ^ Curtis, "The Masked Man Fallacy".
  8. ^ a b c Wilson 1999, p. 316.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Wilson 1999, p. 317.
  10. ^ Pirie 2006, pp. 133–136.
  11. ^ Wilson 1999, p. 316–317.
  12. ^ Bunnin & Yu 2004, "informal fallacy".
  13. ^ Damer 2009, p. 165.
  14. ^ Carroll, Robert T. "The Skeptic's Dictionary". divine fallacy (argument from incredulity). Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  15. ^ "Toolkit for Thinking". 
  16. ^ Damer 2009, p. 150.
  17. ^ Dowden 2010, "Line-Drawing".
  18. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 41.
  19. ^ Feinberg, Joel (2007). "Psychological Egoism". In Shafer-Landau, Russ. Ethical Theory: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-4051-3320-3. 
  20. ^ Damer 2009, p. 121.
  21. ^ Copi & Cohen 1990, p. 206.
  22. ^ Fischer 1970, p. 119.
  23. ^ Gula 2002, p. 70.
  24. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 31.
  25. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 53.
  26. ^ "Fallacy – False Dilemma". Nizkor. The Nizkor Project. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  27. ^ Damer 2009, p. 178.
  28. ^ Gula 2002, p. 97.
  29. ^ Damer 2009, p. 186.
  30. ^ Fischer 1970, p. 209.
  31. ^ Bunnin & Yu 2004, "Homunculus".
  32. ^ a b "A List Of Fallacious Arguments". Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  33. ^ Copi & Cohen 1990, p. 105.
  34. ^ Taleb, Nassim (2007). The Black Swan. Random House. p. 309. ISBN 1-4000-6351-5. 
  35. ^ "TheFreeDictionary". Naturalistic fallacy .
  36. ^ John Searle, "How to Derive 'Ought' from 'Is'", The Philosophical Review, 73:1 (January 1964), 43-58
  37. ^ Alex Walter, "The Anti-naturalistic Fallacy: Evolutionary Moral Psychology and the Insistence of Brute Facts", Evolutionary Psychology, 4 (2006), 33-48
  38. ^ Damer 2009, p. 180.
  39. ^ Damer 2009, p. 208.
  40. ^ Semiotics Glossary R, Referential fallacy or illusion
  41. ^ Gula 2002, p. 135.
  42. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 5.
  43. ^ Flew 1984, "No-true-Scotsman move".
  44. ^ Hurley 2007, p. 155.
  45. ^ Damer 2009, p. 151.
  46. ^ Hurley 2007, p. 134.
  47. ^ Fischer 1970, p. 127.
  48. ^ Flew 1984, "Pathetic fallacy".
  49. ^ Walton 2008, p. 187.
  50. ^ Damer 2009, p. 106.
  51. ^ "Appeal to Widespread Belief". Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  52. ^ Clark & Clark 2005, pp. 13–16.
  53. ^ Walton 1997, p. 28.
  54. ^ Walton 2008, p. 27.
  55. ^ Damer 2009, p. 111.
  56. ^ Gula 2002, p. 12.
  57. ^ Walton 2008, p. 128.
  58. ^ Damer 2009, p. 146.
  59. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 116.
  60. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 104.
  61. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 14.
  62. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 39.
  63. ^ Damer 2009, p. 93.
  64. ^ Dowden 2010, "Is-Ought".
  65. ^ Dowden 2010, "Naturalistic".
  66. ^ Walton 2008, p. 22.
  67. ^ Curtis, "The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy".
  68. ^ Pirie 2006, p. 164.
  69. ^ Johnson & Blair 1994, p. 122.
  70. ^ Beggs, Jodi. "The Broken Window Fallacy". 
  71. ^ Frankena, W. K. (October 1939). "The Naturalistic Fallacy". Mind (Oxford University Press) 48 (192): 464–477. JSTOR 2250706. 
  72. ^ Walton 2008, p. 315.
Works

Further reading[edit]

The following is a sample of books for further reading, selected for a combination of content, ease of access via the internet, and to provide an indication of published sources that interested readers may review. The titles of some books are self-explanatory. Good books on critical thinking commonly contain sections on fallacies, and some may be listed below.

External links[edit]